प्रमुखा विकल्पसूचिः उद्घाट्यताम्
Sanskrit Introductory
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पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Introductory.djvu/१ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Introductory.djvu/२ Preface This course of fifteen lessons is intended to lift the English-speaking student who knows nothing of Sanskrit, to the level where he can intelligently apply Monier- Williams' dictionary 1 and the Dhatu-Patha 2 to the study of the scriptures. The first five lessons cover the pronunciation of the basic Sanskrit alphabet, together with its written form in both DevanagarT and transliterated Roman: flash cards are included as an aid. The notes on pronunciation are largely descriptive, based on mouth position and effort, with similar English (Received Pronunciation) sounds offered where possible. The next four lessons describe vowel embellishments to the consonants, the principles of conjunct consonants, and additions to and variations in the DevanagarT alphabet. Lessons ten and eleven present sandhi in grid form and explain their principles in sound. The next three lessons penetrate Monier-Williams' dictionary through its four levels of alphabetical order, and suggest strategies for finding difficult words. The last lesson shows the extraction of the artha from the Dhatu-Patha, and the application of this and the dictionary to the study of the scriptures. In addition to the primary course, the first eleven lessons include a 'B' section which introduces the student to the principles of sentence structure in this fully inflected language. Six declension paradigms and class-1 conjugation in the present tense are used with a minimal vocabulary of nineteen words. In the 'B' part of lessons ten and eleven the principles of compound words are introduced. The course aims at a practical understanding of the basic principles, at getting a 'feel' for the language, and not a learning of rules by rote. To this end, each lesson concludes with exercises for the student to put that understanding into practice: answers to the exercises are presented in an appendix. 1 Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary is currently published by both Motilal Banarsidass in India and Oxford University Press in England: although the two are printed from the same plates, the latter is far superior in the quality of printing, paper, and binding — and this is reflected in its much higher price. 2 The edition of the Dhatupatha referred to in these notes is that edited by J.L.Shastri and published by Motilal Banarsidass: it is a small book and quite inexpensive. The pronunciation offered in these lessons is optimised for the English-speaking student to understand the underlying principles of sandhi (sound changes). There are several variations in the pronunciation of some of the Sanskrit sounds, that have been handed down over generations. None of these traditions are wrong, although this may confuse the mind trained to think in terms of opposites, of right and wrong. Consider the English spoken in Britain and America for example: they are certainly different, but neither is wrong. Where there is a variation in the form of a character (e.g. 3Tor ^T), these lessons standardize on the form that is most commonly used in currently available printed editions of the Bhagavad GTta and Upanisads. The common variations are illustrated in the ninth lesson. In the English-speaking world there is currently little appreciation of the value of studying formal grammar: as a result it has become unpopular, and many schools have ceased to teach it. In view of this situation, an appendix of basic English grammatical terms is included. Readers are invited to point out errors in the course, and offer suggestions for its improvement. Charles Wikner. wikner@nacdh4.nac.ac.za June, 1996. Contents Preface iii Contents v Invocation ix Lesson 1 1 A.l. Vowel Measures B.l. The Concept of Dhatu A. 2. Sanskrit Pronunciation B.2. Introduction to Verbs A. 3. The Three Primary Vowels: a i u B.3. Exercises A.4. The Other Simple Vowels: r 1 B.4. Flash Cards A. 5. The Compound Vowels: e ai o au A. 6. Summary of All Vowels A. 7. The Sixteen Sakti: am ah A. 8. Practicing the Alphabet Lesson 2 13 A.l. The Five Mouth Positions B.l. More on Verbs A. 2. The Twenty-Five Stops: ka to ma B.2. Exercises A. 3. Pronunciation of the Stops A.4. DevanagarT Alphabet Lesson 3 21 A.l. The Four Semi- Vowels: ya ra la va B.l. More on Verbs A. 2. The Three Sibilants: sa sa sa B.2. Introduction to nouns A. 3. The Final Consonant: ha B.3. Exercises A. 4. Summary of the Consonants A. 5. The Alphabetical Order A. 6. DevanagarT Alphabet Lesson 4 31 A.l. DevanagarT Alphabet B.l. Summary of Verbs B.2. More on Noun Cases B.3. Exercises Lesson 5 37 A.l. DevanagarT Alphabet B.l. More on Noun Cases B.2. Exercises Lesson 6 A.l. Vowels after Consonants A. 2. History of Vowel Embellishment Lesson 7 A.l. Halanta Consonants A. 2. Conjunct Consonants A. 3. Special Conjuncts ksa and jiia A. 4. Pronunciation of ksa A. 5. Pronunciation of jiia A. 6. List of Conjunct Consonants 45 B.l. Sentence Structure: English and Sanskrit B.2. Noun Gender B.3. Summary of Case Information B.4. Exercises 53 B.l. Verbal Prefixes B.2. Exercises Lesson 8 A.l. Special Symbols A. 2. Savarna A. 3. Nasal Substitution for Anusvara A. 4. DevanagarT Numerals 63 B.l. More Noun Declensions B.2. Adjectives B.3. Adverbs B.4. Vocabulary Summary B.5. Exercises Lesson 9 A.l. Vowels Accents B.l. A. 2. Variations in DevanagarT Alphabet B.2. A. 3. Variations in Samyoga B.3. A. 4. Revision Lesson 10 A.l. Introduction to Sandhi A. 2. Guna and Vrddhi A. 3. Vowel Sandhi A.4. Exceptions to Vowel Sandhi A. 5. Samprasarana Lesson 11 A.l. Visarga Sandhi A. 2. Consonant Sandhi Grid A. 3. Internal Sandhi 71 Types of Words Use of iti Exercises 77 B.l. Introduction to Compound Words B.2. Joining Words in Writing B.3. Exercises 85 B.l. Dvandva Samasa B.2. Tatpurusa Samasa B.3. AvyayTbhava Samasa B.4. BahuvrThi Samasa B.5. Exercises Lesson 12 91 1. Monier- Williams Dictionary 2. Alphabet and Transliteration 3. Fundamental Structure 4. Page Heading Words 5. Dictionary Practice Lesson 13 97 1. Words beginning with Sa- 2. Structure of DevanagarT level 3. Structure within non-Dhatu entries 4. References and Abbreviations 5. Special Symbols 6. Significance of Hyphen and Caret Symbols 7. Supplement to the Dictionary 8. Dictionary Practice Lesson 14 103 1. Tracing a Word to its Dhatu 2. Dhatu Entry Information 3. Numbered Entries 4. Misleading Words 5. Difficult Words 6. Dictionary Practice Lesson 15 109 1. Introduction to Dhatu-Patha 2. The Contents Page 3. The Text Body 4. The Index 5. Dhatu Spelling Changes 6. Illustrations of Dhatu-Patha Use 7. Study of the Scriptures 8. Study Practice Appendix 1: Suggestions for Further Study 121 Appendix 2: Answers to Exercises 123 Appendix 3: English Grammatical Terms 135 Sanskrit Glossary and Index 141 INVOCATION rlxjllt^ HN^IdJHtd — — — so Translations: Effective may our study prove! (invocation to Daksinamurti Upanisad, A.M.Sastry May our study be thorough and fruitful (invocation to Katha Upanisad, SwamI Sarvananda Let what we are Studying be invigorating. . . . (invocation to Katha Upanisad, SwamI GambhTrananda May our study be vigorous and effective (invocation to Taittinya 2.1, SwamT Sarvananda Let our study be brilliant (invocation to Taittinya 2.1, SwamI GambhTrananda May our study be full of light (First Lessons in Sanskrit, Judith Tyberg n^jTT^sl neuter nominative singular of adjective tejasvin. tejasvin — mw454c mfn. brilliant, splendid, bright, energetic. [Panini: «l£rt SF^TO"II U Ql ?QQII In the Veda the affix -vin is variously introduced in the sense of matup ('belonging to this', 'existing in this').] tejas — sharp (edge of a knife); point or top of flame or ray, glow, glare, splendour, brilliance, light, fire; /tij — Mw446a to be or become sharp. Dh.P.— ftteT HlRj|U| STTcJT^ ^TcTI R$ll^ I nisana — Mw561a n. sharpening, whetting; observing, perceiving. Comment: Tejas is a name given to the subtle element of fire, having qualities of heat and light. With reference to our study of Sanskrit, this may be understood as the heat that burns off the dross of ignorance and allows the light of understanding to shine through. «fN genitive dual of personal pronoun T, giving the meaning 'of us both (student and teacher)', or simply 'our', 3TMTrnTI neuter nominative singular of adhitam. (The past passive participle used in the sense of an abstract noun.) adhita — mw22c mfn. attained, studied, read; well-read, learned. adhi-^Ji, to turn the mind towards, observe, understand. adhi — Mw20b prefix expressing above, over and above, besides. i/« — to go, walk; to flow; to blow; to advance, spread, get about; to go to or towards, come; ... to succeed, to arrive at, reach, obtain; ... to undertake anything; to be employed in, go on with, continue in any condition or relation . . . Dh.P.— f^ 3KlRj|U| STTcJT^ STfrcTI =WT^I smarana — mw 1272b n. the act of causing to remember, reminding, calling to mind. Dh.P.— WW 3KlRj|U| M<^M« 3rfrcTI ST^PT^! adhyayana — mw22c n. reading, studying, especially the Vedas. Dh.P.— WW 3KlRj|U| M<^M« STfrcTI WTl gati — mw347c f. going, moving, gait, deportment, motion in general. 3ltTl I first person singular imperative of ^Jas (to be), i.e. 'let it be', 'may it be', or simply 'be!' i/as — Mwll7a to be, live, exist, be present, take place, happen. Dh.P.— 3W ^Klf^M M<^M« ^TcTI JTT%I bhu — mw760c f. the act of arising or becoming. Treating adhitam as a neuter noun and tejasvi its complement, this gives a rather plodding translation of 'Let our study be bright'. Using poetic licence to convey the sense of the whole, rather than the literal word-by-word translation, we have: "May the Light Shine upon our Studies." t The light of understanding/knowledge/truth. Lesson l.A Sanskrit is written in devanagarT script. The word devanagarT means the 'city (nagarl) of immortals (deva)'. There are no capital letters. In Sanskrit, each letter represents one, and only one, sound. In English, the letter 'a' for example, may indicate many sounds (e.g. fat, fate, fare, far), but not so in Sanskrit. The alphabet is systematically arranged according to the structure of the mouth. It is essential to use the correct mouth position and not to merely imitate an approximation of the sound. Without this, the development of the alphabet and the euphonic combinations that occur in continuous speech, will not be understood. There are two fundamental divisions to the alphabet: the vowel (svara) and the consonant (vyanjana). The word svara literally means sound, tone, accent; and vyanjana an adornment or decoration (to the sound), manifesting (as a stop in the sound). l.A.l Vowel Measures Vowels can be short (hrasva) or long (dlrgha) or prolonged (pluta). The short vowels are held for one measure (matra), the long vowels for two measures, and the prolonged for three or more measures. This system of enumeration (one, two, many, where many means more than two) manifests throughout the grammar, and indeed throughout the systems of thought expressed in Sanskrit, for it reflects the natural evolution of creation. The prolonged measure occurs in Vedic Sanskrit but is rare in Classical Sanskrit; the prolonged measure (as a full breath) is useful in practising the vowels. The prolonged measure in both transliterated Roman script and devanagarT is indicated by the short vowel followed by the numeral 3. (You may also see it as the long vowel followed by 3.) l.A. 2 Sanskrit Pronunciation The pronunciation of Sanskrit is very simple: you open the mouth wide and move the tongue and lips as necessary: the tongue and lips are almost pure muscle and have little inertia or resistance to movement. By contrast, the pronunciation of English requires much effort, for we barely open the mouth (which means that all sounds are indistinct or blurred), and then instead of simply moving the tongue we move the whole jaw — and what a great weight that is to move about. Having become well practised in speaking with a moving jaw, it does require some attention to break that habit and speak with a moving tongue. The biggest single factor in practising the refined sounds of Sanskrit, is to open the mouth! For English, the mouth opens to a mere slit of about 6-mm (a pencil thickness); for Sanskrit this needs to increase fourfold — literally! Try this out for yourself: with the mouth opened to a slit, sound a prolonged a3 and slowly open the mouth wide and listen to the change in the quality, to the richness and fulness that emerges. The mouth needs to open a lot more than you think — so don't think! — use a measure, like two fingers. 1.A.3 The Three Primary Vowels: a i u The sounding of a3 is simplicity itself: with body and mind relaxed but alert, open the throat and mouth wide, and with tongue relaxed, breathe out and simply desire that the vocal cords vibrate. What could be more natural than that? This sound is central to all the vowel sounds; indeed, the whole alphabet is simply an embellishment of this sound. As a very rough guide, the short a sounds similar to the vowel in 'but' and definitely not 'bat'; likewise the long a is similar to the vowel in 'harm' and not 'ham'. In producing the short a there is a slight tensioning in the throat; that tension should not be there for the long a or the prolonged a3- In spite of this difference between a and a, they are treated as though the same in the rules of sandhi (euphonic combination) of the grammar. To sound i3, open the mouth as for a3 and raise the back of the tongue (the tip should be relaxed behind the bottom front teeth). In producing this sound it will be noticed that there is a slight constriction or tensioning in the throat as compared with the relaxed throat when sounding a3- To sound U3, allow the lips to form a small circular opening of the mouth (so that the moistened back of a pencil just slips in and out, filling the opening); there should be no tension in the lips or face muscles, so pout rather than purse the lips. There will be a similar tension in the throat as for i3. The short i sounds similar to the vowel in 'pink' and NOT 'pin', and the long T like 'peep' or 'seat'; the short u is similar to the vowel in 'put' or 'soot', and the long u like 'boot' or 'suit'. 1.A.4 The Other Simple Vowels: r 1 To get to the correct pronunciation of 1*3, begin by sounding a prolonged i3 and slowly raise the tip of the tongue so that it pointing to the top of the head, approaching but not touching the roof of the mouth. Do not try to hold the back of the tongue in the i3 position, nor try to move it out of that position: simply have no concern with what is happening at the back of the tongue, just attend to the tip of the tongue and listen. Repeat the exercise a few times until comfortable with the sound of 1*3, then practise directly sounding 1*3 for a full breath. Similarly for I3, start sounding with a prolonged i3 and slowly raise the tip of the tongue to behind the upper front teeth without touching them. Continue the exercise as for 1-3. These vowels appear to have vanished from popular speech, and the memory of how to pronounce them has faded. The pandit of today tends to pronounce r as if it were ri, and r even more improbably as rT; similarly 1 and I tend to be pronounced as lri and lri. This accounts for the transliteration scheme found in the dictionary. In fact the vocalic r is still present in Eastern European languages and you may come across surnames like Przybylski; it is also present in English in some pronunciations of the word 'interesting' as 'int'r'sting' or 'intrsting', or indeed in the American 'prdy' for 'pretty'. The long 1 is not used in the standard grammar, and 1 occurs only in one verb (kip, to manage, to be well ordered or regulated). In practice, when either of these vowels is followed by a consonant whose mouth position requires that the tip of the tongue be at a lower position, a vestigial i will emerge due to the bunching of the muscle at the back of the tongue when moving the tip downwards, for example rk tends to produce i^k, but a word like Krsna should produce no i sound at all. 1.A.5 The Compound Vowels: e ai o au a Let's examine what we have so far. We began with a and from this developed u and i to give the three primary vowels, and then the i gave rise to r and 1 . These u 1 five basic vowels, each having its own unique mouth position, define the five mouth positions used for the whole alphabet. Further vowels are derived by combining the a sound with i and u to form the four compound vowels (sandhyaksara). The e sound arises when a is sounded through the i e /V mouth position. Remember that a has a relaxed throat

