पुटमेतत् सुपुष्टितम्

to have been the first grammarian who arranged the sutras of Panini according to the subject matter.

धर्मिन् (1)a thing possessed of proper- ties, द्रव्यः cf. धर्मशब्देन धर्मी भण्यते Kas. on P.III.3.77;cf also the common expression धर्मिग्राहकमानात् Par. Sek. on Pari. 55, 66, 79, 82: (2) the same as dharma in rare cases according to the dictum धर्मघर्मिणो- रभेदोपचारः e. g. वर्णैकं देहि, पुराणैकं देहि; cf. Durghata Vr. on P. II. 1. 49.

धा tad.affix (l) applied to a numeral in the sense of a kind ( प्रकार ) or a division of time, e.g.एकधा, द्विधा, त्रिधा etc.: cf. P.V.3.42, 43; (2) applied to बहु to show divisions of a short time;e.g. बहुधा दिवसस्य भुङ्क्क्ते and बहुधा मासस्य भुङ्क्ते;cf. Kas. on P.V.4.20.

धातु a root; the basic word of a verbal form,defined by the Bhasya- kara as क्रियावचनो धातुः or even as भाववचने धातु:, a word denoting a verbal activity. Panini has not defined the term as such, but he has given a long list of roots under ten groups, named dasagani, which includes about 2200 roots which can be called primary roots as contrasted with secondary roots. The secondary roots can be divided into two main groups ( l ) roots derived from roots ( धातुजधातवः ) and (2) roots derived from nouns ( नामधातवः ). The roots derived from roots can further be classified into three main subdivisions : (a) causative roots or णिजन्त, (b) desi- derative roots or सन्नन्त, (c) inten- sive roots or यङन्त and यङ्लुगन्त: while roots derived from nouns or denominative roots can further be divided into क्यजन्त, काम्यजन्त, क्यङन्त, क्यषन्त, णिङन्त, क्विबन्त and the misce- llaneous ones ( प्रकीर्ण ) as derived from nouns like कण्डू( कण्ड्वादि ) by 25

the application of the affix यक् or from nouns like सत्य,वेद, पाश, मुण्ड,मिश्र, etc. by the application of the affix णिच्. Besides these, there are a few roots formed by the applica- tion of the affix अाय and ईय (ईयङ्). All these roots can further be classified into Parasmaipadin or Parasmaibhasa, Atmanepadin or Atmanebhasa and Ubhayapadin. Roots possessed of a mute grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel or of the mute consonant ङ् added to the root in the Dhatupatha or ending in the affixes यड्, क्यङ् etc. as also roots in the passive voice are termed Atmanepadin: while roots ending with the affix णिच् as also roots possessed of a mute circumflex vowel or a mute consonant ञ़़् appl- ied to them are termed Ubhaya- padin. All the rest are termed Parasmaipadin. There are some other mute letters or syllables applied by Panini to the roots in his Dhatupatha for specific purpo- ses; e.g. ए at the end to signify prohibition of vrddhi to the penu- ltimate अ in the aorist, e.g. अकखीत् cf. P. VII.2.5; इर् to signify the optional substitution of अ or अङ् for the affix च्लि of the aorist, e.g. अभिदत्, अभैत्सीत् ; cf. P.III. 1.57; उ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) before क्त्वा e.g. शमित्वा, शान्त्वा; cf. P.VII. 2. 56; ऊ to signify the optional applica- tion of the augment इ ( इट् ) e.g. गोप्ता, गेीपिता, cf. P.VII.2.44; अा to signify the prohibition of the aug- ment इट् in the case of the past pass. part. e.g. क्ष्विण्णः, स्विन्नः, cf. P. VII.2.16; इ to signify the addition of a nasal after the last vowel e. g. निन्दति from निदि, cf. P. VII.1.58: ऋ to signify the prohibition of ह्रस्व to the penultimate long vowel before