प्रमुखा विकल्पसूचिः उद्घाट्यताम्
Birds in Sanskrit literature
K. N. Dave
१९८५

BIRDS IN SANSKRIT LITERATURE With 107 Bird Illustrations K.N.DAVE In his monumental research in ancient Sanskrit literature, the author has restored gaps in lexicons, and removed doubts in the later Sanskrit works about the identity of a very large number of birds of the Indian sub-continent.The ancient sages of India were great lovers of nature, with keen powers of observation and an ex- traordinary sensitivity about animal behaviour. The Vedas, Puranas, Epics and Samhitas are full of descriptions of birds, animals and plants, but the exact identi- fication of names had got lost or con- founded over the centuries. Acharya V.M. Apte, the great Sanskrit scholar described this contribution of the author in the following words: "It will be a study — the fascination of which will be matched only by its utility. Scholars intel- lectually constituted with a purely theo- retical bias and studying Nature not in the open but through books, have not a leg to stand on in this field and we will feel highly indebted to a scholar who introduces the ancient (and also mod- ern, because surviving still) Birds in Vedic and Classical Sanskrit Literature to us in such a way as to make us feel that we can actually admire their colourful plumage and appreciate the effusions of their vo- cal chords." This book fills a void in Sanskrit litera- ture, and should prove useful not only to scholars, but also to researchers who may be inspired by it to delve deeper into Sanskrit texts and ancient Indian culture. K.N. Dave, was born in 1884 in Panna, then a princely State and now in Madhya Pradesh. He had his schooling in Sagar and took the B.Sc. degree from Allahabad; then he taught Chemistry at St. John's College, Agra, simultaneously studying Law. He practised at the Bar, served as a Civil Judge in CP. and Berar, and later joined the newly created Income Tax Department, retiring as an Assistant Com- missioner in 1940. After Independence, he was a Member of the Madhya Pradesh Public Service Commission from 1948 to 1953. Dave had a keen interest in Indian lit- erature since 1904, and in Nature Study from a very early age. Birds and bird behaviour fascinated him ever since he started keeping birds as pets, a hobby he continued throughout his life. An expert ornithologist, and a scholar of eminence in the Vedas, Puranas and classical San- skrit works, Dave devoted nearly two de- cades to systematic research with a view to identify birds described in Sanskrit litera- ture by relating the details of their habi- tat, coloration and various characteristics to modern scientific observations, and to the names current in Hindi and other lan- guages and dialects of the country. At the time of his death in November, 1983, the author was working on a further major research contribution on "The Mys- tic Cult of Honeyed Soma and Symbolic Victims of the Veda". It is a matter for deep regret that he could not live to complete that work. However, it is hoped that a brief monograph prepared by him earlier will soon be made available to scholars who may wish to delve deep into

the Vedic mysticism uncovered by Dave. पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/४ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/५ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/६ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/७ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/८ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/९ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१० पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/११ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१२ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१३ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१४
CRows & THEIR ALLIES
A. RAVENS & CROWS
1. In the Crow tribe we find "bird brains at their hight ,and recogni
ion of the virtues and vice of the common Crow is writ large in Sanskrit
literature, the Jataka-Storia and Folk-Tales. The काकोलूकीय of the पञ्चतन्त्र
for examp, a fully illustrative of the wisdom and shred cunning of our
friend, the House Crow Popular tradition place him on a footing of
equality with that universal character, the barber :
नराणां नापितो धूर्तः पक्षिणां चैव वायसः । - SubhA. 159, 279,
2. Among Indian birds, the Crow enjoys the distinction of having the
largest number of name and adnouns or epithet in the Sanskrit language
The शब्दकल्पदुर्ग has collected no fewer than 36 ynonyms for the common
Crow and yet the list is by nameans exhaustive. The epociol काकजाति।
used in aीतमहिता, ch. 11, stands for the the Crow family or Carvidae, and
both काक and वायस are in general use for any Crow. The poco, however,
have often used synonyms like करड, श्वाब, बलिष्ठetc., to suit their verse.
3. Generally poing Indian Crowe may be placed in the following
अeven easily recognizable categories :-
(i) The alblack Punjab and Tibetan Ravens (length 26-20)।
which are quite a large , lighter than, the Common Pariah Kite
asthou
(शकुनि), and they are the कृष्णयजुनः। or कृष्णकुनि' of the Vedas and ोणकाक
(इण् हिलायें) of literature
(1) The Brown-hecked Rave of Sind (22) of an unber-brown
colour, more so on the neck and shoulder, a the रोग of मानवीय पुराण and
probably दण्डकाक of the lexicons,
(iii) The Carrion and Jungle Crowe (19), entirely black, heavier
than the Hous-Crow but much maller than the Raven is the कृष्णकाक
काकोल or mply the proper in a specific sureThey are abo the साथ।
of Av. 9.9 and 12,4.8.
1. There and other snaki name in this para are diseased later .
पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१६ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१७ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१८ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१९ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२० पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२१ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२२ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२३ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२४ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२५ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२६ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२७ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२८ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२९ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/३० पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/३१ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/३२ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/३३ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/३४ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/३५ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/३६ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/३७ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/३८ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/३९ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/४० पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/४१ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/४२ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/४३ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/४४ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/४५ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/४६ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/४७ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/४८ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/४९ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/५० पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/५१ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/५२ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/५३ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/५४ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/५५ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/५६ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/५७ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/५८ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/५९ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/६० पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/६१ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/६२ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/६३ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/६४ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/६५ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/६६ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/६७ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/६८ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/६९ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/७० पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/७१ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/७२ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/७३ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/७४ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/७५ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/७६ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/७७ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/७८ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/७९ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/८० पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/८१ 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literature.djvu/१२५ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१२६ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१२७ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१२८ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१२९ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१३० पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१३१ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१३२ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१३३ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१३४ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१३५ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१३६ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१३७ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१३८ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१३९ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१४० पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१४१ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१४२ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१४३ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१४४ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१४५ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१४६ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१४७ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१४८ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१४९ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१५० पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१५१ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१५२ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१५३ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१५४ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१५५ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१५६ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१५७ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१५८ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१५९ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१६० पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१६१ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१६२ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१६३ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१६४ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१६५ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१६६ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१६७ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१६८ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१६९ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१७० पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१७१ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१७२ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१७३ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१७४ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१७५ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१७६ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१७७ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१७८ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१७९ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१८० पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१८१ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१८२ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१८३ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१८४ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१८५ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१८६ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१८७ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१८८ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/१८९ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit 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in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२१२ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२१३ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२१४ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२१५ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२१६ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२१७ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२१८ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२१९ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२२० पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२२१ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२२२ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२२३ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२२४ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२२५ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२२६ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२२७ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२२८ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२२९ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२३० पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२३१ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२३२ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२३३ 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in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२७७ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२७८ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२७९ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२८० पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२८१ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२८२ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२८३ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२८४ पृष्ठम्:Birds in Sanskrit literature.djvu/२८५
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