and tongue, while i has the back of the tongue raised and 

a > i the throat tense: so relaxing the throat while retaining the back of the tongue raised will produce e. The vowel e sounds similar to that in 'fair' or 'eight'. The ai sound arises when e is further combined with a as it were. Now the only difference between e and a is ai J / the raised back of the tongue, so to move from e towards

the a sound, we need to drop the back of the tongue to 

a > e a position half way between that used for i and e and the relaxed position used for a. The ai sounds similar to the vowel in 'aisle' or 'pie'; there should be no glide or slide in the sound from a to i. o In a manner similar to the arising of e, when a is sounded / through the u mouth position, i.e. with the lips in the

position for u but the throat relaxed for sounding a, the 

sound o naturally arises. The vowel o should sound between 'awe' and 'owe' (or between the vowel sounds in 'corn' and 'cone'); the ideal is that point where the sound could be taken as either of the two English sounds. au And finally, the au sound arises when a is combined / with o, so that the position of the lips is roughly half

way between that used for u and a, and the throat is 

relaxed. The au sounds similar to the vowel in 'down' or 'hound' but without the glide from a to u. 1.A.6 Summary of All Vowels au ai / o -*- u -»-e Combining the previous five sketches illustrates the central role played by the a sound. Note that all these vowel sounds may be sounded continuously for a full breath: there is no glide from one sound to another. Also note that the four sounds e ai o au, being an addition of two sounds as it were, are naturally long (dlrgha) and may also be prolonged (pluta), but have no short measure. Vowel Throat Tongue Lips Eng. Approx.t a tense relaxed wide open but, not bat a relaxed relaxed wide open harm, NOT ham i/l tense raised back wide open pink / peep e relaxed raised back wide open fair or eight ai relaxed half-raised back wide open aisle or 'pie' u/u tense relaxed small circle put / boot o relaxed relaxed small circle between owe awe au relaxed relaxed half-raised back, large circle down or hound r tense wide open (acre) tip vertical half-raised back, V / 1 tense wide open (table) tip upper teeth t The English approximations are only a very rough guide, especially considering the wide variety of accents around the world. Rather follow the instructions given earlier, or oral guidance given in person. 1.A.7 The Sixteen sakti: am ah To these fourteen vowels are added the anusvara and visarga to form what are called the sixteen matrka or sakti (powers or energies). The anusvara (m) is an 'after sound', a nasal sound following a vowel. It is sounded through the nose only, and should be independent of mouth position. Later on we shall consider how it may be substituted by a nasal consonant depending on the following letter. The visarga (h), or visarjanlya, is an unvoiced breath following a vowel, and is breathed through the mouth position of that vowel. Some traditions append an echo of the vowel after the breath, so that ah may be sounded as ah a , etc. Strictly speaking, the anusvara and visarga are not part of the alphabet inasmuch as they arise only through the rules of sandhi (euphonic combination). Since these both arise only after a vowel we shall precede them with a (though they can occur with other vowels too) when sounding the sixteen sakti, which form the start of the alphabetical order, i.e.: aailuurrlleaioau am ah In the transliteration scheme shown above, the lines and dots, called 'diacritical marks', are used because the Sanskrit alphabet has more letters than the English alphabet. Diacritics are combined with Roman letters to represent new sounds, for example the macron (horizontal bar above the letter) is used to indicate the long (dlrgha) version of the vowel. 1.A.8 Practising the Alphabet One way of memorizing the script is by writing it: look at the form of the letter, sound it, and then write it. In this exercise it is important to associate the sound with the form. When you write the letter, write the whole letter without referring back to the original. If, halfway through, you forget how to continue the letter, then start again: and do not continue with that half-completed letter. Remember that the exercise is not simply to copy the original form, but to associate a sound with a whole form, so do not practise half letters. When the shape has become familiar then time can be spent refining the proportions of the letter. Another method of practising the alphabet is to use flash cards with the devanagarT letter on one side and the transliterated Roman letter on the other (in case you forget you can turn over). These cards can also be used in the other direction: from the transliterated Roman letter, see if you can visualize the devanagarT form. In fact, there needs to be a three way association, namely between both the written forms and the sound, so that any one of these associates with the other two. The ideal way of becoming familiar with these sounds and letters is to spend 15-20 minutes each day on the written exercise, and one minute at a time 15-20 times throughout the day with the flash cards. 22° 2.5mm J V, 6 Pens with nibs pre-ground to the correct angle are not generally available, so start with an inexpensive calligraphy fountain pen (Schaeffer, Platignum, etc.) and file the end of the nib to 22° as shown. File across the nib (in the sketch, into the paper) and finally remove the sharp edges by 'writing' on 1000-grit water paper on a firm flat surface. You will find that a broad nib (Ri2.5mm) is best for practising the forms of the letters, and a much narrower nib (Ri0.6mm) for normal writing. As a very rough guide the nib width should be | of the overall height of the 3T character, and the thickness of the nib about of the width. 6 Here are the first six devanagari characters to practise. They are the short (hrasva) and long (dlrgha) measures of the three primary vowels. The transliteration of the first row is a a, the second i T, and the third u u. Lesson l.B Note: Until you are familiar with the pronunciation of the consonants (given in the next lesson), do not attempt to pronounce the Sanskrit words included in the text: this will save the unnecessary labour of unlearning the incorrect pronunciation. l.B.l The Concept of Dhatu A dhatu is a rudimentary verbal element from which words are derived: it is the nucleus to which other word fragments are added to form a whole word. Consider the English verb 'to stand'. Prefixes may be added to this to form further verbs, such as 'misunderstand', or suffixes may be added to form nouns and adjectives, such as 'standard'; indeed, a host of words may be derived from 'stand', such as constant, constitution, stagnant, instant, static, estate, extant, ecstatic, etc. But a dhatu or root is even more fundamental than a verb. The dhatu itself is not found in general speech or writing, and may be likened to the universal idea of a verbal activity, which diverges into many specific meanings, each of which is an aspect of that common universal idea. To appreciate how 'stand' changes to 'state' for example, it would be necessary to study its etymological derivation from the Latin, and ultimately from its Proto-Indo- European (pie) root STA, meaning 'to stand, stand fast'. From this pie root STA are derived other simple English verbs, such as stay, stow, stack, stem, stammer. The situation is a lot simpler in Sanskrit, for these fundamental roots are included in the language itself, and its grammar fully describes the development of words from the dhatu to its fully inflected form as found in sentences. The pie root STA is allied to the Sanskrit dhatu stha, which has the sense of 'cessation or absence of movement', and thus the simple verb derived from the dhatu stha may be translated as 'to stand'. Monier- Williams' dictionary gives several dozen English words that may be used in translating the verb: to stand, stay, remain, continue, be intent upon, make a practice of, keep on, persevere, endure, last, adhere to, stand still, stay quiet, remain stationary, stop, halt, wait, tarry, linger, hesitate, rely on, confide in, desist, be left alone, etc. — all these express some sense of 'cessation or absence of movement', which is the sense of the meaning of the dhatu stha given in the Dhatu-Patha (lit. 'recitation of roots'), which is a list of roots (about 2000 of them) giving grammatical information about their inflection, together with a concise sense of their universal meaning. 1.B.2 Introduction to Verbs A dhatu (indicated with a surd or root symbol '1/' before it) develops to form a stem (anga), and to the stem is added a personal ending (tiii-vibhakti) to form a complete verb (kriya). For example: dhatu (root) i/ s tha sense of 'cessation or absence of movement' anga (stem) tistha to stand kriya (verb) tisthati he/she/it stands As in English, there are three persons (purusa): the first person (prathama- purusa), middle person (madhyama-purusa), last person (uttama-purusa). The word uttama derives from ud- (up) and -tama (superlative suffix) to mean best, uppermost, or highest, so that uttama-purusa can also mean Supreme Spirit; however, in a series of place or time or order, as we have here, it means 'last'. In Sanskrit the personal ending of the verb changes according to purusa, to give the singular (eka-vacana) forms: prathama-purusa tisthati he/she/it stands madhyama-purusa tisthasi you stand uttama-purusa tisthami I stand Note that the order is the reverse of that used in English. In forming the stem (anga), the dhatu does not necessarily undergo as great a change as with ^/stha, for example i/vad remains clearly recognizable in the form vadati 'he/she/it speaks'. Some words, such as adverbs and conjunctions, do not have endings; these are called indeclinables (avyaya). An example of this is ca ('and') which is placed after the last word of the series it links (or after each word in the series). With this limited vocabulary, simple sentences may be constructed: vadami I speak OR I am speaking. tisthati vadami ca He stands and I speak. tisthasi vadasi ca You stand and you speak, OR You stand and speak. 1.B.3 Exercises A wealth of information is presented in these notes, but it is not at all necessary to learn all this or the Sanskrit technical terms: indeed, it is preferable NOT to learn them. The practical way to become familiar with the basics of Sanskrit is through practice: all the theory that is provided is simply so that the practice may be intelligent, and lead to understanding. With this aim in mind, at the end of each lesson a few simple exercises are presented. (a) Practise sounding the sixteen matrka in their correct order, and writing them in Roman script. (b) Practise writing and recognizing the first six vowels in devanagarT. (c) Look up the verb 'stand' in a good English dictionary and observe its wide range of meanings. (d) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. tisthasi vadami ca 4. tisthami vadati ca 2. tisthati vadasi ca 5. vadasi tisthami ca 3. vadami tisthasi ca 6. tisthami vadami ca (e) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. He stands and I speak 4. You speak and he stands 2. You stand and he speaks 5. I stand and he speaks 3. You speak and I stand 6. I speak and you stand 1.B.4 Flash Cards The next sheet has the flash cards for the first six vowels. Cut these out and start using them. Flash cards for the rest of the alphabet will be provided at appropriate places in the course. It would be useful to keep the flash cards in a box (for example a cigarette box): there will be a total of forty-nine cards for the alphabet, and a further ten for the numerals. Ill case you do not have access to a double-sided printer, please glue this sheet to the next before cutting, making use of the registration marks bottom and top of each page. u& h9 Mitf e tf tf p p e Lesson 2. A The mouth positions (sthana) used by the vowels (svara) are also used by the consonants (vyanjana). Within these five mouth positions the consonants are further classified according to inner (abhyantara-) and outer (bahya-) methods of articulation or effort (prayatna). Like the vowels, there are more consonants in Sanskrit than in English, and thus diacritical marks are used with the Roman consonants to represent further sounds. 2.A.1 The Five Mouth Positions The five mouth positions are considered from within the oral cavity itself. The back of the mouth as it narrows to form the throat, is called the guttural position (kanthya): this is associated with the vowel a. Moving towards the front of the mouth, next is the palatal position (talavya) used by the vowel i; this is followed by the cerebral position (murdhanya) used by r, and the teeth (dantya) used by 1, and finally the two lips (osthya) used by u. The compound vowels make use of two mouth positions: e and ai use both guttural and palatal (kanthatalavya), and o and au use guttural and labial (kanthosthya). kanthya talavya murdhanya dantya osthya guttural palatal cerebral dental labial a i r 1 u 2. A. 2 The Twenty-Five Stops: ka to ma The first twenty-five consonants are calls stops (sparsa) because the complete contact (sprsta) in the mouth fully stops the breath (and hence the sound) through the mouth. These are arranged in five sets (varga) according to mouth position and named after the first letter in the group, for example the five in the guttural column (ka- varga) are stops at the back of the mouth, and the labials (pa- varga) are stops at the lips. The a is added for the sake of pronunciation only: being stops, they need a sound (i.e. a vowel) to stop (or start). The same principle is used in English, for example the consonants 'b-c-d' are pronounced 'bee-cee-dee'. In fact, the word 'consonant' itself is derived from the the Latin cum (together with) and sondre (to sound). kanthya talavya murdhanya dantya osthya guttural palatal cerebral dental labial ka ca ta ta pa kha cha tha tha pha ga ja da da ba gha jha dha dha bha na iia na na ma The table is also arranged horizontally by rows: the first, for example, comprises ka, ca, ta, ta, and pa. The first, third and fifth rows are pronounced with little breath (alpaprana), and the second and fourth rows with much breath (mahaprana). The last three rows are voiced (ghosa), i.e. the vocal cords vibrate in producing the consonant, whereas the first two rows are unvoiced (aghosa). The consonants in the fifth row are nasalized (anunasika), the others not. In terms of alphabetical order, these follow after the sixteen matrka in order from ka-varga through pa-varga, i.e.: . . . am ah ka kha ga gha na ca cha ... pa pha ba bha ma . . . 2. A. 3 Pronunciation of the Stops While the previous section (2. A. 2) describes the sounds authoritatively, the following notes may assist with first-time pronunciation. The unvoiced (aghosa) stops have an explosive quality to them, whereas the voiced (ghosa) stops have a gentler quality to them as though releasing the stop more slowly: this can be observed by listening to the difference between ka and ga when 'sounded' without the following a. The nasal (anunasika) consonants continue to sound through the nose when the breath through the mouth has been stopped by the tongue or lips. The aspiration (prana) gives the native English speaker the most problems. In English there is a tendency to pronounce some consonants slightly aspirated before a long vowel, and this may be used to illustrate the difference between for example, pa and pha: attend to the 'p' breath when pronouncing the two English words 'pick' and 'peek' — hold the finger tips close to the mouth to feel the difference. This difference needs to be greatly increased to distinguish between the alpaprana and mahaprana consonants, but the common error is to use so much breath that a vestigial vowel is inserted, particularly for the ghosa consonants; for example, bha can be incorrectly pronounced as 'b a ha'. Because English pronunciation is acquired by imitating indistinct sounds which are not precisely described, problems occur with the centre three mouth positions. One effect is that 'd' and 't' are pronounced somewhere between the dental (dantya) and cerebral (murdhanya) positions; another effect is that many speakers do not use the palatal (talavya) position for the stops, so that ca is pronounced as 'tsha', and ja as 'dza'. It may help to consider the palatal stops as a modification or softening of the gutturals so that ca is a softer ka, ja a softer ga, and so on. Some English consonants are similar to those in Sanskrit, and may be used to give a very rough guide to the Sanskrit pronunciation, however, as mentioned earlier, English does not distinguish between dental (dantya) and cerebral (murdhanya). k — kiss, kiln, back kh — bunkhouse ('bung-khouse' g — good, give, bug gh — loghouse ('log-ghouse') n — sing, long, tongue t/t — tub, tap, cart th/th — anthill ('an-thill') d/d — day, dog, god dh/dh — redhead ('red-dhead') n/n — gentle, hand, gain c — cello, chair, church ch — coach-horse ('coa-chhorse' j — just, jolly, joy jh — hedgehog ('hej-jhog') n — enjoy, canyon, pinch p — pick, pat, tap ph — uphill ('up-phill') b — be, cab, imbibe bh — clubhouse ('club-bhouse') m — amble, mumble When in doubt, the previous section has the authoritative description. There is a tradition that pronounces pha as 'fa', i.e. makes use of both the teeth and lips (dantosthya): the rules of sound and grammar will be easier to understand if pronounced purely with the lips (osthya). 2. A. 4 Devanagari Alphabet The previous lesson gave the first six devanagari characters, here are all sixteen letters of the matrka to practise. The Roman transliteration of the four rows is: a a 1 i u u r r 1 I e ai o au am ah af m ^^ 3Tt3ft3T3f Lesson 2.B 2.B.1 More on Verbs As well as the division into purusa (person), the verbs are divided into number (vacana): in English there is singular and plural, while in Sanskrit there is singular (eka-vacana), dual (dvi- vacana) , and plural (bahu- vacana). The personal endings are used to indicate both person and number, for example: eka-vacana dvi-vacana bahu-vacana prathama- tisthati tisthatah tisthanti purusa he/she/it stands they (two) stand they (pi.) stand madhyama- tisthasi tisthathah tisthatha purusa you (sing.) stand you (two) stand you (pi.) stand uttama- tisthami tisthavah tisthamah purusa I stand we (two) stand we (pi.) stand Note that when the subject is dual, the dual form of the verb must be used. A dhatu belongs to one of ten classes (gana); this classification is according to variations in the formation of the stem (ariga) from the dhatu. The verbs used to form simple sentences in this section are all from the first class (bhvadi-gana). As in English, a verb may express time (past, present, future tense) and mood (indicative, imperative, benedictive, conditional, etc.): English makes extensive use of auxiliaries (might, ought, should, had, etc.) to express these, whereas in Sanskrit these are all included in the form of the verb itself. There are ten tense/mood classifications in Sanskrit: these are called lakara or 1-affixes because their technical names all begin with the letter 1. The conjugations given here are all in the present indicative (simple present tense) called lat. 2.B.2 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the sixteen matrka in their correct order. (b) Practise reading and writing the sixteen matrka in Roman script and devanagarT. (c) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. tisthanti vadatah ca 2. tisthathah vadavah ca 3. vadamah tisthatah ca 4. tisthasi vadathah ca 5. tisthatha vadathah ca 6. vadatah tisthamah ca 7. tisthati vadanti ca 8. tisthasi vadavah ca (d) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. We (two) stand and you (pi.) speak 2. You (two) speak and they (pi.) stand 3. You (two) stand and speak 4. They (pi.) stand and I speak 5. He stands and you (pi.) speak 6. They (two) speak and he stands 7. We (pi.) stand and you (two) speak 8. You (pi.) speak and you (sing.) stand tr ♦ ♦

