पुटमेतत् सुपुष्टितम्

The roots having their agents characterized by a reciprocity of action take the Ātmanepada ter- minations; cf. P. I. 3.14.

कर्मसाधन prescribed in the sense of an object; a term used in the Mahābhāṣya in the sense of affixes used in the sense of 'object' as contrasted with कर्तृसाधन or भावसाधनः e. g. the affix कि in the word विधि, explained as विधीयते इति विधिः or in the word भाव explained as भाव्यते यः स भावः; cf. क्रिया चैव हि भाव्यते, स्वभावसिद्धं तु द्रव्यम् M.Bh. on P. I.3.1. See similarly the words समाहार M.Bh. on II.1.51 and उपधि M.Bh. on V.1.13.

कर्मस्थक्रिय (roots) having their verbal activity situated in the object; e.g. the root अव + रुध् in अवरुणद्धि गाम् or the root कृ in करोति कटम्; cf. कर्मस्थभा- वकानां कर्मस्थक्रियाणां च P. III.1.87 Vārt. 3.

कर्मस्थभावक (roots) having their verbal action or happening noticed in the object; e. g. the root आस् and शी in बालमासयति शाययति where the function of the root bears effect in the Object boy and not in the move- ments of the object as in the sentence बालमवरुणद्धि. See कर्मस्थक्रिय above as also M.Bh. on III.1.87 and Kaiyaṭa on the same.

कर्मादि lit. karman and others; a term often used in the Mahābhāṣya for kārakas or words connected with a verbal activity which have the object or karmakāraka mentioned first; सुपां कर्मादयोप्यर्थाः संख्या चैव तथा तिङाम् M.Bh, on I.4.21.

कर्मापदिष्ट operations prescribed speci- fically for objects i. e. prescribed in the case of objects which are described to be functioning as the subject to show facility of the verbal action: e. g. the vikaraṇa

यक् or the affix च्णि; cf. कर्मापदिष्टाविधय: कर्मस्थभावकानां कर्मस्थक्रियाणां वा भवन्ति । कर्तृस्थभावकाश्च दीपादयः M.Bh.on I.1.44.

कर्विणी A kind of svarabhakti. See करविणी.

कर्षण extension; protraction, defined as kālaviprakarṣa by commentators; a peculiarity in the recital as noticed in the pronunciation of ट् when followed by च् , or ड् when followed by ज् e.g. षट्चै; षड्जात. cf. Nār. Śik. I.7.19.

कल a fault of pronunciation conse- quent upon directing the tongue to a place in the mouth which is not the proper one, for the utte- rance of a vowel; a vowel so pro- nounced; cf. संवृतः कलो ध्मात: ... रोमश इति cf.also निवृत्तकलादिकामवर्णस्य प्रत्यापत्तिं वक्ष्यामि M.Bh. Āhnika 1.

कलाप (कलाप-व्याकरण) alternative name given to the treatise on grammar written by Sarvavarman who is believed to have lived in the days of the Sātavāhana kings. The trea- tise is popularly known by the namc Kātantra Vyākaraṇa. The available treatise,viz. Kalpasūtras, is much similar to the Kātantra Sūtras having a few changes and additions only here and there.It is rather risky to say that Kalāpa was an ancient system of grammar which is referred to in the Pāṇini Sūtra कलापिनोण् P. IV.3.108. For details see कातन्त्र.

कलापरत्न a commentary on the kāraka portion of the Kalāpa grammar as- cribed to the famous commentator Durgasiṁha.

कलापसंग्रह a commentary on the Kalāpa Sūtras.

कलापिन् the author of the work re- ferred to as Kālāpa in the Mah- ābhāṣya which perhaps was a work on grammar as the word कालाप is