see above; cf. हेतुमण्णिचो विधिः प्रतिषेधोपि प्रत्यासत्तेस्तस्यैव न्याय्यः Kas. on P. I 3.88. cf. also Kas. on VII.1.95.
प्रत्यासत्तिन्याय or प्रत्यासतिवचन a dictum that a word should, as fair as possi- ble, be construed with the nearest word; cf. अनन्तरस्य विधिः प्रतिषेधो वेत्यर्थः प्रतिपत्तिन्यायलभ्यः Sira. Pari. 48.
प्रत्याहार lit. bringing together; bring- ing together of several letters ( or words in a few cases, such as roots or nouns ) by mentioning the first and the last only for the sake of brevity; the term प्रत्याहार is gene- rally used in connection with brief terms such as अण्, अक् , अच् , हल् and the like, created by Panini in his grammar by taking any particular letter and associating it with any mute final letter ( अनुबन्ध ) of the fourteen Sivasutras, with a view to include all letters beginning with the letter uttered and ending with the letter which precedes the ( mute ) letter. The practice of using such abbreviations was in existence before Panini, possibly in the grammar attributed to Indra. The term प्रत्याहार is not actually us- ed by Panini; it is found in the Rk. Tantra; cf. प्रत्याहारार्थो वर्णोनुबन्धो व्यञ्जनम् R.T.I.3. The term appears to have come into use after Panini. Panini has not given any definition of the term प्रत्याहार. He has simply given the method of forming the Pratyaharas and he has profusely used them; cf. आदिरन्त्येन सहेता P. I. 1.71. The word कृञ् in P. III.1.40 and तृन् in P. II. 3.69 are used as Pratyaharas. For a list of the Pratyharas which are used by Panini see Kasika on the Maheswara Sutras.
प्रत्याहारसूत्र a term for the fourteen Siva Sutras which are utilized for the formation of Pratyaharas.
प्रत्याहारसूत्रविचार a short treatise ex- plaining the pratyharas अण् , अट्, अश् etc. in the grammar of Panini; one such work is written by a sou- thern grammarian named तिमण्णा.
प्रत्याहाराह्निक name given to the second Ahnika of the Mahabhasya which explains the Siva Sutras अइउण्, ऋऌक् , etc., and hence naturally dis- cusses the Pratyaharas.
प्रत्युच्चार repetition especially of what has been recited by the preceptor; cf. प्रत्युच्चार्यैतद्वचनं परस्य शिष्यस्य स्याद् भो इति चोदना वा, R. Pr. XV. 8.
प्रत्युज्जीवन bringing to life again; the term is used in the sense of प्रतिप्रसव or counter exception.
प्रत्युदाहरण counter instance. In order to explain the wording of a grammatical rule clearly, it is customary to give along with the instances of the rule (where the rule has been effectively employ- ed), a few words which would have resulted into other faulty words by the application of the particular rule in case that rule had not been stated or a word or more of it had been omitted; cf. न केवलानि चर्चापदानि व्याख्यानं वृद्धिः आत् ऐच् इति । किं तर्हि । उदाहरणं प्रत्युदाहरणं वाक्याध्याहारः इत्येतत् समुदितं व्याख्यानं भवति । M. Bh. in Ahnika 1.
प्रथम lit, premier, first; the word is used in connection with the per- sonal affixes तिप् , तस्, झि ( अन्ति ) of verbal forms. See the word पुरुष above; cf. अस्तिर्भवन्तीपरः प्रथमपुरुषः अप्रयु- ज्यमानोप्यस्तीति । वृक्षः प्लक्षः। M. Bh. on P. II. 3.1 and 4. The word प्रथम is used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of the first consonants of the five vargas or groups of consonants; cf. प्रथमैर्द्विती- यास्तृतीयैश्चतुर्थाः V. Pr. IV. 110 cf. प्रथमतृतीयादीनामादेशादित्वादेत्वाभावः, M.Bh.