  • fc

far e p CD p p o i-S P i-S ® Lesson 3. A The sound or letter ka is called kakara ('ka-action'); the sound or letter ga is called gakara, and so on. This applies to all the sounds/letters, including the vowels (e.g. akara), except for ra which is traditionally called repha ('snarl' or 'burr') or simply ra, but not rakara. The anusvara and visarga (or visarjanlya), which only arise through the rules of sandhi (euphonic combination) and are thus not strictly part of the alphabet, are always referred to by their own name and have no -kara name. We shall now consider the final eight consonants (vyanjana). 3.A.1 The Four Semi- Vowels: ya ra la va A semivowel (antahstha) arises when one of the basic vowels moves to the a sound: i moving to a gives rise to the sound ya, similarly, r moving to a produces ra, 1 to a produces la, and u to a produces va. As a moving to a will not produce a new sound, there are only four semivowels. These are considered to be between vowels and consonants, and so are called antahstha ('stand between'), and are naturally voiced (ghosa). They are formed by slight contact (Tsatsprsta), and thus allow a restricted flow of air through the mouth. kanthya guttural talava palatal murdhanya cerebral dantya dental osthya labial — ya ra la va The first three of these, ya ra and la, are similar to the English sounds in 'yum', 'rum', and 'luck', but do pay attention to the mouth position. The derivation of the last semivowel (antahstha), although transliterated as va, produces a sound akin to the English 'wa': this latter pronunciation accords with the grammatical tradition and makes the rules of sandhi (euphonic combination) easier to grasp. Other traditions pronounce this as the English 'va', in which case its mouth position, making use of both teeth and lips is called dantostya. In the alphabetical order, these follow after the twenty-five stops, i.e. : ... pa pha ba bha ma ya ra la va 3. A. 2 The Three Sibilants: sa sa sa A sibilant (hissing sound) is called usman ('heated'). They are considered to be Tsadvivrta (slightly open) or ardhasprsta (half-contact), which allows a restricted (hissing) flow of breath through the mouth. The sibilants are aspirated (mahaprana) and unvoiced (aghosa). kanthya guttural talavya palatal murdhanya cerebral dantya dental osthya labial — sa sa sa — The sa sounds like the sibilant in the English words 'seek' and 'kiss', sa like the 'sh' in 'ship' or 'wish', and sa like the sibilant in the German 'ich'. These sound analogies are given as a very rough guide: the description given above, and the mouth position in particular, are to be taken as authoritative. In theory, there are two more sibilants, called the jihvamullya and upadhmanlya, which are described as a 'half-visarga' before ka/kha and pa/pha respectively. These are so very rare that for all practical purposes they can be ignored. In the alphabetical order these follow the semivowels, i.e. : . . . ya ra la va sa sa sa 3. A. 3 The Final Consonant: ha This aspirate (sometimes considered a sibilant) is also called usman ('heated'), with similar qualities. It is generally pronounced as unvoiced (aghosa), however, according to the grammatical tradition it is voiced (ghosa). In the alphabetical order this follows the sibilants and is the last letter of the alphabet: . . . sa sa sa ha. 3. A. 4 Summary of the Consonants The definitive qualities of the consonants are given in tabular form: kanthya talavya murdhanya dantya osthya guttural palatal cerebral dental labial Qualities ka ca ta ta pa unvoiced unaspirated full contact kha cha tha tha pha unvoiced aspirated full contact ga ja da da ba voiced unaspirated full contact gha jha dha dha bha voiced aspirated full contact na iia na na ma voiced unaspirated full contact nasal ya ra la va voiced unaspirated slight contact sa sa sa unvoiced aspirated slightly open ha voiced aspirated slightly open 3.A.5 The Alphabetical Order Having now considered the whole alphabet in sound and Roman transliteration, it would be useful to start becoming familiar with the alphabetical order. The order is best memorized in groups as shown below: aailuurflleaioau am ah ka kha ga gha na ca cha ja jha iia ta tha da dha na ta tha da dha na pa pha ba bha ma ya ra la va sa sa sa ha 3. A. 6 Devanagari Alphabet Here are the first ten consonants in devanagari script. Each symbol includes the sound a; for example, the first symbol is ka and not just k. Note the similarity between the forms of i and jha. The transliteration of the two rows of devanagari characters is: ka kha ga gha na ca cha ja jha na tfJ^'T ?g ^TST* The loop on the kha and ga is written as follows: J. write the down-stroke with the curl at the end, N then change direction to start the loop, L complete the loop, and for kha, continue the stroke, _ this portion of the symbol is written without lifting the pen! Lesson 3.B 3.B.1 More on Verbs The personal endings of verbs given thus far are called parasmai-pada ('an expression for another') because the fruit, or result of the action, is transmitted to another. These are the normal endings for an active transitive verb. The atmane- pada ('an expression for oneself) personal endings used in the active form of the verb (called the middle voice) imply an action whose fruit reverts to oneself: this does not mean reflexive. By way of illustration, the sentence "I married her" would be expressed in atmane-pada or parasmai-pada when spoken by the husband or priest respectively. Some verbs are conjugated in one pada only, some in both, and some partly in one and partly in another. The division is not at all definite, and has come to be a matter of conventional usage; nevertheless many verbs do retain the formal distinction between parasmai-pada (active voice) and atmane-pada (middle voice). parasmai-pada atmane-pada eka- dvi- bahu- eka- dvi- bahu- vacana vacana vacana vacana vacana vacana prathama- ,. , ■■ ,. , , , purusa nayati nayatah nayanti nayate nayete nayante "^purusa 11 ^ navas i nayathah nayatha nayase nayethe nayadhve uttama- _._, _, _, _, purusa nayami nayavah nayamah naye nayavane nayamane These are the only two forms of personal endings to verbs that will be used in this course. When verbs are presented for use in the exercises, they will be presented in the form: 1/nT nayate he leads. where the dhatu is followed by the eka- vacana prathama-purusa form, and the English translation of that form. Many of the verbs in this course may be conjugated in either pada, but within the limits of the simple sentences in the exercises, please use the pada given: in the case of dhatu nT for example, use the atmane-pada endings. 3.B.2 Introduction to Nouns A noun, like the verb, has its ultimate origin in a dhatu (root); affixes to the dhatu form the noun-stem (pratipadika) which will have a particular grammatical gender (linga): masculine (pum- linga), feminine (strl- linga), and neuter (napumsaka- linga). To the pratipadika form are added case-endings (sup-vibhakti) which indicate the relationship of the noun to the verb. There are seven such grammatical relationships; and, like the verb, each of these has a singular (eka-vacana), dual (dvi- vacana) , and plural (bahu-vacana) form. The first (prathama) of these is the nominative or naming case, and usually names the subject of a simple sentence or the agent (initiator or instigator of the action) of the verb; the second (dvitlya) case ending generally indicates the immediate destination of the action expressed by the verb, i.e. the direct object of the sentence. The word nara (the pratipadika form, as listed in Monier- Williams' dictionary) means 'man', and with its sup-vibhakti endings appears as: eka-vacana dvi-vacana bahu-vacana prathama narah narau narah dvitlya naram narau naran Other nouns that take this form of declension are asva 'horse', and vrksa 'tree'. Where 'tisthanti' is translated as 'they (pi.) stand', the pronoun 'they' is implied in the verb and it is not necessary to add an explicit Sanskrit pronoun. When the subject of the sentence is explicitly stated, for example 'the men (pi.) stand', then the implied pronoun falls away, and this is translated as 'narah tisthanti'. For verbs having a sense of motion (such as go, walk, run), the destination is expressed in dvitlya. There are some verbs (such as nl) which have both a direct object and a destination, in which case both are expressed in dvitlya. narah asvam vrksam nayate the man leads the horse to the tree. Since the noun endings define the relationship to the verb, the word order is not important (as contrasted with English where it is), and allows the poet for example, to juggle the word order to fit the rules of scansion. Normally however, the verb is found at the end of the sentence, and the subject precedes the object and destination, as in the above example. 3.B.3 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3. A. 5. (b) Practise pronouncing the first ten consonants (vyanjana), as well as reading and writing them in Roman script and devanagarT. (c) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. asvah naram nayate 2. narah asvau ca tisthanti 3. asvau naram vrksan nayete 4. asvah tisthati ca narah vadati ca 5. narah asvah ca nayete 6. narau vrksan nayamahe (d) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. The man leads the horse, 2. The (two) horses lead the man, 3. The men (pi.) are speaking and leading, 4. The horse leads the man to the tree, 5. The tree and the horse are standing, 6. The men (pi.) lead the horses (pi.). This page is intentionally blank: there aren't many of them, so enjoy the rest while you can! w IS e Si S3 QfQ S3 3 e Lesson 4. A 4.A.1 Devanagarl Alphabet Here are the next ten consonants in devanagarl script. Each symbol includes the sound a; for example, the first symbol is ta and not just t. Note the differences between da na and i; gha and dha; and dha and da. The transliteration of the two rows of devanagarl characters is: ta tha da dha na ta tha da dha na (Taggor cT *T '7 g ? Note the form of the letters in relation to the | and | ruled lines. There may be a tendency to limit letters such as W and rT to the halfway point: this is a carry over from the Roman alphabet where it is appropriate, for example with 'P' and 'h'. As we shall see later, in devanagarl the top horizontal bar is extended to join the letters in a word, and this gives a bias of 'blackness' at the top of the letters: this is visually compensated for by using the | and | lines to 'open' the form of the letter. Lesson 4.B 4.B.1 Summary of Verbs The tin- vibhakti (personal endings of verbs) are grouped into three's, which means that one vibhakti consists of the three vacana forms. Thus three vibhakti cover one entire pada. It would be useful to practise sounding the full conjugation of dhatu nT, with a pause between each vibhakti and a longer pause between each pada. Thus the pattern is: nayati-nayatah-nayanti (pause) nayasi-nayathah-nayatha (pause) nayami- nayavah- nay amah (longer pause) nayate-nayete- nay ante (pause) nayase- nayethe-nayadhve (pause) naye-nayavahe-nayamahe. As with practising the alphabet, it is far more effective to sound this once, ten times a day, than ten times once a day. For your convenience a reference sheet with the full conjugation of dhatu nT is given below: this also has a list of all the verbs that will be used in the simple sentence exercises. parasmai-pada atmane-pada eka- dvi- bahu- vacana vacana vacana nay at i nay at ah nay ant i prathama- purusa m p Ur u S a ™ a " nayasi nayathah nayatha uttama- purusa eka- dvi- bahu- vacana vacana vacana nay ate nayete nay ante nayase nayethe nayadhve nayami nayavah nayamah naye nayavahe nayamahe i/gam gacchati he goes. 1/nT nayate he leads. yiabh labhate he takes. i/vad vadati he speaks. i/vah vahati he carries. ystha tisthati he stands. 4.B.2 More on Nouns Cases The third (trtlya) case ending indicates the 'instrument' in relation to the verb: it is that 'by means of which' the action is accomplished. For example, 'he goes home by car', 'he cuts the wood with an axe': note that here 'with' has the sense of 'by means of, but in English it may also be used in the sense of accompaniment, for example, 'he goes home with an axe', but this does not convey the sense of instrumentality. The fourth (caturthl) case ending indicates the indirect object, the recipient or beneficiary or purpose of the action. For example, 'he gives the food to the dog', 'he makes a kennel for the dog', 'he works for money'. The fifth (pancaml) case ending indicates the place from which the action begins. For example, 'he walks from the river', 'he falls from the tree'. It may also express cause or motive: 'out of anger he strikes the boy'. eka-vacana dvi-vacana bahu-vacana prathama narah dvitlya naram trtlya narena caturthl naraya pahcamT narat narau narau narah naran narabhyam naraih narabhyam narebhyah narabhyam narebhyah

  • the generic ending is -ena, but this changes to -ena due to internal sandhi. This

