पुटमेतत् सुपुष्टितम्

sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakrad- hara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākya- padīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and inci- dents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are covered. For details,see Patañjala Mahābhā- șya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य.

पद a word; a unit forming a part of a sentence; a unit made up of a letter or of letters, possessed of sense; cf. अक्षरसमुदायः पदम् । अक्षरं वा । V.Pr. VIII. 46, 47. The word originally was applied to the indi- vidual words which constituted the Vedic Samhitā; cf. पदप्रकृतिः संहिता Nir.I.17. Accordingly, it is defin- ed in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as ' अर्थः पदम् ' (V. Pr. III. 2) as contrasted with ' वर्णानामेकप्राणयोगः संहिता ' (V.Pr.I.158). The definition ' अर्थः पदम् ' is attributed to the ancient grammarian 'Indra', who is believed to have been the first Grammarian of India. Pāņini has defined the term पद as ' सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् ' P.I.4.14. His definition is applicable to complete noun-forms and verb-forms and also to prefixes and indeclinables where a case-

affix is placed and elided accord- ing to him; cf. अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II. 4. 82. The noun-bases before case affixes and tad. affixes, mentioned in rules upto the end of the fifth adhyāya, which begin with a con- sonant excepting य् are also termed पद by Pāņini to include parts of words before the case affixes भ्याम् , भिस्, सु etc. as also before the tad. affixes मत्, वत् etc. which are given as separate padas many times in the pada-pātha of the Vedas; cf. स्वादि- ष्वसर्वनामस्थाने P. I. 4. 17. See for details the word पदपाठ. There are given four kinds of padas or words viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात in the Nirukta and Prātiśākhya works; cf. also पदमर्थे प्रयुज्यते, विभक्त्यन्तं च पदम् M. Bh. on P. I. 2. 64 Vārt. 19, वर्णसमुदायः पदम् M.Bh. on I.1.21 Vārt. 5, पूर्वपरयोरर्थोपलब्धौ पदम् Kāt. I.1.20, पदशब्देनार्थ उच्यते Kaiyata on P.I.2.42 Vārt. 2; cf. also पद्यते गम्यते अर्थः अनेनेति पदमित्यन्वर्थसंज्ञा Nyāsa on P.III. 1.92. The verb endings or affixs ति, तस् and others are also called पद. The word पद in this sense is never used alone, but with the word परस्मै or अात्मने preceding it. The term परस्मैपद stands for the nine affixes तिप्, तस्, ...मस्,while the term आत्मनेपद stands for the nine affixes त, आताम् ... महिङ्. cf. ल: परमैपदम्, तङानावात्मनेपदम्. It is possible to say that in the terms परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद also, the term पद could be taken to mean a word, and it is very likely that the words परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद were originally used in the sense of 'words referring to something meant for another' and 'refer- ring to something meant for self' respectively. Such words, of course, referred to verbal forms, roughly corresponding to the