पुटमेतत् सुपुष्टितम्

prior one, when both happen to apply simultaneously to a word. The word is frequently used in the Mahaabhaasya as referring to the reading आ काडारात् परं कार्यम् which is believed to have been an alterna- tive reading to the reading अा कडारादेका संज्ञा;cf. ननु च यस्यापि परंकार्यत्वं तेनापि परग्रहणं कर्तव्यम्; M. Bh. on I.4.1; also भवेदेकसंज्ञाधिकारे सिद्धम् | परंकार्यत्वे तु न सिद्ध्यति: M.Bh. on II. 1.20, II.2.24.

परक्रम a term used in the Praatisaakhya works for'doubling' of a consonant; | cf. सान्तःस्थादौ धारयन्तः परक्रमम् | R. Pr.XIV. 23.

परग्रहण the use of the word पर;insertion of the word पर in a rule; cf. तेनापि परग्रहणं कर्तव्यम् : M.Bh. on I.4.1; cf. also परग्रहृणमनर्थकम् M. Bh. on III. 1.2.

परत्व posteriority; mention afterwards; the word is frequently used in works on grammar in connection with a rule which is mentioned in the treatise after another rule; the posterior rule is looked upon as stronger than the prior one, and is given priority in application when the two rules come in conflict although technically they are equally strong: cf. परत्वादल्लोप: ; M. Bh. on I. 1.4 Vaart 7; 'परत्वाच्छीभाव: I. 1.11 etc.

परत्वन्याय application of the later rule before the former one, according to the dictum laid down by Paanini in the rule विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I. 4.2 ; cf. परत्वन्यायो 'न लङ्कितो भवति Sira. Pari. 84,

परनिपात lit.placing after; the placing of a word in a compound after another as contrasted with पूर्वनिपात . A subordinate word is generally placed first in a compound, cf. उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्; in some exceptional cases however, this general rule is

not observed as in the cases of राजदन्त and the like, where the subordinate word is placed after the principal word, and which cases, hence, are taken as cases of परनिपात. The words पूर्व and पर are relative, and hence, the cases of परनिपात with respect to the sub- ordinate word ( उपसर्जन ) such as राजद्न्त, प्राप्तजीविक etc. can be called cases of पूर्वनिपात with respect to the principal word ( प्रधान ) cf. परश्शता: राजदन्तादित्वात्परनिपात: Kaas. on P. II.1.39.

परनिमित्तक caused by something which follows; the term is used in grammar in connection with some- thing caused by what follows; cf. परनिमित्तकोजादेश: पूर्वविधिं प्रति न स्थानिवत् S. K, on अचः परस्मिन्पूर्वविधौ P.I.1.57.

परमप्रकृति the most original base; the original of the original base; the word is used in connection with a base which is not a direct base to which an affix is added, but which is a remote base;cf. अापत्यो वा गेात्रम् | परमप्रकृतश्च अापत्यः । M. Bh. on P.IV.1.89; cf. also M. Bh. om IV.1.93,98,163.

परमाणु a time-unit equal to one-half of the unit called अणु, which forms one-half of the unit called मात्रा which is required for the purpose of the utterance of a consonant; cf. परमाणु अर्धाणुमात्रा V. Pr.I.61. परमाणु, in short, is the duration of very infinitesimal time equal to the pause between two individual continuous sounds. The interval between the utterances of two consecutive consonants is given to be equivalent to one Paramanu; cf. वर्णान्तरं परमाणु R.T.34.

पररूप the form of the subsequent letter (परस्य रूपम्). The word is used in grammar when the resultant of the two coalescing vowels ( एकादेश )