will be given more fully in a later lesson (11. A. 3), but for the time being accept that this change occurs after 'r' or 's' in the same word, thus asvena but vrksena. 4.B.3 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3. A. 5. (b) Practise sounding the full conjugation of dhatu nT as given in 4.B.I. (c) Practise reading and writing the next ten consonants (vyanjana), in Roman script and devanagarT. (d) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. asvah naram vrksam vahati 2. narah vrksam asvena gacchati 3. vrksan asvat labhadhve 4. asvah vrksam naraya vahati 5. narah asvah ca vrksat gacchatah 6. asvam vrksat naraya nayate (e) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. He goes by horse, 2. You (two) are leading the horse for the man, 3. They (pi.) carry the trees (pi.) with horses, 4. We (pi.) go from the tree to the horses, 5. We (two) take the tree from the man by horse, 6. The horses (pi.) carry the man from the trees (pi.). hr te ftf> tvr to fu to e 3 P •s p dha •a p p •a p tha p p p e Lesson 5. A 5.A.1 Devanagari Alphabet Here is the rest of the alphabet in devanagari script. Each symbol includes the sound a; for example, the first symbol is pa and not just p. Note the differences between ba and va; ya and tha; pa and sa; la and 1; bha ma and sa; and kha with ra and va. The transliteration of the three rows of devanagari characters is: pa pha ba bha ma ya ra la va sa sa sa ha CTCKJH-JT 5T ?ff Lesson 5.B 5.B.1 More on Nouns Cases Unlike the other case endings, the sixth (sasthl) indicates a relationship to a word other than the verb, i.e. to another noun in the sentence. This is usually rendered in English by the preposition 'of or with an apostrophe, for example, 'he talks to the son of John', 'he drives John's car'. In both these examples John has no relation to the action of the verb: indeed John may be absent, even deceased. This case ending generally indicates a relationship of source or possession, for example, 'John's book' may refer to the book that John purchased, or to the book that he wrote. The word in sasthl is usually placed immediately before the word to which it is related. The seventh (saptaml) case ending indicates the place or time where or when the action takes place, and may be rendered in English by the prepositions 'in', 'on', 'at', 'among', etc., for example, 'he stands on the table', 'it is hot in summer'. A word with saptaml case ending is often the first in the sentence, setting the scene as it were. Strictly speaking, Sanskrit has just seven case endings, however many publications give an eighth, sambodhana, which is used for addressing or calling, for example, 'Oh Lord, hear my prayers', 'John, where are you?'. In fact this is simply a special use of the prathama (first) case ending. The strictly correct way of tabling the declension of nara is: eka-vacana dvi-vacana bahu-vacana prathama narah sambodhana prathama he nara dvitlya naram trtlya narena caturthT naraya pahcamT narat sasthl narasya saptaml nare narau narah he narau he narah narau naran narabhyam naraih narabhyam narebhyah narabhyam narebhyah narayoh naranam narayoh naresu The vocative particle 'he' is traditionally sounded in the paradigm; it is optional in a sentence and may be translated as 'Oh'. Publications that list sambodhana as an eighth case ending, place that row at the bottom of the table, labelling it simply 'sambodhana' and omit the vocative particle he. The sandhi change of n to n that occurs in eka-vacana trtlya, also occurs in bahu-vacana sasthT, thus asvanam but vrksanam. The vibhakti of the nouns are, like the verbs, grouped into three's, so that the prathama vibhakti refers to the forms of all three vacana. In practising sounding the full declension of the noun, use the 'correct' table given above, i.e.: narah - narau - narah (pause) he nara - he narau - he narah (pause) naram - narau - naran (pause) etc. 5.B.2 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3. A. 5. (b) Practise sounding the full declension of nara as given in 5.B.I. (c) Practise reading and writing the last thirteen consonants (vyahjana), in Roman script and devanagarl. (d) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. nara asve tisthasi 2. naranam asvah tisthanti 3. narah vrksam asvat labhate 4. vrksesu narasya asvah tisthanti 5. asvau vrksan naraya vahatah 6. naram vrksat asvaih labhate 7. asvah naram vrksat gacchati 8. asve tisthati ca vadati ca Continued overleaf . . . (e) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. He is standing on (two) horses, 2. The man and horse stand among the trees (pi.), 3. The trees (pi.) of the (two) men are standing, 4. The man's horse carries the man from the trees(pL), 5. The (two) horses carry the man to the tree, 6. Oh horse, you are carrying the tree for the man, 7. He takes the man's horses (pi.) from the tree, 8. You (two) are carrying the man from the tree to the horse. ter tr to- w fcr e PJ $ P3 P3 P3 P? cr pj cr pj cr pj P5 e h& fer e CO CO e Lesson 6. A The symbols for the consonants inherently include a following a vowel, for example ^ (ba) is the symbol for the the consonant b together with a following short (hrasva) a. Thus the word bala (strength) is written ^IcV Note that the characters are written left to right, like the Roman, and that the horizontal line links the letters together. 6.A.1 Vowels after Consonants The short vowel a (3T) is never written unless it begins a word; for example abala (weakness) is written 3HCV (The 'a-' prefix to a noun usually means negation, rather like the English 'un-'.) All the vowel forms given earlier, occur only at the beginning of a word. Where the vowel following the consonant is other than a, this is indicated by an embellishment on the consonant itself. The written form thus resembles the oral form, maintaining the principle that a consonant can only be sounded together with a vowel. The forms indicating the various following vowels are: ^ ba Wt ba 1% bi ^t bT bu bu f br I br 1 bl

bl % be % bai

bo fr bau These vowel signs are used with all consonants (ka through ha), but note these exceptions:

ru r ru fe hr Where the embellishment is above the letter itself (with or without the addition of 

a following vertical bar), namely for i T e o ai au, these should link to the character where it joins the top horizontal bar, and where the character meets the bar more than once, to the rightmost junction. For example: f^ ki ^ ne These syllables are connected together to form words: they are literally connected by the horizontal bar. For example: devanagarT ^^H I g ll matrka <Hld«M vadami veda gita guru 6. A. 2 History of Vowel Embellishment It bothers some students that, in a script read from left to right, there should be the seeming anomaly that ki (Th>) for example, is written back to front as it were, with the i-sign before the consonant. Originally the embellishment for i after a consonant had no down stroke at all, so that ki ke kai were written as: ki ^ ke %> kai % However, as personality tends to intrude into handwriting, it could prove difficult to distinguish between ki and ke, especially if the 'flag' was written somewhere between the two positions. To solve this problem, the downstroke was added for ki. Whether this is true or not, is debatable, but it does make a nice story ! Lesson 6.B 6.B.1 Sentence Structure: English and Sanskrit In English speech or writing, the order of words shows their connection or relation- ship to the whole sentence. For example, in the simple sentence, desire limits the mind, the information as to which is the limiter and which the limited, is given by the position of the words in relation to the verb. This is an important point: in a sentence, a word's physical position (in time or space), reflects its subtle position (the relationship or part that it plays). Now, a word may be placed before or after the verb — but these are the only two possibilities, before or after, and thus can indicate only two relationships, namely subject and object. The subject comes before an active verb, and the object after it. (The order is reversed for a passive verb, e.g. the mind is limited by desire.) In order to show the relationship in a more complete sentence, such as, desire limits the mind by attachment, we make use of a phrase containing a preposition (in our example 'by') to indicate the relationship of the word 'attachment' to the activity of limiting. But notice the operation of the preposition — 'pre-position' — it is an element which is placed before ('pre-') to give 'position' to the word, that is, to indicate its relationship to the activity. Using prepositional phrases we can thus enlarge our sentence, as for example, in the waking state desire limits the mind from the universal to the particular by attachment. Now we can split up this sentence into its core subject-verb-object, and a number of related phrases: I in the waking state I desire limits the mind I from the universal I to the particular I by attachment I . We may now shuffle these components around in any order and still retain the meaning: in doing so, we may well lose some clarity, or we may even sound poetic, for example: I from the universal I to the particular I desire limits the mind I in the waking state I by attachment I. The problem with these prepositional phrases is that it is not at all clear whether they are related to the activity of the whole sentence (i.e. to the verb), or are merely qualifying one of the nouns. For example, the intention was to indicate that the mind suffers limitation/restriction/reduction from its natural open state of universality to the confined state when identified with the particular, however, other interpretations are possible: the phrases I from the universal I to the particular I in the first of the two split up sentences may be construed as qualifying the word 'mind' and thus be understood as a range of separate minds 'from gods to dogs'; in the second of these split up sentences these phrases could be viewed as qualifying the word 'desire' and mean a range of desires 'from the general to the personal'. The phrases can thus be re-arranged to produce all sorts of misunderstandings, so let us be clear that the intended meaning of the other two phrases is that 'attachment' is the instrument/means/method by which the mind is limited, and that the 'waking state' is the circumstance where/when the limitation takes place. In an inflected language (one that uses case endings) the relationship to the verb is shown by a suffix appended to the word; our sentence would thus become something like: waking state IW desire SUBJECT limits VERB mind 0BJECT universal FR0M particular T0 attachment BY There are two points to note here: firstly, the subject and object also have endings to show their relationship; and secondly, the word endings indicate the relationship to the verb by definition. All the words in the sentence are quite independent of their position (order or arrangement) which is one limitation in a non-inflected language like English; but more importantly, the relationship to the verb is precisely defined, and thus minimizes the possibility of misunderstanding. In Sanskrit there are seven case endings: the sixth indicates a relation to another noun in the sentence, and the other case endings indicate the relationship to the verb. It matters not whether we give these case endings names or numbers, provided that the relationship is clearly defined. Using the Sanskrit numerical system, our sentence becomes: I waking state 7 I desire 1 limits VERB mind 2 I universal 5 I particular 4 I attachment 3 I. In fact Sanskrit uses both names and numbers for these relationships: it names the relationships (subtle) when defining them, and numbers the actual phonic suffix endings (physical), and then associates the two according to circumstance; for example, when a verb changes from active to passive: desire t limits ACTIVE mind 2 (desire limits the mind) mind! limits PASSIVE desire 3 (the mind is limited by desire). The affix to the verb indicates tense, mood, person, and number, as well as voice. In English, the words marked with T in these two sentences are both called the subject of the sentence; this accords with the Sanskrit prathama-vibhakti (first case ending). However, in Sanskrit the agent (kartr) is the initiator, having the power to bring about the action: with an active verb the kartr is expressed in prathama, but with a passive verb kartr is expressed by trtlya; similarly the karman (that most directly aimed at by the kartr) is expressed in dvitlya and prathama respectively. Thus kartr and karman name the relationship, whereas prathama (and English 'subject') etc. merely indicate that relationship. Like the vibhakti adorning a word, so the clothing of a stage actor indicates his role: the crown is not the king, but is worn by the actor playing the role of king. English is also sensitive to pauses between phrases, and these too can change the relationship and the whole meaning of the sentence. For example: Scripture says desire limits the mind, Scripture, says desire, limits the mind. The basic punctuation marks in English are the comma, semicolon, colon, and full stop, which indicate pauses of increasing length. A fully inflected language like Sanskrit, being inherently clearer, has no need of these embellishments; Sanskrit uses only two punctuation marks, the virama (I) and purnavirama (II) to indicate respectively the halfway point and end of a stanza of verse. In prose they are used to indicate the end of a sentence and the end of a paragraph respectively. 6.B.2 Noun Gender The nouns considered thus far are all masculine (pum-linga); the paradigms below are for the neuter (napumsaka-linga) noun phala 'fruit', and the feminine (strT- linga) noun bala 'girl'. eka-vacana dvi-vacana bahu-vacana prathama phalam phale phalani sambodhana prathama he phala he phale he phalani dvitlya phalam phale phalani trtlya phalena phalabhyam phalaih caturthT phalaya phalabhyam phalebhyah pancaml phalat phalabhyam phalebhyah sasthT phalasya phalayoh phalanam saptamT phale phalayoh phalesu eka-vacana dvi-vacana bahu-vacana prathama bala bale balah sambodhana prathama he bale he bale he balah dvitlya balam bale balah trtlya balaya balabhyam balabhih caturthT balayai balabhyam balabhyah pahcamf balayah balabhyam balabhyah sasthT balayah balayoh balanam saptamT balayam balayoh balasu Note that, due to internal sandhi, the napumsaka-linga bahu-vacana forms of prathama and dvitTya will also change from -ani to -ani if preceded by 'r' or 's'. There is another sandhi rule applicable within a word, that applies here: the saptamT bahu-vacana ending -su changes to -su following any vowel except a or a — thus -su is the most common form, but in the declension of bala it remains as -su. This sandhi rule will be described more fully in a later lesson. (11. A. 3). 6.B.3 Summary of Case Information S-l $ O PI _o names the agent/subject of the verb, calling/addressing. a _o "+= CJ 03 =+H O PI _o "+= 03 a OJ -cs OJ OJ a a OJ 03 CJ T3 OJ CO 13, a o CJ CJ 03 PI _o "+= CJ 03 J3 ^a >> to 03 OJ a OJ Pi _o +s CJ 03 =+H O OJ to o a t-i pi >^ S-l "o OJ P! OJ P! OJ !& "o OJ (-1 place from which action begins; also cause/motive. relation of source/possession/etc. relation is NOT to verb. OJ CJ "a to OJ 03 P! _o "+= 03 P! OJ ^3 j^ OJ OJ ^3 OJ a OJ Answers question 03 o 03 a o 03 O >> PQ 03 o s-i +3 03 O a o 0- OJ to o ^3 a o o C-- OJ (-1 OJ C-- P! OJ ^3 English grammar OJ •' — s PI OJ •' — s ~Q O OJ (-1 t3 OJ •' — s ~Q O OJ (-1 OJ _> +3 "3 OJ bo Latinate name nominative vocative OJ _> "+= 03 to CJ CJ 03 13 OJ a pi to 03 OJ _> "+= 03 OJ _> '3 OJ bo OJ _> "+= 03 Sanskrit case prathama sambodhana irt l-H • -H > ICfl l-H in u 'a U a es- co- rt 93- 93 T— 1 oi CO ^ LO CO t^ 6.B.4 Exercises (a) Practise reading and writing all the letters of the alphabet. (b) Practise sounding the full declension of bala and phala. (c) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. bala asvam vrksam phalaya nayate 2. asvah naram ca balam ca vrksam vahati 3. narasya asvah phalam balayah labhate 4. narau vrksanam phalani asvam labhete 5. balah naran phalani asvena nayante 6. bale vrksesu tisthatah vadatah ca 7. vrksau gacchami ca phalani labhe 8. narah phale vrksat balayai vahati 9. bale phalani narasya vrksat labhete 10. bala narah ca vrksam asvam vahatah (d) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. The man stands and the girl speaks. 2. You (two) lead the horse and I take the fruit. 3. The man and the girl go among the trees by horse. 4. We (two) take the man and the girl from the tree to the horse. 5. The man goes to the trees (pi.) by horse for fruit (pi.). 6. The girl takes the fruit (two) from the tree for the horses (pi.). 7. The horse carries the tree to the girl for the man. 8. The man leads the horse by means of fruit. 9. The horse carries the fruit (pi.) to the girls for the man. 10. The girls (two) stand on the horse and take the fruit (s.) from the tree. Lesson 7. A We have examined how to write a consonant that is followed by any vowel, now we consider how to write a consonant that is followed by no vowel at all. 7.A.1 Halanta Consonants The adjective halanta is derived from hal (a technical term referring to any consonant), and anta ('end'), so halanta means 'ending in a consonant'. Thus the letter pa for example, without its following a sound, namely p, is called 'halanta pa'. In the devanagarT script this is written as a short stroke ( ) called virama ('stop'), below and to the right of the consonant. For example: halanta pa T halanta ka ^> halanta ta € This is the form used when a word ends in a consonant, however the virama should (ideally) not be used within a word. Where a word uses a non-final halanta letter, for example the s in svara, it forms a consonant cluster, or conjunct consonant, and a different method is used. 7.A.2 Conjunct Consonants A conjunct consonant (samyoga, literally 'yoked together') comprises two or more consonants with nothing separating them; in particular there is no vowel between them. At a first glance through these samyoga, familiarity with them may seem like a daunting task, but fortunately you don't have to learn them. It is the general principles that are important: once you understand the principles, you can discard the notes. Simply read through the general principles and use the illustrative examples to understand the principle. Thereafter it is just a matter of applying the principles, and you will find that, in practice, it is a lot simpler than it looks. • The symbols may be written continuously in the usual order from left to right with the rightmost vertical stroke dropped from all but the last letter: cT + JT >~ C^T tma TJ T + ^r^ T ^T nya •T + cT + *T >- ^r 2 ? ntya • Or they may be written one above the other, in which case they are read from top to bottom:

  • T + -T" >- ^ mna

^ + ^ y W bva ^ + Zy? sta • This arrangement can be useful where the first letter has no vertical stroke on the right: ^ + T y ^ dga ^ + ^ y ? tta ^ + ^ >- M nka • Left to right and vertical arrangements may appear in the same compound: ^T + ^ + qV^T snya TT + S + ^IVET sthya ^ + ^ + ^r^PJ nkya • Most symbols retain their familiar shape in compounds, but some are modified: <* + <* >- ^ dda ? + ^T^^ ddha ^5 + £|V3q* kma • When symbols are modified, it is often only in combination with other particular symbols, for example: cT + cT y fT tta ^ + •?" >- ffj hna <? + *T y <*J dya <T + £|V<r*T tya ^ + *T y ^ hma • The symbol W> (ka) may be compressed to ^, or even further to ^*, for example: ^ + W> y f> kka W> + cT y W> kta • The symbol 5T is often written as or in combination, for example: 5T + 3V *? or -^ or 53" sva 5T + ^ >- IT or IT or 5^T sea • The same group of symbols can be found in different forms: 5? + ^T y If or ^ nca ^> + cT + 3V^f> or 3x3* ktva ^ + r7 y ^ or ^ pla ^T + ^T y IT or ^ cca r7 + r7 y 8 or rr7 lia While there may be different conventions and styles for making compounds, there are no obvious absolute rules. Ideas that familiar forms are right and others wrong should be avoided: both proportions and angles of the symbols may be varied. • The symbol ra changes form in compounds. It always appears in a vertical arrangement and is read in the sequence top to bottom. When ra comes at the beginning of a compound it takes the form of a hook above the line (the same as above the dlrgha T): it is attached above the rightmost vertical of a compound. For example: ^ + T? y A rpa ^ + ^T + 3T^^t rdhva • This form is also used when ra is the only consonant before the vowels r and 1, i.e.: ^ + 5ff^^C r ^ + C£xct rl • When ra is final in a compound, it is represented by a small diagonal stroke: T T + ^>-3T pra <* + ^ y $T dra cT + T >- ^ tra (note the truncation of the cT) • This form is retained when ra appears in the middle of a cluster of consonants: 'T + T + *T y W grya

