also the expression पुरस्तादुपकर्ष which means the same as अपकर्ष which is opposed to अनुवृत्ति.
पुराण old; the word is used in the sense of old or ancient cf. पुराणप्रोक्तेषु ब्राह्मणकल्पेषु. P. IV. 3.105. It is also used in the sense of old mytho- logical works; cf. इतिहृास: पुराणं वैद्यकं M.Bh. on Āhnika l Vart. 5.
पुरुष a grammatical term in the sense of 'person:' cf. करोतिः पचादीनां सर्वान् कालान् सर्वान् पुरुषान्सर्वाणि वचनान्यनु- वर्तते, भवतिः पुनर्वर्तमानकालं चैकत्वं च. These persons or Purușas are described to be three प्रथम, मध्यम and उत्तम corresponding to the third second and first persons respec- tively in English Grammar; cf. also Nir. VII. l and 2.
पुरुषकार name of a commentary on the Sarasvatikaņthābharaņa of Bhoja by Kŗşņalilāśukamuni.
पुरुषसंज्ञा the term पुरुष or person viz. the first, the second and the third; the rule prescribing the term पुरुष is तिङ्स्त्रीणि त्रीणि प्रथममध्यमो- त्तमाः P. I. 4. 101: cf. परस्मैपदसंज्ञां पुरुषसंज्ञा बाधेत M. Bh. on P. I. 4. 1 Vārt. 8.
पुरुषोत्तमदेव a famous grammarian believed to have been a Buddhist, who flourished in the reign of Lakșmaņasena in the latter half of the twelfth century in Bengal. Many works on grammar are ascribed to him, the prominent ones among which are the Bhā- șāvŗtti and the Paribhāșāvŗtti, the Gaņavŗtti and the Jñapaka- samuccaya and a commentary on the Mahābhāșya called Prāņa- paņā of which only a fragment is available. Besides these works on grammar, he has written some lexicographical works of which Hārāvalī, Trikāņdaśeșa, Dvirūpa-
kosa, and Ekaaksarakosa are the prominent ones. The Bhasavrtti has got a lucid commentary on it written by Srstidhara.
पुरुषोत्तमविद्यावागीश a famous gram- marian of Bengal, who wrote the grammar work Prayogaratnamala in the fifteenth century. The work betrays a deep study and scholar- ship of the writer in the Man- trasāstra.
पुरोहितादि a class of words headed by the word पुरोहित to which the taddhita affix यक् is added in the sense of 'duly' or 'nature': e.g . पौरोहित्यम् , राज्यम् , बाल्यम् , मान्द्यम् etc.; cf. KaS. on P. V. !. 128.
पुषादि a class of roots headed by the root पुष् of the fourth conjugation whose peculiarity is the substitu- tion of the aorist sign अ ( अङ्) for च्लि ; e.g. अपुषत्, अशुषत्, अनुषत् etc. of. पुषादिद्युताद्यलृदितः परस्मैपदेषु P. III. 1.55.
पुष्करण a popular term used for the treatise on grammar by an ancient grammarian Apisali. cf. अापिशलं पुष्करणम् Kas on P. IV. 3. 15. It was called Puskarana probably because it was very extensive and widely read before Panini. For the reading दुष्करण for पुष्करण, and other details see Mahabhasya Vol. VII. pp. 132-133, D. E. Society's edition.
पुष्करादि a class of words headed by the word पुष्कर, to which the tadd- hita affix इन् ( इनि ) is added pro- vided the word ending with the affix forms the name of a district. e. g. पुष्करिणी, पद्मिनी etc. cf. Kas. on P. V. 2.135.
पूजार्थ lit for the sake of paying respect. The word is used by commentators in connection with references to ancient grammarians