4.35,37, 42, 59. At one place, Patañjali for purposes of argu- ment has explained the word as final in a word; cf.नैवं विज्ञायते पदस्यान्तः पदान्तः पदान्तादिति । कथं तर्हि । पदे अन्तः पदान्तः पदान्तादिति M. Bh. on VIII. 4.35.
पदार्थ meaning of a word, significa- tion of a word; that which corresponds to the meaning of a word; sense of a word. Gram- marians look upon both-the generic notion and the individual object as Padārtha or meaning of a word, and support their view by quoting the sūtras of Pāņini जात्याख्यायामेकस्मिन् बहुवचनमन्यतरस्याम् I. 2.58 and सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ I. 2.64; cf. किं पुनराकृतिः पदार्थ अाहोस्विद् द्रव्यम् । उभयमित्याह । कथं ज्ञायते । उभयथा ह्याचार्येण सूत्राणि प्रणीतानि । अाकृतिं पदार्थे मत्वा जात्याख्यायामित्युच्यते | द्रव्यं पदार्थे मत्वा सरूपाणामित्येकशेष अारभ्यते, M. Bh. in I. 1. first Āhnika. In rules of grammar the meaning of a word is generally the vocal element or the wording, as the science of grammar deals with words and their formation; cf. स्वं रूपं शब्दस्याशब्द- संज्ञा, P. I. 1. 68. The possession of vocal element as the sense is technically termed शब्दपदार्थकता as opposed to अर्थपदार्थकता; cf. सोसौ गोशब्दः स्वस्मात्पदार्थात् प्रच्युतो यासौ अर्थपदा- र्थकता तस्याः शब्दपदार्थकः संपद्यते M. Bh. I. 1.44 V. 3. The word पदार्थ means also the categories or the predicaments in connection with the different Śāstrās or lores as for instance, the 25 categories in the Sāmkhyaśāstra or 7 in the Vaiśeșika system or 16 in the NyayaŚāstra. The Vyākaranaśā- stra, in this way to state, has only one category the Akhandavākyas- phota or the radical meaning
given by the sentence in one stroke.
पद्मनाभ a grammarian who wrote a treatise on grammar known as the Supadma Vyākaraņa. He is believed to have been an inhabi- tant of Bengal who lived in the fourteenth century A. D. Some say that he was a resident of Mithilā.
पद्य forming a part of a word or pada; cf. उपोत्तमं नानुदात्तं न पद्यम् R. Pr. I. 29; cf. also पूर्वपद्यः R. Pr. I. 30. The word is used in this sense ( पदावयव ) mostly in the Prātiśākhya works. The word is used in the sense of पादसंपन्न, made up of the feet (of verses), in the Rk Prātiśākhya in contrast with अक्षर्य, made up of syllables. In this sense the word is derived from the word पाद; cf. पद्याक्षर्ये स उत्थितः R. Pr, XVIII. 3.
पर (l) subsequent,as opposed to पूर्व or prior the word is frequently used in grammar in connection with a rule or an operation prescribed later on in a grammar treatise; cf. विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I. 4. 2; ( 2 ) occurring after ( something ); cf. प्रत्ययः परश्च P. III. 1.1 and 2; cf. also तत् परस्वरम् T.Pr. XXI.2.(3)The word पर is sometimes explained in the sense of इष्ट or desired, possibly on the analogy of the meaning श्रेष्ठ possessed by the word. This sense is given to the word पर in the rule विप्रातिषेधे परं कार्यं with a view to apply it to earlier rules in cases of emergency; cf. विप्रतिषेधे परं यदिष्टं तद्भवति M.Bh. on I.1.3.Vārt, 6; परशब्दः इष्टवाची M.Bh. on I. 2.5, I. 4.2. Vārt. 7; II. 1.69 etc.
परंकार्यत्व or परंकार्यत्वपक्ष the view that the subsequent संज्ञा or technical term should be preferred to the