  • T + ^ + *T y ^T mrya

7. A. 3 Special Conjunct Consonants ksa and jfia Normally the symbols for a samyoga are constructed from their component symbols and are quite obvious to see, and their construction reflects their pronunciation. However, there are two which are quite different from their component parts: ^^ST ksa ^jT + ^VsT jna Although these two samyoga may be separated into their component parts when, for example, the alphabetical order is required in looking up a word in the dictionary, the symbols being so different from their components, reflect their sounds which are somewhat different from their components. A practical method of approaching the pronunciation of these two sounds is offered next. 7.A.4 Pronunciation of ksa • The idea may be novel, but it is quite straightforward to pronounce halanta sa prolonged: try it. Now, sound halanta ka through the sound of halanta sa — i.e. the prolonged halanta sa begins with halanta ka; the important point is that the tip of the tongue is in the murdhanya position throughout. Before sounding the halanta ka the breath is fully cut off by the back of the tongue in the kanthya position as for the normal pronunciation of ka; the difference for ksa is that the tip of the tongue is raised to the murdhanya position before sounding the halanta ka. This means that halanta ksa may by sounded repeatedly without moving the tip of the tongue from the murdhanya position. (This sound is reminiscent of ten-year-olds playing cops and robbers!) Although the ksa is originally formed by halanta ka joining with a following sa (i.e. k + sa>-ksa), and may be thus separated when, for example, the alphabetical order is required in looking up a word in the dictionary, the pronunciation, as reflected in the changed symbol, is in practice ( ^ ) + s + a. 7.A.5 Pronunciation of jfia The pronunciation of this is similar to the French 'J' as in 'Jean- Jacques', or as in the 'z' sound in the English words 'mirage', 'rouge', 'measure', or 'vision'; but in all cases it is sounded through the talavya mouth position, and is strongly nasalized. As a practical method of approaching this sound, begin by sounding the English 'hiss' and holding the sibilant — this sibilant is much like the Sanskrit halanta sa. Now sound the English 'his', again holding the sibilant: note that the difference between these sibilants is that the vocal cords vibrate for 'his' and not for 'hiss'. Now with the tongue in the talavya position, sound a prolonged halanta sa. And then repeat the sound but allowing the vocal cords to vibrate — with some imagination, this is beginning to sound like a prolonged halanta ja, which is of course, impossible to sound. Now repeat this voiced sound allowing it to be strongly nasalized. This is about as close as one can get to describing the sound of halanta jha. There are two common errors in sounding jha. Firstly, the halanta jha tends to be followed by an additional nasal consonant before the vowel (i.e. jh + h + a); the halanta jha is a single sound. Secondly, the nasalization is often carried over into the vowel: to correct this, practise sounding ajha, attending to both a sounds, which should be the same. Although the jha is originally formed by halanta ja joining with a following ha (i.e. j + ha>-jha), and may be thus separated when, for example, the alphabetical order is required in looking up a word in the dictionary, the pronunciation, as reflected in the changed symbol, is in practice ( - ) + a. 7. A. 6 List of Conjunct Consonants The following is a standard list of conjunct consonants, arranged in alphabetical order: simply read through the list and you will find that most of the symbols are easily recognizable. ^ kka «H«I kkha «N kca cFTkna ^>kta ^Tktya ^f>ktra cN ktrya ^ ktva ff> kna ffclknya cM kma Wkya 5F>kra 5hJ krya ^ kla |* kva f*Tkvya $Tksa $^T ksma 5PT ksya ^f^T ksva ^Tkhya ^khra ^gya ^Tgra 5*Tgrya ^"ghna ^T ghnya c«H ghma "^T ghya TTghra ^ hka W hkta KJ nktya PJhkya 1? hksa ^ hksva J| hkha ^|J hkhya ^ hga ^fhgya If ngha WJ "g n y a g hghra W hha f? nna f[nma 5Thya IT cca ^€$ ccha ^£ cchra If cna "c*H cma ^T cya E5T chya |^[ chra ¥jja <J$ jjha $Tjna ^Tjnya j>H jma ^PTjya ^fjra sj^jva ff hca ^M iicma fJ^T iicya ^J iicha Ifnja ITTnjya ^ tta S^Ttya STthya £> thra ^dga IJdgya lj dgha § dghra ¥ ddha ?F dma 5Tdya (STdhya ^p dhra "°S"nta "°<5ntha ^nda U S>I ndya u £p ndra U §M. ndrya U (S ndha uu | nna U <H nma ^T nya Uc l nva rcf>tka C$F>tkra fTtta fTttya ^ttra fTttva C^Tttha ^"tna <jPH tnya rTtpa cTtpra C^Ttma r*"H tmya rTtya ^tra ^Ttrya rTtva C^Ttsa CM tsna r^l tsnya ^Tthya ^dga Jdgra ^dgha ^ dghra ^ dda ^Jddya 4j ddha ^J ddhya ^ dna ^ dba ^ dbha $L| dbhya <U dma <*Jdya $T dra ^Jdrya <$ dva ^Jdvya Jf dhna JOT dhnya ^T dhma Wdhya ^Tdhra ^T dhrya Wdhva

  • ?T nta

«"C^ ntya

  • ^ ntra

^* nda

  • ^T ndra
  • ^T ndha
  • y ndhra

^ nna »T npa

  • $ npra

"•"H nma ^T nya ^T nra

    • H nsa

^T pta FTptya ¥piia Wppa ^H pma "C^Tpya ^pra ^P la "^ pva "^Tpsa l -*W psva ^"bgha ^jTbja ^bda ^Tbdha P"bna IT bba ^Tbbha o^T bbhya o^Tbya ^"bra ITbva ^Tbhna ^T bhya ^ bhra ^* bhva ¥mna <*"H mpa "H4 mpra

  • ^l mba

«T mbha J-<H mma ^T mya ^ mra ^ mla

  • ^l mva

^yya ^"yva r^>lka C^Tlpa C*H lma r^Tlya 8 11a r^l lva C^ lha P" vna °^ vya $t vra g vva IT sea €jM scya ?T sna SRTsya ^f sra 9T srya ^ sla ^T sva ""oM svya 55T ssa ^ sta ETM stya }r stra jjTM. strya ^T stva ^ stha ^■M sna ^^T snya ^T spa "^T" spra ^H sma ^Tsya "^ sva ^>ska "Hej s kha "W sta ^ stya "^ stra 4^c| stva ^Tstha ^iTsna ^T snya ^H spa "^-hspha "HH sma "H"H smya ^Tsya ^Tsra "W sva "Hrl ssa ^ hna ^ hna ^f hma ^Jhya J% hra ^hla ^ hva The table does not cover all possible combinations of consonants, but, on the other hand, it does contain many that are quite rare and which you may never come across in print. So, having worked through the table, you may be confident that you will be able to decipher any samyoga that you may meet. Just as a matter of interest, the greatest number of conjunct consonants in a real word is five: the usual example quoted for this is ^Tc^T (kartsnya). Lesson 7.B 7.B.1 Verbal Prefixes The English verb 'to tend' derives from the pie root i/ten, to stretch: when a prefix is appended to it, its meaning alters. For example (with prefix meanings given): attend (at-, towards, to, at) contend (con-, with, together, wholly) distend (dis-, apart, away) extend (ex-, out of, very) intend (in-, towards, in) portend (por-, before, instead of) pretend (pre-, instead of, before) subtend (sub-, under) Assuming that the meaning of these verbs is already understood (more or less), then a grasp of their etymological derivation from the root and prefixes should contribute to enlarging that understanding. Again, given the meanings of these verbs, it can be appreciated that that the prefixes are instrumental in modifying the original root to give its particular meaning, but the converse is not necessarily so: given the meanings of the root and prefixes only, it may prove difficult to arrive at the meanings of the particular verbs. The situation is Sanskrit is similar: the meaning of a prefixed verb (as a compound) needs to be looked up in the dictionary, which will also give its component parts of prefix(es) and dhatu, which may then be separately looked up. Other words may be derived from that prefixed verb, and they carry the sense of this compound as though it were a separate dhatu; this is also the case in English, as for example, the derivation of attention, attentive, attendance, attendant, from the verb 'attend'. A prefix, when appended to a verb, is called an upasarga in Sanskrit grammar. The grammarians list just twenty-two of these; in alphabetical order they are: ati- beyond, over, across, past, surpassing, to excess adhi- over, above, upon, on, onto ami- after, along, like, towards, following apa- away, off, from, forth api- over, on, close, proximate abhi- to, towards, into, against, near, opposite ava- down, off, away, from a- towards, to, near, into, at, from, back, return, (reversing) ud- up, upwards, out, above upa- towards, near, to, next to, less, down, under dur- bad, difficult, hard dus- bad, difficult, hard ni- down, in, on, under, into nir- away, out, forth nis- away, out, forth para- back, backwards, away, forth, to a distance pari- around, about pra- before, forward, forth, onward, fore prati- against, towards, to, at near, back, again, return, (reversing) vi- apart, asunder, away, out, implying separation or dispersion sam- with, together, along with, conjoined with su- good, excellent, well The above list is included here for reference only, and should not be learned; however, a familiarity with the Sanskrit forms will be useful. An upasarga may simply emphasize the original sense of the dhatu, but usually modifies the sense; sometimes the changes is so great as to make the sense of the original dhatu quite unrecognizable, for example: dhatu hr to take away pra-hr to hit a-hr to eat sam-hr to destroy vi-hr to roam pari-hr to abandon 7.B.2 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3. A. 5. (b) By now the alphabet should be familiar: practise writing all the characters of the alphabet with particular attention to their proportions (see the note at the end of 4.A.1). (c) Write out a fair copy of the devanagarT sentences given in (e) below. (d) Look up the words 'attend' etc. given 7.B.1, in a good English dictionary, to see how their meanings link to the given etymology. (e) Write the following sentences in Roman transliteration: 1. «lltfW fW ^FFT 3PTO ^R: II 2. ^T: *m ^T fcterT: *RcT: ^11 3. 3F3": pTFT ^ ^TrTTWT: rTH^II 4. «llriWI: 3TO 4>rilA WT *^fcTll 5. ^RT: pTFT Wffl; cfTc^ cTH^II 6. ^FFT ^TrTT 3PJR; pTR =R^II (f) Now translate the sentences in (e) into English. (g) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit using Roman transliteration: 1. You (pi.) carry the fruit (pi.) from the tree by horse. 2. The girl's horses (two) take the fruit (pi.) to the man. 3. You (two) lead the horse to the fruit (pi.) of the tree. 4. The man takes the tree from the horse for the girl. 5. The girl and the horse go among the trees (pi.) for fruit (pi.). 6. The horses (pi.) carry the trees (pi.) for the men (pi.), (h) Now write your answers to (g) in devanagarT. Lesson 8. A 8.A.1 Special Symbols The following symbols are not strictly part of the alphabet, but constitute special symbols such as punctuation: I This punctuation mark is used at the end of a half- verse or sentence. II This marks the end of a verse or paragraph. ■S" The elision of an 3T at the beginning of a word due to the rules of sandhi, is indicated with this symbol called avagraha: it is not sounded. For example, H -STT for fl 3TTT is pronounced cIN; in transliteration it is represented by an apostrophe or prime mark, i.e. te'pi. This symbol, called candrabindu (lit. 'moon-dot'), placed above a vowel indicates that the vowel itself is nasalized; for example, 3T is 3T sounded through both nose and mouth together. Contrast this with 3T, where the anusvara, which is just the bindu ('dot') above the vowel, is a nasal sound following after the vowel. The antahstha y 1 and v may also be nasalized. ^ This symbol indicates a compulsory anusvara (i.e. before an usman or repha) in the Vedas, and is traditionally pronounced as a soft gna (^■T). You may also find it written as 'T. 3o The mystical symbol Om pronounced 311 ^<H and called the pranava sabda. An abbreviation is indicated by this sign, the rest of the word being provided from the context. ~ This symbol is rare; it is pronounced like a half visarga, and is called jihvamullya when before k or kh, and upadhmahfya when before p or ph. (See section 3. A. 2.) 8. A. 2 Savarna Those sounds which are pronounced in the same mouth position and with the same effort within the mouth itself (i.e. the measure of contact or openness — see section 3. A. 4) are called savarna ('same group'). This means that the ka-varga sounds (k, kh, g, gh, and n — see section 2. A. 2) are savarna, likewise ca-varga through to pa-varga each form a savarna group of five sounds. For grammatical purposes, ^f and (£ are also declared to be savarna, even though their mouth positions differ. 8. A. 3 Nasal Substitution for Anusvara The anusvara (see section 1.A.7) arises through the rules of sandhi: primarily it is the replacement for a final m before a consonant. There are two traditions for pronouncing the anusvara: one tradition always pronounces it as an anusvara (a 3*-like sound in Northern India, and JT-like further South); the other tradition substitutes the nasal that is savarna with the following consonant, i.e. if the following consonant is a sparsa (one of the twenty-five from ^> to JT) then the anusvara is sounded as the nasal of the same mouth position as the following letter — thus "H chcH is pronounced "H ^'CH, and "H^ll as "H ^1, and so on. The second tradition is much like the pronunciation of 'n' in English: sound the words 'wink', 'winch', and 'wind' — prolonging the nasal if necessary — and note that the mouth position is determined by the following letter. Before ya la or va the anusvara may optionally be sounded as a nasalized version of that letter, for example "^PTFT may be pronounced as "^P^TPT. Monier-Williams, in his dictionary, follows the tradition of substituting the savarna nasal before a sparsa (the twenty-five from ka to ma), but not before an antahstha. It would be useful (for these lessons at least) to practise that method. 8. A. 4 Devanagarl Numerals The numbers one to ten respectively are expressed in Sanskrit as eka dva tri catur pancan sas saptan astan navan dasan. The numerals use the familiar order of significance, so that 1234 is written as ?Q38. Here are the ten numerals in devanagarl script, ordered to 9: Lesson 8.B 8.B.1 More Noun Declensions The pratipadika form of nouns may end in letters other than those considered thus far: the table on the next page includes the three declension previously covered and adds agni (fire, pum-linga ending in -i), guru (teacher, pum-linga ending in -u), and nadT (strT-linga ending in -T). These declensions need not be practised, but it would be useful to spend some time observing the differences between the declensions. The sandhi rule changing n to n following r or s follows through all declensions in trtlya eka-vacana and sasthT bahu-vacana. 8.B.2 Adjectives An adjective (visesana) qualifies a noun: it is dependent the noun as an attribute. This dependence manifests in the grammar, requiring the visesana to agree with the noun in gender, case and number. Thus using alpa (small), we could have: alpah narah alpam naram alpat narat vahanti The small men (pi.) carry the small man from the small man. In Monier- Williams' dictionary a visesana is listed in the form: alpa, mf(a)n. small sundara, mf(l)n. handsome, beautiful, attractive where 'mm.' stands form 'masculine-feminine-neuter', i.e. it may be declined in all three genders (as required by a visesana), and the '(a)' and '(l)' inserted after the 'f of 'mm.' indicates the strT-linga form in declension; thus alpa declines like bala, and sundarT like nadT, in the feminine. For example: alpa sundarT bala tisthati The small beautiful girl stands. As may be seen from the above examples, the visesana precedes the noun which it qualifies. Declension Paradigms Masculine in -a Neuter in -a narah he nara naram narena naraya narayat narasya nare narau he narau narau narabhyam narabhyam narabhyam narayoh narayoh narah he narah naran naraih narebhyah narebhyah naranam naresu phalam he phala phalam phalena phalaya phalat phalasya phale phale he phale phale phalabhyam phalabhyam phalabhyam phalayoh phalayoh phalani he phalani phalani phalaih phalebhyah phalebhyah phalanam phalesu Masculine in -i Feminine in -a agnih he agne agnim agnina agnaye agneh agneh agnau agnl he agnl agnl agnibhyam agnibhyam agnibhyam agnyoh agnyoh agnayah he agnayah agnln agnibhih agnibhyah agnibhyah agnlnam agnisu bala he bale balam balaya balayai balayah balayah balayam bale he bale bale balabhyam balabhyam balabhyam balayoh balayoh balah he balah balah balabhih balabhyah balabhyah balanam balasu Masculine in -u Feminine in -l guruh guru guravah nadl nadyau nadyah he guro he guru he guravah he nadi he nadyau he nadyah gurum guru gurun nadlm nadyau nadlh guruna gurubhyam gurubhih nadya nadlbhyam nadlbhih gurave gurubhyam gurubhyah nadyai nadlbhyam nadlbhyah guroh gurubhyam gurubhyah nadyah nadlbhyam nadlbhyah guroh gurvoh gurunam nadyah nadyoh nadlnam gurau gurvoh gurusu nadyam nadyoh nadlsu 8.B.3 Adverbs An adverb (kriya-visesana) qualifies a verb: it is indeclinable (avyaya). It is usually found immediately before the verb; for example, using the adverb slghram (quickly): narah slghram gacchati the man goes quickly. 8.B.4 Vocabulary Summary The following is a complete list of all the vocabulary used in this course: kriya v /; T~ 3 T g l"^€jfrl he goes V^t =Rct he leads VrT^T r'PTcl' he takes V^" 5 ? q<slrl he speaks •/^W ^Tn" he carries V^TT frt^frl he stands naman 3TR«T m. fire 3P 1 ? m. horse ^H? m. teacher H4l f. river ^R m. man Mr*) n. fruit sTTcTT f. girl ^"<8fT m. tree visesana 3icH mf(a)n. small •^F^ mf(l)n. beautiful, handsome avyaya § In ind. thus (lesson 9.B.2) ^T ind. and SfTSPT ind. quickly 8.B.5 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3. A. 5. (b) Practise reading and writing the ten numerals in devanagarT. (c) Write the following sentences in Roman transliteration: -s -s so -s -s =R: 3TrqTT OT3T «||riW 3TR^ star ^#1 Q II ^r^t wi^n 3R*n=r srw ^t^jt ^n# i a 11 SO "s "s -s SO -s O -s W: 3TrT3T 4H^<<H 3PTO q^jT ^F%l a II so -s so "s -s ^ 3R*T: pT: ^^ 3T^TT fc^rcTl £ II (d) Now translate the sentences in (c) into English. (e) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit using Roman transliteration: 1. The man's teacher goes to the river by horse. 2. The girl carries the small fruit to the man's teacher. 3. The teacher of the girl stands in the small river. 4. The girl of the teacher stands on the handsome horse. 5. The beautiful girl leads the man to the small teacher quickly. 6. The teacher stands among the beautiful fruit of the small tree. (f) Now write your answers to (e) in devanagarT. 00 <y+ nv > a S> Ov iti o 3* e CD ^ 00 CO -J IO o o © e Lesson 9. A The next three sections may be considered as informational only; they are provided for completeness. 9.A.1 Vowels Accents Accent is the sounding of a vowel at a higher or lower pitch or tone (svara). There are three tones: raised (udatta), not raised (anudatta), and a combination of the two or moving tone (svarita). These are only marked in the Veda, for example: The horizontal bar under the syllable indicates anudatta; the vertical line above the syllable indicates svarita; and udatta syllables are not marked. In classical Sanskrit texts, the accent is not marked. Where these are marked in the dictionary in Roman transliteration, the udatta and svarita will be indicated by the acute and grave accent marks respectively. Thus the above example in transliteration would be: satyam jnanamanantam brahma In practice, the accent system is not as simple as illustrated above: firstly, in continuous speech the accent is affected by the accents on adjacent syllables; secondly, the marking system may be simplified so that many anudatta are also not marked; finally, the notation system differs among the various Vedas. (For a fuller treatment of the subject see ftp://ftp.nac.ac.za/wikner/accent.ps*) English has a stress accent system (e.g. listen to the 'to' syllable in 'photograph' and 'photographer'), but there is no stress system in Sanskrit (indeed there should be no stress at all in the study of Sanskrit!); Sanskrit is either sounded with the pitch accent described above, or in ekasruti, a neutral accentless tone. 9. A. 2 Variations in Devanagarl Alphabet Just as there are variations in the Roman alphabet (e.g. a and a), so there are variations in devanagarl: some of the less obvious ones are illustrated below: W This is an alternate form of 3T, and just as one has derivatives of the familiar form as 3TT 3TT 3JT, so one has WT WT Wt . V This is a variation of the form ^. 3f This is another form of ^f, similarly ^ for ^f.

