पुटमेतत् सुपुष्टितम्

            ( ँ नासिक्य )

ँ नासिक्य, a nasal letter or utterance included among the अयोगवाह letters analogous to anusvāra and yama letters. It is mentioned in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as हुँ इति नासिक्यः on which Uvvaṭa makes the remark अयमृक्शाखायां प्रसिद्धः. The Ṛk-Prātiśākhya mentions नासिक्य, यम and अनुस्वार as नासिक्य or nasal letters, while Uvvaṭa defines नासिक्य as a letter produced only by the nose; cf. केवलनासिकया उच्चार्यमाणे वर्णॊ नासिक्यः Uvvaṭa on R. Pr. I. 20. The Taittirīya Prātiśākhya calls the letter ह् as nāsikya when it is followed by the consonant न् or ण् or म् and gives अह्नाम् , अपराह्णे and ब्रह्म as instances. The Pāṇinīya Śikṣā does not mention नासिक्य as a letter. The Mahābhāṣya men- tions नासिक्य as one of the six ayogavāha letters; cf. के पुनरयो- गवाहाः । विसर्जनीयजिह्वामूलीयोपध्मानीयानु- स्वारानुनासिक्ययमाः M. Bh. on Śiva- sūtra 5 Vārt. 5, where some manuscripts read नासिक्य for अानुना- सिक्य while in some other manus- cripts there is neither the word आनुनासिक्य nor नासिक्य. It is likely that the anunāsika-colouring given to the vowel preceding the conso- nant सू substituted for the conso- nants म, न् and others by P. VIII. 3.2. to 12, was looked upon as a separate phonetic unit and called नासिक्य as for instance in सँस्कर्ता, मा हिँसीः, सँशिशाधि etc.

 ( यम )

यम, a letter called यम which is uttered partly through the nose. A class consonant excepting the fifth, when followed by the fifth viz. ङ्, ञ्, ण्, न or म् , gets doubled

in the Vedic recital, when the second of the doubled consonant which is coloured by the follow- ing nasal consonant is called यम. This यम letter is not independent. It necessarily depends upon the following nasal consonant and hence it is called अयोगवाह. The nasalization is shown in script as xx followed by the consonant; e. g. पलिक्क्नी, अगूग्रे, etc. The pro- nunciation of this yama or twin letter is seen in the Vedic recital only; cf. पलिक्कनी ... कखगघेभ्य; परे तत्सदृशा एव यमाः S. K. on P. VIII. 2.1. cf. कु खु गु घु इति यमाः विंशति- संख्याका भवन्ति V. Pr. VIII.24.

क्(l) the consonant क्; the first con. sonant of the consonant group as also of the guttural group; (2) substitute क् for consonants ष्, and ढ् before the consonant स्;cf.V.P.2.41. For the elision ( लोप ) of क् on ac- count of its being termed इत् see P.I.3.3 and 8.

क.(l) tad.affix क applied to the words of the ऋश्य group in the four senses called चातुरर्थिक e. g. ऋश्यकः, अनडुत्कः, वेणुकः etc., cf. P.IV.2.80; (2) tad. affix क applied to nouns in the sense of diminution, censure, pity etc. e. g. अश्वक्रः, उष्ट्रकः, पुत्रकः, cf. P.V. 3.70-87: (3) tad. affix क in the very sense of the word itself ( स्वार्थे ) e.g. अविकः, यावकः, कालकः; cf. P.V.4.28- 33; (4) Uṇādi affix क e.g. कर्क, वृक, राका, एक, भेक, काक, पाक, शल्क etc. by Uṇādi sūtras III. 40-48 before which the angment इट् is prohibit- ed by P. VII.2.9; (5) kṛt affix क ( अ ) where क् is dropped by P. I. 3.8, applied, in the sense of agent, to certain roots mentioned in P.III.1.135, 136, 144, III. 2.3 to