e. g. माहृाराजिक, प्रौष्ठपदिक etc.; (2) to words काशि, चेदि, संज्ञा and others, along with ञिठ, e. g. काशिकी, काशिका, also with ञिठ to words denoting villages in the Vahika country e.g. शाकलिकी शाकलिका; as also to words ending in उ forming names of countries in all the Saisika senses cf. P. IV.2.116-120; (3) to com- pound words having a word show- ing direction as their first member, to words denoting time, as also to the words शरद्, निशा and प्रदोष in the Saisika senses; cf P. IV.3.6, 7, 11- 15; (4) to the words वर्षा (1n Vedic Literature), and to हेमन्त and वसन्त in the Saisika senses; cf. P.IV.3.19- 21; (5) to संवत्सर, अाग्रहायणी, words having अन्तः as the first member, to the word ग्राम preceded by परि or अनु, to multisyllabic words having their last vowel accented acute, to words denoting sacrifices, to words forming names of sages, to words ending in ऋ and to the word महाराज in the specific senses which are mentioned; cf. P. IV.3.50, 60, 61, 67, 68, 69, 78, 79, 97; (6) to the words गोपुच्छ, श्वगण, आक्रन्द, लवण, परश्वध, compound words having a multi- syllabic words as their first mem- ber, and to the words गुड etc. in the specified senses;cf.P.IV.4.6,II, 38, 52, 58, 64, 103;(7) to any word as a general tad. affix (अधिकारविहित), unless any other affix has been specified in the specified senses ' तेन क्रीतम् ' ' तस्य निमित्तम्' ... ' तदर्हम्' mentioned in the section of sutras V. 1. 18. to 117; (8) to the words अय:शूल, दण्ड, अजिन, compound words having एक or गो as their first mem- ber as also to the words निष्कशत and निष्कसहस्र; cf. P.V.2.76, 118,119.
ठन् tad. affix इक or क (according to P. VII.3.51), causing the addition of आ, and not ई,..for forming the
feminine base, applied (1) to the word नौ and words with two syllables in the sense of 'crossing' or 'swimming' over; cf. P.IV.4. 7; e.g. नाविकः नाविका, बाहुकः बाहुक्रा; (2) to the words वस्र, क्रय, and विक्रय and optionally with छ to अायुघ in the sense of maintaining (तेन जीवति) ; cf. P. IV. 4.13, 14; (3) to the word प्रतिपथ, words ending with अगार, to the word शत, to words showing completion ( पूरणवाचिन् ), to the words अर्ध, भाग, वस्त्र, द्रव्य, षण्मास and. श्राद्ध in specified senses; cf. P. IV 4.42, 70, V. 1.21, 48, 49, 51, 84, V. 2, 85, and 109; (4) to words ending in अ as also to the words headed by व्रीहि, and optionally with the affix इल्च् to तुन्द and with the affix व to केशin the sense of मतुप्(pos- session); cf P.V. 2. 115, 116, 117 and 109.
ठित् marked with the mute letter ठ्. There is no affix or word marked with mute ठ् (at the end) in Pani- ni's grammar, but to avoid cer- tain technical difficulties, the Mahabhasyakara has proposed mute ठ् instead of 'ट् in the' case of the affix इट् of the first pers. sing. perf Atm. and ऊठ् prescribed as Samprasarana substitute by P. VI. 4.132 e: g. प्रष्ठौहः, प्रष्ठौहा; cf. M.Bh. on III.4.79 and VI.4.19.
ड् ( 1 ) third letter of the lingual class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व, and अल्पप्राण; (2) mute letter ap- plied to affixes by Panini to show the elision of the टि part (cf. P. 1. 1.64.) of the preceding word viz. the penultimate vowel and the consonant or consonants follow- ing it; cf, टेः ; ( लोप: डिति प्रत्यये परे )