  • U An alternative form of f?T.

^» Another variant of f?T, but far less common. C*T Obviously the same as C^. W A radically different form of T 5T An alternative form of |T (jna). ^T This is a variation of the form for <8fT (ksa). ^T Another form of the Vedic anusvara ^T (see 8.A.1). ^ A rarer form of the Vedic anusvara. ™ Vedic form of 5. ^ Vedic form of (©. The following are variations in the numerals: 9 = ? = i v = a = 4 M=<^=y = 5 9. A. 3 Variations in Samyoga As was mentioned in Lesson 7, there are no hard and fast rules governing the formation of a samyoga; however, there are a few that are sometimes not obvious: ? This is a quite common form of ^ (dr). J^T A variation of ^ (hna). ^T An alternative of ^ (hla). JT Another form of |=j (hva). 9. A. 4 Revision The next page has a summary of the information about the alphabet, and the following page is a reference sheet of the character shapes of the alphabet. This would be a good time to lightly revise all the notes about the alphabet, starting from Lesson 1: now that you are more familiar with the alphabet, you may find that much of the information now is clearer. srf^ 3^51 dlri°M 3fTST JT^T ?^T <*> °3 d I rt ^ ^^^ 3R^K a a iluurrlleaio au am ah rT rn"%^"rTrrg"g"r[3[^frrTt <ft el" rT: exceptions: ^ ^ ^1 ^ (t (| W™&[ dlr">^ JT^N" S^rT 3TtET Alphabetical Order y ^? P^frT f- 3rpR^n;-Fq?r ^ V f 5T

