पुटमेतत् सुपुष्टितम्

rules and exceptions are given in detail in Paṭalas ten and eleven of the Ṛk Prātiśākhya. The Vedic Saṁhitā or Saṁhitāpāṭha is supposed to be the original one and the Padapāṭha prepared later on, with a view to preserving the Vedic text without any change or modification of a letter, or accent; cf. न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः । पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् M. Bh. on III. 1.109, VI. 1.207 and VIII. 2.16, where Patañjali clearly says that grammar-rules are not to follow the Padapāṭha, but, the writer of the Padapāṭha is to follow the rules already laid down. The Jaṭāpāṭha, the Ghanapāṭha and the other recitals are later developments of the Padapāṭha as they are not mentioned in the Prātiśākhya works.

क्रमादि a class of words headed by the word क्रम to which the tad- dhita affix अक (वुञ् ) is added in the sense of 'one who studies and understands'; e. g. क्रमकः, पदकः, मीमांसकः, शिक्षकः etc. cf. Kāś. on IV. 2.61.

क्रम्य a consonant which is subjected to doubling cf. क्रम्यो वर्णः पूर्वमक्षरं भजते R. Pr. XVIII. 18.

क्रिया action, verbal activity; cf. क्रिया- वचनो धातु: M. Bh. on I. 3.1 ; cf. also क्रियावाचकमाख्यातम् R. Pr. XII. 8. quoted by Uvvaṭa in his Bhāṣya on V. Pr. VIII. 50; cf. also उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I.4.59, लक्षणहेत्वेाः क्रियायाः P.III. 2.126; cf. also यत्तर्हि तदिङ्गितं चेष्टितं निमिषितं स शब्दः । नेत्याह क्रिया नाम सा M. Bh. Āhnika 1. The word भाव many times is used in the same sense as kriyā or verbal activity in the sūtras of Pāṇini. cf. P.I.2.21 ; I.3.13; III. 1. 66.etc; cf. also कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति

a statement made frequently by the Mahābhāṣyakāra. Some scho- lars draw a nice distinction bet- ween क्रिया and भाव, क्रिया meaning dynamic activity and भाव mean- ing static activity: cf. अपरिस्पन्दन- साधनसाध्यो धात्वर्थो भावः । सपरिस्पन्दन- साधनसाध्यस्तु क्रिया Kaiyaṭa's Pradīpa on M. Bh. III. 1.87. Philosophi- cally क्रिया is defined as सत्ता appearing in temporal sequence in various things. When सत्ता does not so appear it is called सत्त्व.

क्रियाकलाप a grammatical work on the conjugation of roots written by Vijayānanda.

क्रियागुप्तक a grammar work quoted by वर्धमान in his गणरत्नमहोदधि.

क्रियातिपत्ति lit. over-extension or excess of action; the word is, however, used in grammar in the sense of non-happening of an expected action especially when . it forms a condition of the con- ditional mood ( लृङ् ); cf. कुताश्चि- द्वैगुण्यादनभिनिर्वृत्तिः क्रियायाः क्रियातिपत्तिः Kāś. on P. III. 3.139; cf. also नान्तरेण साधनं क्रियायाः प्रवृत्तिरस्तीति साधना- तिपत्तिश्चेत्कियातिपत्तिरपि भवति M. Bh. on III.3.139.

क्रियाफल intended fruit of a verbal activity; cf. स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले P.I.3.72.

क्रियायोग association with a verbal activity; cf उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P.I.4.59.

क्रियार्थ (adj. to क्रिया) lit. meant or in- tended for another action; e g. भोक्तुं व्रजति where गमनक्रिया is intend- ed for भोजनक्रिया; cf. तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम् P.III.3.10.

क्रियावचन meaning or expressing a verbal activity; a term generally applied to dhātus or roots, or even to verbs. The term is also applied to denominative affixes like क्यच् which produce a sort of verbal