  • r

>r ^j-yw h ^r ^r J? ¥# -3l«HlRl + 3^=1^ 3^SFR sfc c£ 3 ^r gr g >j s g g ur g w 5r ^r ^ 9.B.1 Types of Words Sanskrit grammarians traditionally describe four types of words: kriya (verb), naman (noun), upasarga (verbal prefix), and nipata (particle). The naman and kriya have the fundamental notions of 'being' and 'becoming' respectively. The kriya type includes the basic kriya (verbs derived from a dhatu) and the nama-dhatu (verbs derived from nouns), which conjugate according purusa vacana and lakara, as well as the verbal qualifier (kriya-visesana) which is indeclinable (avyaya). The naman type includes the basic naman (common noun etymologically derived from a dhatu), the samjna (proper noun, personal name or technical term whose meaning cannot be etymologically determined), the sarva- naman (pronoun), and the nominal qualifier or adjective (visesana): all these decline according to linga, vacana and vibhakti. The upasarga (verbal prefix) has been discussed in 7.B.1, and the nipata (particle) is a catch-all for the remaining types of word. The nipata are avyaya (indeclinable), and although they are separate words they are not used by themselves: words of this class are ca (and) and he (vocative particle). 9.B.2 Use of iti The nipata iti means 'thus': it lays stress on what precedes it, typically referring to something that has been said; it is the Sanskrit equivalent of inverted commas. For example: asvena gacchami iti vadati "I am going by horse," he says. There is no system of indirect or reported speech in Sanskrit, so the above may equally be translated as: He says that he is going by horse. Note that iti grammatically isolates the phrase or sentence before it, from what follows: in the above example, the trtlya vibhakti of asvena is not related to the kriya vadati, even if the word 'gacchami' were omitted. This isolating function of iti may also be used to separate a definition from the word being defined, or a grammatical rule from an example of its application, and so on. 9.B.3 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order (which should be familiar by now) following it through the diagram on page 73; once familiar with the relationship of the alphabetical order to the diagram, thereafter practice sounding the order while following the alphabet chart on page 74. Associating the sound/letter with its position on the chart provides a visual 'short-cut' to where a sound/letter is in relation to the alphabetical order as a whole: this will prove to be a very useful trick when using the dictionary. (b) Write out the alphabet once per day, in the form given in the chart on page 74 (ideally ^T should be on a line by itself). (c) Write the following sentences in Roman transliteration: =R: 4>rilA c=TJ# ^fcT ^T% *RcT: I ? II 3Pff: pTPT i+rilA TO# ^fch 3 II WHT pTPTTrT 3T%T WT ^RTcT: I 8 II f$PT 3TrTT 3H=fr 3T%: star ^Tf^Tl a II -s C -s. so >, -s N (d) Now translate the sentences in (c) into English. (e) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit using Roman transliteration: 1. "I am taking the fruit (pi.) to the horse," the girl says to the teacher. 2. The man says to the girl that he is carrying the tree to the river. 3. You (pi.) are quickly taking the girl's fruit (two) to the man. 4. We (two) take the fruit (pi.) from the girl's tree. 5. The man and girl go to the handsome teacher by river. 6. The beautiful girl leads the horse to the small trees (pi.) for fruit (pi.). (f) Now write your answers to (e) in devanagarT. Lesson 10. A 10. A. 1 Introduction to Sandhi Sandhi ('placing together') is the principle of sounds coming together naturally and harmoniously, which is to say without awkwardness or tongue-twisting. This is the principle behind the nasal substitution for the anusvara that was considered earlier, and for the various pronunciations of the English letter 'n' mentioned in that section (8. A. 3). Sandhi applies to other consonants besides nasals: for example, consider the English phrase 'cats and dogs', which is pronounced as 'cats and dogz'. Why should that be? Looking at it doesn't help; you need to sound it. Have you heard why it is so? Well, try swapping the sibilants around: 'catz and dogs'. Difficult, isn't it? So there is an English sandhi rule that a sibilant preceded by an unvoiced consonant is unvoiced, and preceded by a voiced consonant it is voiced (ghosa). It is quite natural, and for the ease of pronunciation. Sandhi applies to vowels too: consider how "he is" becomes "he's". When sounded — and that's the key — you will hear that both vowels have the same sound: certainly one has a short measure, and the other a long measure, but the sound is the same. So, when a long §? meets a short f?, they are both replaced by a long §?. (The apostrophe functions somewhat like the avagraha (-S"), inasmuch as it is not sounded.) Sandhi applies whenever two sounds come together — and this is the point: it is sounds coming together. In the written form, the letters are symbols representing the sounds: in Sanskrit the notation changes when the sound changes, and thus it has an inherently phonetic script; the English script does not do this, and this is one of the reasons that foreigners mutter darkly about English spelling! The rules of sandhi only make sense in sound and not in writing: thus it is important, when reading the written word, to sound it aloud (or in the mind at least), and to hear that sound. The rules of sandhi apply within a word as it is being developed from its elemental components to its fully inflected form: this is called internal sandhi, internal to an individual word. The rules also apply between words as they come together to form a sentence: this is called external sandhi, external to the individual words. The rules of internal and external sandhi are largely the same, but each has its own field of special cases and exceptions. We shall examine external sandhi broadly and only lightly touch on internal sandhi as it affects the declension of formed words. In these notes, the breve ( " ) above the vowel indicates a short measure only, and the macron ( " ) long measure only; combined ( ~ ) they indicate a long OR short vowel. Also V stands for any vowel, unless explicitly restricted. 10. A. 2 Guna and Vrddhi The grammatical terms guna ('secondary form') and vrddhi ('increase') can be considered as degrees of strengthening of the three primary vowels. Panini defines guna as the three vowels 3^^ and 3TT, and vrddhi as 3TT^ and 3JT, and also gives the means for deriving the strengthened forms of the other two simple vowels ^f and simple vowel a a f 1 u r I 2 guna form a a e o ar al vrddhi form a a ai au ar al 3 1 The breve (") and macron ( ) diacritical marks, used together ( ) indicate a long OR short measure of the vowel. 2 In the grammatical formation of words, the dirgha measure c£ does not occur. 3 The vrddhi form of <?, namely 3rflrt, does not arise in the grammar. A useful way of considering guna, is the strengthening of the five simple vowels by the addition of a single measure of 3T (so as to leave 3T itself unchanged), and vrddhi as the strengthening of the guna by the addition of a further measure of 3T. This process has been described in Section l.A.5. 10.A.3 Vowel Sandhi Vowel sandhi, as you would expect, arises when a word ending in a vowel is followed by a word beginning with a vowel, in the same sentence or line of poetry: a vowel final is not changed before a consonant or in pausa, for example, at the end of a sentence. There are only six principles that cover all cases: it is not necessary to learn these, but what is important is to understand them, and that means to work through each principle — in sound — and understand that they are simply statements of the obvious. 1. When one of the five simple vowels (hrasva, short or dlrgha, long) meet a vowel of the same kind (hrasva or dlrgha), they are both replaced by the dlrgha measure of that vowel. a + a => a f + f => T u + u => u r + r => r Note that (£ is not shown here. It was mentioned earlier that the dlrgha measure of c£ is not used in the grammar (Section 1.A.4) and that ^f and (£ are savarna (Section 8. A. 2), so that when ^f meets ^f or (£, the result is ^f. 2. When 3T (hrasva or dlrgha) is followed by one of the five simple vowels other than 3T (hrasva or dlrgha), guna replaces both. a + T => e a + u => o a + f => ar a + 1 => al 3. When 3T (hrasva or dlrgha) is followed by a guna or vrddhi sound, the vrddhi sound replaces both. a + e => ai a + o => au a + ai => ai a + au => au 4. When a simple vowel (hrasva or dlrgha) other than a is followed by a different vowel, the first vowel is replaced by the antahstha of the same mouth position: f + V => yV u + V => vV f + V => rV 1 + V => IV where V stands for any different vowel. •5. When a compound vowel (e ai o au) is followed by another vowel, it splits into its component parts (a or a, and i or u) and the second of those parts is replaced by the antahstha of the same mouth position. The antahstha may then optionally be elided: generally it is only retained when the preceding vowel was au. e +V=>a + i+V=> ay V => a V ai + V => a + i + V => ay V => a V o +V=>a + u + V=> avV => a V au + V=>a + u + V=> avV where V stands for any vowel. 6. As a quite non-obvious exception to the above rule, and overriding it, when ^ or 3TT are followed by hrasva 3T, the 3T is elided and replaced by an avagraha. e + a => e' o + a o' All the information on vowel sandhi may be conveniently displayed in tabular form — called a sandhi grid — which, though useful in its own way, is no substitute for understanding the principles in sound. Final Vowel Following -I 1 -l -u -r -1 -e -ai -o -au Vowe -a- -ya- -va- -ra- -la- -e'- -a a- -o'- -ava- a- -a- -ya- -va- -ra- -la- -a a- -a a- -a a- -ava- a- -e- -T- -vi- -ri- -li- -a i- -a i- -a I- -avi- i- -e- -T- -vl- -rT- -11- -a T- -a T- -a I- -avT- I- -o- -yu- -u- -ru- -lu- -a u- -a i- -a u- -avu- u- -o- -yu- -u- -ru- -lu- -a u- -a u- -a u- -avu- u- -ar- 2 -yr- 2 -vr- 2 -r- -r- -a r- -a r- -a r- -avr- r- -ar- -yr- -vr- -r- -r- -a r- -a r- -a F- -avr- r- -al- -yi- -vl- -r- -r- -a 1- -a 1- -a 1- -avr- 1- -ai- -ye- -ve- -re- -le- -a e- -a e- -a e- -ave- e- -ai- -yai- -vai- -rai- -lai- -a ai- -a ai- -a ai- -avai- ai- -au- -yo- -vo- -ro- -lo- -a o- -a o- -a o- -avo- o- -au- -yau- -vau- -rau- -lau- -a au- -a au- -a au- -avau- au1 The breve ( " ) above the vowel indicates a short measure only, and the macron ( ~ ) long measure only; combined ( ~ ) they indicate a long OR short vowel. 2 Optionally, the basic vowel may be replaced by its hrasva equivalent, and the r retained, for example: maha + rsi =>■ maharsi or maharsi. Note: 1 does not occur as a word final, and neither r nor 1 as a word initial, but they are included in the table for completeness. One thing that the table does illustrate, is that resolving a given sandhi into its components is not at all straightforward: for example, while it is clear that -a + a- produces -a-, the grid cannot determine from -a- whether either (or both) of the original a's were long or not. 10. A. 4 Exceptions to Vowel Sandhi There are some exceptions, called pragrhya ('to be taken separately'), where sandhi rules do not operate. For external sandhi these are: a. Particles consisting of a single vowel, or ending in 3TT: these are usually interjections or exclamations, rather like the English 'Ah' and 'Oh'. b. The terminations of duals (whether nouns, pronouns, or verbs) ending in dlrgha % 3» or ^. c. Prolonged (pluta) vowels. 10. A. 5 Samprasarana Samprasarana is the process whereby an antahsthah is replaced by the simple vowel of the same mouth position (and the following vowel is elided). This is the complement to rule 4 in 10. A. 3. Examples of this are ij-ya derived from dhatu yaj, sup-ta from dhatu svap, uc-atha from dhatu vac, and prcch-ati from dhatu prach. A similar process occurs in English when a final 'y' is replaced by 'i' before adding another suffix, as for example, easy and easily, beauty and beautiful, holy and holiness. Lesson 10. B 10.B.1 Introduction to Compound Words The dhatu (root) is the basic form of a word denoting verbal activity: in order to form a noun (naman) or adjective (visesana) etc., this activity needs to 'freeze', as it were, to make it into an object that is manifest and knowable. This 'fixing' of the meaning is accomplished by the addition of a suffix (pratyaya); the process in English is similar; for example, from the verb 'attend' given in 8.B.1, are derived: attendant one who attends, attendance the action of attending, attention the quality of attending, attentive having the quality of attending, attentiveness the state of having the quality of attending. As shown by the last word in this list, these suffixes may be concatenated; and further prefixes may be added, as for example, 'inattentiveness'. Words thus 'fixed' by a suffix (pratyaya) may be joined together to form a compound word, as in the following English examples: headache housekeeping newspaper paperback rattlesnake screwdriver sightseeing songwriter sunrise wheelbarrow bedroom fireside blackbird gingerbread breakfast greenback daydream haircut dressmaker handwriting The compound word may simply be a conveniently brief way of expressing a longer phrase (e.g. gravestone: stone marking a grave), or express a specific idea related to its parts (e.g. fireman), or may have a meaning quite different from its parts (e.g. pigtail : a plait of hair hanging down from the back of the head [from its resemblance to the tail of a pig]). When a compound is not yet fully accepted in English writing (e.g. where it may cause one to stumble when reading it), it is hyphenated, as: bread-winner break-down double-decker far-fetched fire-fly full-grown ginger-beer heart-shaped hot-house lamp-post light-weight old-fashioned pony-tail red-hot right-handed roof-garden single-minded store-room whole-hearted world-wide In devanagari, a compound word (samasa) is always written without a break, but in transliteration these are often shown hyphenated, for example: yvq j-l-i-l^q prathama- (first) purusa person = first person. A samasa is formed by simply placing the pratipadika (stem) forms together and applying the sandhi rules at the junction. One exception to this should be noted: if the pratipadika ends in -an, then the n is dropped, for example: atman (self) + jfiana (knowledge) => atmajfiana, self-knowledge. In declining the compound word, the vibhakti ending is added to the end of the compound as a whole, i.e. only the last member appears to decline, while earlier members retain their pratipadika form. Sanskrit makes extensive use of the samasa, very extensive use indeed; so much so, that it is unusual to find a sentence without a samasa. This makes expressions in Sanskrit at once concise and precise. Although a samasa may comprise many words, all the principles are covered in considering the joining of just two words (call them 'A' and 'B'); a more complex samasa is simply a case where A and/or B is itself a samasa. If the principal (more important) word of the compound is underlined, then the four classes of samasa may be indicated as: AB dvandva (meaning 'A and B') AB tatpurusa (A is in some case relationship to B) AB avyaylbhava (forms indeclinable (avyaya) functioning as an adverb) AB bahuvrlhi (serves as an adjective qualifying an external principal) Other types of samasa are subdivisions, or special cases, of these four main classes. There are few exceptions to the above: words such as atmane-pada and parasmai- pada where the case-affix of the first word is not dropped, are called a-luk samasa. 10.B.2 Joining Words in Writing Sanskrit is spoken without any break between words, and the written form reflects this: after the operation of sandhi, words are joined together in writing except after words ending in a vowel, anusvara or visarga. For example: Ideally, the virama ( ) may only be used at the end of a sentence. 10. B. 3 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order while following the consonants on the alphabet chart on page 74. (b) Write out the alphabet chart on page 74 once per day from memory. (c) Join the following word pairs using vowel sandhi: this exercise is most usefully done in sound alone, i.e. by repeatedly pronouncing the word pairs aloud very swiftly, and then writing down what is heard: the results may afterwards be checked against the rules or the sandhi grid. Do remember that the purpose of the exercises is a practical understanding: one learns from mistakes, not from right answers! 1. f% + 3T^T 16. %<ft+3TR^ 2. ^Tr^r + 3TR^ i7. fWr + 3rr¥T 3. ^mr + t^r is. wr + zn^f SO ^ -N 4. ^ + <^R 19. ^ + ^fcT 5. 3T^ + ^ 20. f^ + 3TFT^ 6. JT + 3Trfc 21. TT+3PF: ©s 7. 3TFT^? + '<?rPT 22. JT^ + aTT^Ff 8. ^T + ^T 23. fTfT + ^$" 9. JT^T + 5ftR 24. cpr^ + 3TR^ 10. ^+3PT 25. ^T + ^PT 11. STTpf + 3TTrrPT 26. ^ + ^ i2. =rfr + ^r 27. f$R + 3Tk^JT 13. JT^T + S^ 28. aR+^chccW 14. irrcrr + '^cr 29. wr + t^ 15. ^ + 3TT% 30. -5rf^ + -^nT Lesson 11. A 11. A. 1 Visarga Sandhi This is most conveniently presented directly in tabular form: Final Vowel -as -as Vs 1 Vr 2 Next Initial Sound -o'- -a Vr Vr a- -a -a -Vr -Vr any vowel other than a -o -a -V 3 -V 3 r- -o -a -Vr -Vr any other ghosa vyahjana -as -as -Vs -Vs c/ch- -as -as -Vs -Vs t/th- -as -as -Vs -Vs t/th- -ah -ah -Vh -Vh any other aghosa vyahjana -ah -ah -Vh -Vh avasana (e.g. II ) 1 -Vs = any vowel except a or a before the final s. 2 -Vr = any vowel before the final r. 3 A ^ followed by another ^ is elided, and a preceding 3T ^ or 3 lengthened. Note: The words ^T: or ^": followed by hrasva 3T becomes WS' or ^TTS'; before any other letter the visarga is dropped. The table is simple enough. Basically a final s or r becomes r before a voiced (ghosa) sound (which includes the vowels, of course); the exceptions to this are: 1. -as before a ghosa consonant becomes -o; the -s is dropped before a vowel, unless that vowel is hrasva 3T in which case °"3TO+3r > becomes °"3TT^°. 2. where the final is -r and the following word begins with r- (a disallowed combination), the first r is dropped, and the preceding vowel, if a i or u, is lengthened. And the final s or r becomes a visarga before an unvoiced (aghosa) sound (whether a consonant or a pause in sound); the exception to this, is that before c/ch t/th or t/th, it is replaced with a sibilant (s s or s) of the same mouth position as that of the following consonant. One very important point to note about this table, is the last row: an avasana is a pause or stop in speech, as for example at the end of a sentence or line of poetry. This also applies when a sentence is split up into its independent words (padani) by removing the external sandhi, a process called sandhi vigraha. The immediate relevance is that the declension of nouns and conjugation of verbs is given in the form of independent words, which means that sandhi rules applicable to a following avasana have already been applied. So, when the word is used in a sentence, this sandhi must be removed: where the word is given in the tables with a final visarga, this should be replaced with an s before applying the visarga sandhi. 11. A. 2 Consonant Sandhi As a rule, a word may begin with any vowel or consonant except h m h h n r 1 , and may end (before an avasana or pause) with one of eight consonants ktt pn n m or h, or with any vowel except r and 1. The sandhi of words ending with a visarga (h) were discussed in ll.A.l; this table covers the remaining consonants. The first four of the final consonants are the alpaprana aghosa sparsa (except c) and the remaining three are nasals. As with the visarga sandhi, this table is split according to the following sound being ghosa or aghosa. The final aghosa (ktt and p) are basically replaced with the ghosa alpaprana consonant of the same mouth position when the following sound is ghosa, and remain unchanged when followed by an aghosa sound; but note that a final -t changes to the mouth position of a following talavya or murdhanya sound (both ghosa and aghosa), and observe its special changes before 1- h- and s- (in the last case the substitute replaces the following s- as well). Before an h- (which is ghosa) these four are replaced by their ghosa equivalents, and the h- is replaced by the mahaprana equivalent of that ghosa substitute (e.g. "^> ^T° => °" 3 ^T°). The kanthya nasal remains unchanged, while the dantya nasal (like the -t) changes to the mouth position of a following talavya or murdhanya ghosa sound, and to an anusvara and sibilant of the following mouth position of a following talavya, murdhanya or dantya aghosa; also note the special changes before 1- and s-. A final -m changes to anusvara before any consonant (see 8. A. 3 for pronunciation of the anusvara). There are no sandhi changes when a vowel meets a consonant, with two exceptions: when a word ends in a short vowel and the following word begins with ch-, then a c is inserted; secondly, when a word ends in -h or -n preceded by a short vowel, and the following word begins with a vowel, then the nasal is doubled, i.e.: -V ch- => -Vcch- -Vh V- => -VhhV- -Vn V- => -VnnVFinal Consonanl (before avasana) -k -t -t -P -ii -n -m Next Sound -g -d -d -b -n 1 -n 1 -m any vowel -g -d -d -b -ii -n -m g/gh- -g "d -J -b -n -ii -m j/jh- -g "d -d -b -ii -n -m d/dh- -g "d -d -b -ii -n -m d/dh- -g "d -d -b -ii -n -m b/bh- -ii -n -n -m -ii -n -m n/m- -g "d -d -b -ii -n -m y/r/v- -g -d -1 -b -ii -l 2 -m 1- -ggh- -ddh- -ddh- -bbh- -ii -n -m h- -k -t -t -P -ii -n -m k/kh- -k -t -c -P -n -ms -m c/ch- -k -t -t -P -ii -IDS -m t/th- -k -t -t -P -ii -ms -m t/th- -k -t -t -P -ii -n -m p/ph- -k -t -cch- -P -ii -ii 3 -m s- -k -t -t -P -ii -n -m s/s- 1 The nasal doubles to -nn or -nn if the preceding vowel is short. 2 This is a nasalized 1, i.e. ""^T c^° becomes °rrt°. 3 -ns- may also become -nch-. 11. A. 3 Internal Sandhi The two most common rules of internal sandhi, and which affect the spelling of vibhakti endings in particular, are: following kriluurreaioorau even if there is an intervening m or h unless it is the final letter or followed by r. is replaced by s n is replaced by n following s r r or r even if k kh g gh ii, p ph b bh m, y v h or m intervene when followed by a vowel, m v y or n (which last becomes n). Lesson ll.B The following detailed notes may be used for reference: they need not be studied. ll.B.l Dvandva Samasa The dvandva (lit. 'couple') samasa is a copulative compound in which the members, if not compounded, would be in the same case (vibhakti) and connected by the conjunction ^T (and). There are two types of dvandva: Itaretara — the members are considered separately; the gender of the compound is the gender of the last member; the number is the sum of the members. For example: ramah ca krsnah ca => ramakrsnau (note the dual) = Rama and Krsna. Samahara — the members are taken collectively as a unit; it is always neuter singular. Pairs of opposites are often put in this form, for example: sukham ca duhkham ca => sukhaduhkham (note the singular) = pleasure and pain. ll.B. 2 Tatpurusa Samasa The tat-purusa (lit. 'his man') samasa is a determinative compound in which the first member depends on (i.e. has a case relationship to), or modifies, the second. There are several types: Tatpurusa — also called vyadhikarana-tatpurusa, is characterised as having different case endings if the compound is dissolved, i.e. the members are different objects. The compound may be further classified according to the case relationship (dvitlya through saptaml) of the first member to the second. For example: vrksamulam <= vrksasya mulam (sasthi-tatpurusa) = root of a tree, tree-root. Karmadharaya — this is a descriptive determinative compound, also called samanadhikarana-tatpurusa, and is characterised as having the same case ending if the compound is dissolved, i.e. the members refer to the same object; for example: purnacandrah -<= purnah (full) candrah (moon) = full-moon. Dvigu — this samasa has the same sense as the karmadharaya, but has a word denoting direction or a numeral as its first member; for example: ^^^H eka-vacana, singular (lit. one -speaking, from i/ vac > to speak) [also dvi- (two), bahu- (many), giving 'dual' and 'plural'] Upapada — this compound has a dhatu derivative as its second member; for example: kumbha-kara <= kumbham (pot) + ^kr (to do, act, make) = potter (similarly a-kara etc.). Nah-tatpurusa — a compound with a negative particle (na-, an-, or a-) as its first member, giving a negative or privative sense; for example: a-jnanam <= a- (negation or absence) + jnanam (knowledge) = ignorance. 11.B.3 AvyayTbhava Samasa The avyaylbhava (lit. 'an unchanging nature') samasa is indeclinable (avyaya) and functions as an adverb. The first member is an indeclinable (preposition or adverbial prefix), and the last a noun (naman), and the whole takes the form of the neuter singular; for example: sakrodham <= sa- (the sense is accompaniment) + krodha (anger) = with anger, angrily. yathasraddham <= yatha- (the sense is proportion) + sraddha (faith) = according to (one's) faith. ll.B.4 Bahuvrlhi Samasa The bahuvrlhi (lit. 'much rice') samasa is a descriptive compound forming an adjective (visesana) agreeing with a noun (expressed or understood); for example: padmaksa <= padma (lotus) + aksa (eye) = whose eyes are (like) lotuses, lotus-eyed. The difference between the tatpurusa and the bahuvrlhi is that the former remains a noun, while the latter becomes an adjective. In the Vedic Sanskrit the determinative and descriptive compounds were distinguished by accents (see 9.A.1): raja-putra <= tWH (king) + putra (son) = the son of the king, the king's son (tatpurusa). raja-putra = whose son is a king (bahuvrlhi) . 11. B. 5 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order while following the consonants on the alphabet chart on page 74. (b) Write out the alphabet chart on page 74 once per day from memory. (c) Write the following sentences in devanagarT, applying sandhi rules as necessary — and it will be necessary quite often! — and then translate them into English. For example: narah asvah ca alpan vrksan labhete The man and horse take the small trees. 1. narau alpam vrksam agnim asvat vahatah 2. bala asvam naram ca vrksat labhate 3. phalani asvam vahati iti guruh balah vadati 4. guru alpam naram vrksayat slghram gacchatah 5. narah vrksam agnim balayai asvena vahati 6. bala asvam alpam nadlm vrksat nayate 7. narah vrksan phalebhyah asvena gacchati 8. guruh agnim narat gacchati iti alpa bala vadati 9. bala alpah asvah ca agnim narat gacchatah 10. alpebhyah phalebhyah sundaresu vrksesu gacchavah Lesson 12 From here forward the lessons will no longer be divided into parts 'A' and 'B', there will, however, be exercises related to the dictionary or Dhatu-Patha at the end of each lesson. 12.1 Monier- Williams Dictionary In the dictionary, words are listed in their pratipadika (stem) form, i.e. without the vibhakti endings that they gather in actual use; therefore in seeking the meaning of words found in Sanskrit writings, the first part of the word will be found in the dictionary, and the last syllable or two forming the vibhakti ending needs to be omitted. There will be an element of guesswork in this because only the six most common noun declensions have been given: forty declensions are necessary to cover all possibilities, and as many again for exceptions. The dictionary often marks the accents of vowels in transliteration: the udatta is marked with the acute accent ( ') and the svarita with the grave accent (" ) — this is illustrated in section 9.A.I. There is an interesting section on the subject of accents on page xviii of the dictionary introduction, beginning with the fourth paragraph "Then a third improvement . . . " . The rest of the lengthy Preface and Introduction need not be read; however, do note that the dictionary was completed at the end of the Nineteenth Century, and thus there is some Victorian coyness in translating sexual terms, which are sometimes given in Latin rather than English. This dictionary is either very simple to use, or very difficult: the difference lies in understanding the founding principles of the dictionary, and appreciating the devices that Monier- Williams has employed in order to make it simple to use. In this lesson the broad structure of the dictionary is explained, and subsequent lessons will cover the details. 12.2 Alphabet and Transliteration Some of the devanagarT characters used in the dictionary differ from the standard followed in these lessons, and some transliterations differ from the generally accepted standard. The alphabet used in the dictionary, in both devanagarT and transliter- ated Roman characters, is presented below in the standard format, from which one may deduce the standard alphabetical order (which of course, the dictionary does use). ^T W $ i 3 35 H 41+].r.r[41-] cS c| ^ ^ ^?t WT *T ^T: a a i T u u ri ri lri lrT e o ai au am/an ah ^> ka ^f ca S" ta rT ta ^T pa

  • JT kha 5 cha 5 tha *T tha ^ pha

^ ga ^jT ja 5 da ? da 3" ba "ET gha H jha 5" dha IT dha *T bha 5 na >T na W na •! na JT ma T ya ^ ra C^ la 3" va 5T sa ? sha ^T sa ^ ha Observe the devanagarT characters used for 3T and its derivatives in the sixteen sakti, and the consonants f?T and W; observe also the transliteration for r r 1 1, the anusvara, s and s. These are also shown on page xxxvi (facing page 1) of the dictionary. Monier-Williams distinguishes between a 'true' anusvara (n) which is inherent in the word from its dhatu and is found in such words as 3TTT (ansa) and l^-H (hinsa), and the 'substitute' anusvara (m) which arises through the operation of the rules of grammar, as for example "H <H +^TR => "H'HK (samsara). This distinction is peculiar to Monier-Williams (the standard is to use m throughout), and may be ignored: simply treat m and n as synonymous with the anusvara. 12.3 Fundamental Structure The dictionary is arranged on etymological principles, and it is this that makes it such a powerful tool. The two main advantages of this arrangement are, firstly, that cognate words derived from the same dhatu are gathered together, and this facilitates a broad understanding of the word, together with its applications and uses; secondly, it becomes a trivial matter to trace the word back to its dhatu, thus allowing a penetrating insight into the very essence of the word. This combination, giving both breadth and depth to the understanding of a word, is immensely valuable in the penetrating study of the scriptures. Besides the etymological arrangement, the dictionary is also ordered alphabetically, as one would expect of a dictionary. The seeming conflict between these two is resolved quite simply: the main etymological structure is ordered alphabetically in devanagarT script, and the sub-structure of derived words is listed under the devanagarT entry in transliterated Roman script; the derived words are themselves listed alphabetically, but their order is independent of the outer structure using devanagarT script. For example, the entries could be listed as follows: Bila Bilasa Bilma Bilmin Billa Bilva Bilvaka BilvakTya Bilvala Comments on the list: The entries in devanagarT script are listed in alphabetical order and ignore any intervening words in transliterated Roman script. Similarly, the words in Roman script are themselves listed alphabetically (still in Sanskrit order), and are all derived from the previous word in devanagarT script (Rrt in this case). The list also demonstrates the two levels of alphabetical order: without these levels, the words Rrtlrt Rlo^T Rio 51 in devanagarT script should be between Bilasa and Bilma. Do not proceed any further with this lesson until this principle of the independence of the two levels of alphabetical order is clear. The reason for this instruction is that the dictionary uses four levels of alphabetical order, and not just two. Now open your dictionary at page 732. A word of caution: the dictionary contains a wealth of information — do be alert to attention being captured by some interesting item. At this stage the purpose is not to find word meanings, but to understand how to use this tool called a dictionary. Look down the first column, and observe that each entry begins with an indented word in devanagarT or bold Roman script, and that each entry comprises just one paragraph. The entries in this column should be the same as the list given above: confirm this. Now look at the next page: at the bottom of the first column is the entry ^T in large devanagarT type. Such an entry indicates a major dhatu. The words derived from this dhatu include Buddha (middle of second column), and Buddhaka and Buddhi (middle of third column). Continuing through these derived words on the next page, observe the change of the first vowel from Bu- to Bo- (e.g. Bodha), and on the following page to Bau- (e.g. Bauddha), before the next word in devanagarT script (^V)- There are two points to appreciate here: firstly, remembering the two levels of alphabetical order, note that there can be several pages between devanagarT entry words; and secondly, note the strengthening of the dhatu vowel of the entry words from Bu- through Bo- to Bau at this stage just note that they are the guna and vrddhi forms — the significance of this will be explained later. Now return to page 733, to the entry Buddha in the middle of column two. Three inches (75 mm) below this is -kapalinT in bold type: find this. This means that -kapalinT is appended to the entry word Buddha so as to form the samasa BuddhakapalinT. Similarly, following -kapalinT, the next word in bold type is -kalpa, forming the samasa Buddhakalpa. The rest of the column has several more such words in bold type and each beginning with a hyphen (and the hyphen is not irrelevant, but more of that later): observe that these words or listed in alphabetical order. This is the third level of alphabetical order: samasa beginning with the entry word (which may be in Roman type or devanagarT) are listed within the body of the paragraph for that entry in alphabetical order. This third level may be viewed as an extension of the second level, where the leading hyphen is mentally replaced by the entry word. Continuing at this level, note that in the third column (about three inches (80 mm) down) is Buddhagama: the caret ( ) above the vowel indicates that it is long (dTrgha) — it conveys more information in fact, as will be explained later. Buddhagama and subsequent samasa are spelled out in full because, due to the rules of vowel sandhi, the final a of buddha is changed: thus, in strict alphabetical order, Buddhagama (with dTrgha a) follows after the previous samasa -sena, i.e. Buddhasena (with hrasva a). Work through these samasa until satisfied that they are in fact in alphabetical order. The next entry word is Buddhaka, which returns to the second level of alphabetical order: the point to note here, is that a samasa like Buddhagama is before it, and thus out of sequence as far as the second level in concerned. Thus these samasa sub-entries are truly a third level of alphabetical order. Return to the second column, and find the fourth samasa entry -kshetra (about 2tj inches (60 mm) from the bottom). The next line contains the word (in light italic type) -parisodhaka, and similarly in the line below that, is -vara-locana. These form further samasa when appended to -ksetra, i.e. Buddhiksetraparisodhaka and Buddhiksetravaralocana. Note that these two sub-sub-entries listed under the sub-entry -ksetra, are also in alphabetical order: this is the fourth (and last!) level of alphabetical ordering. 12.4 Page Heading Words The words in the top margin of each page, given in both devanagarT and Roman transliterated forms, indicate respectively the first and last entry words to be found on that page. Do make use of these rather than the body of the text as you scan through the pages looking up a word: but don't rely on them totally, for they can sometimes be misleading in that they do not indicate at which of the four levels of alphabetical order they occur. Examine the words at the top of page 732 for example, and note that the first (birala) is in devanagarT script in the text, and the last (bljin) is in transliterated Roman: these words are at different levels in the hierarchy of alphabetical orders. Again, on the next page the heading words are at the second and third levels; and turning over the page, the words at the top of page 735 are both at the second level but are in reverse alphabetical order, being derive from different words in the devanagarT script: had one been looking for qJ-nT (the first entry in the second column), the heading words would have been quite misleading. When you suspect that you have been misled by the page heading words, turn a few pages backwards (towards 3T) and follow the devanagarT entries in the body of the dictionary. This situation does not happen often and so one forgets about it, but be aware that it CAN happen. At this stage you could start to make use of the dictionary if there are words that you particularly want to look up, but for the moment leave aside words beginning with ^T (sa). 12.5 Dictionary Practice Look up the words in the following list in the dictionary. The words in the list will all be found at the start of an entry (like buddhi) and not buried in the text; the words may be in devanagarT or transliterated in the dictionary. The exercise is to find the word in the dictionary and not to examine the meaning of the word, so simply find the word and note the page and column in the form: buddhi 733b (i.e. page 733, second (=b) column). When you are more familiar with the dictionary, it should take no longer to find a word in the Sanskrit dictionary than it does in the English dictionary, say fifteen seconds. Common errors of first-time users are: (1) Confusing the English and Sanskrit alphabetical orders, (2) Forgetting that 'a' and 'a' for example, are two separate letters, (3) Not seeing what is actually there, both in the list of words and in the dictionary: watch those diacritics! (4) Failing to use the page heading words, (5) Misunderstanding the structure of the devanagarT and transliterated entries, (6) Wasting time by reading interesting but irrelevant entries. You have been warned: but go ahead and fall flat on your face anyway! But then do observe what tripped you up. 1. at man 2. hetu 3. yoga 4. prakrti 5. jnana 6. ananda 7. vyakarana 8. brahman 9. guru 10. rajas 11. citta 12. rsi 13. visnu 14. hrdaya 15. purusa 16. manas 17. sarlra 18. bhakti 19. ananta 20. krsna Lesson 13 13.1 Words Beginning with Sa- The prefix sam- ('altogether', expressing conjunction, union, completeness) is very common, and thus there are many words beginning with it; since the final -m is often replaced with the anusvara, difficulties may arise if the rules for pronouncing the anusvara are not thoroughly practised. In looking up words containing the anusvara it is essential to sound the word, replacing the anusvara with its savarna nasal where applicable, and then look up the word in the standard alphabetical order with that substituted nasal. For example, in the word "MM <SM the anusvara is sounded as the savarna JT and is then found in the dictionary where one would expect to find "H ^-y <SM; similarly for ^FTrT, look up <H$rM; for ^T$TT, ^TT; and for ^Tfa, ^TT^; etc. There are two points to bear in mind here: firstly, the tradition followed by Monier- Williams makes this nasal substitution only before a sparsa (the twenty-five from ka to ma); and secondly, one needs to make the same nasal substitution for the anusvara for the words in the dictionary, i.e. sound them! Do remember that in the dictionary the anusvara before an antahstha is not substituted with a nasal: for example, the anusvara in "H 3K is not substituted and therefore, in the dictionary order where the anusvara appears before the consonants, "H ^K will be before "H g K which in turn will be before HH^hrH, the last being in the dictionary order of "H f^* C^ . As an illustration of the importance of sounding the words, examine the third column of page 1125 of the dictionary: the last three words given in devanagarT script are "H'T'lrt, "H |>*, and "H ch"^ — and that is the alphabetical order in sound! This principle applies wherever the anusvara occurs, and not only to words beginning with sam-. For example, in column two of page 124 is the entry 3l^<H in devanagarT, and derived from it (and hence transliterated) is the next entry word aham (note the anusvara): the samasa formed with aham — (-yati, -yu, -vadin etc.) are listed in alphabetical order — but note that the sparsa (-karana, -kartavya, etc.) are listed after the antahstha and usman. Again, the anusvara is sounded with its replacement savarna nasal to give 3T^!~|p7 j r (and, of course, W follows the anusvara in the alphabetical order). 13.2 Structure of Devanagan Level The outermost layer of the dictionary, namely the entries in devanagarT script, should ideally only contain dhatu, but in practice it includes those words whose form has changed radically (e.g. by samprasarana), or have a prefix added, or whose dhatu is not known. Turn to page 733 of the dictionary and examine the devanagarT entries in the first column. The last word in this column is in large devanagarT type, indicating a major dhatu: the entry for this word begins with its transliterated form, followed by "cl. i" which stands for 'class-1'. There are ten classes of dhatu (i.e. ten ways of conjugating verbs), but this, together with the other information given in the dhatu entry, will be explained in the next lesson. At this stage, simply be aware that a devanagarT entry, followed by its transliterated form and a class number, is a dhatu. Returning to the top of the first column, the first entry is qT*T, which is a dhatu, and is followed by ff^irH which is not a dhatu, but the entry shows that it is derived from the dhatu badh. For the next three words, no etymology is given, which means that the dhatu is not known (to Monier- Williams anyway) and may be foreign words absorbed into Sanskrit. The word WW> is onomatopoeic (i.e. it sounds like the thing signified). This is followed by WW> whose etymology is not known, the dhatu W^fr, and "^"H whose root is not known. The next dhatu W^f is also given the alternative reading vung; the similarity in both sound and form of 3" and 3" allows this to happen. The next two entries are dhatu; note that *C is given as both class-1 and -10, and 3"5 is class-6. These are followed by the onomatopoeic ^IS^S, the personal name «(Krt, and the dhatu 3"<?. The next word, «(«&, gives references to columns two and three: common words like this are often listed in the devanagarT with a cross-reference given to their etymological entry position. This is followed by the onomatopoeic *{%<*. and finally the dhatu ^T. That was a pretty mixed bag of words, but does illustrate the many types of entries listed in devanagarT, except for those beginning with a prefix which form the bulk of the words listed in devanagarT. Page 672 of the dictionary is representative of this type of entry: the second column begins with y Id-H"^ and in transliteration is conveniently split into the prefix and dhatu as prati-i/suc; the next entry y Id-y'^K has two prefixes prati-sam-^/car, and half-way down the column is Vi I d "H <H I I <* 31 having three prefixes prati-sam-a-i/dis. The transliteration shows the etymology of the word, and allows each element to be separately examined in the dictionary. 13.3 Structure within non-Dhatu Entries The entries for naman (nouns), visesana (adjectives), and avyaya (indeclinables, typically kriya-visesana adverbs), are listed in their pratipadika form, followed by a description indicating their meaning. The first division of naman is into liriga (gender), and this is shown in the dictionary by 'm.', 'f.' or 'n.' (masculine, feminine, neuter). The visesana, in bringing a quality to a naman, must have the same linga as that naman, and must therefore be able to take any form of the three linga, and are thus indicated in the dictionary as 'mm.' Examine the entry for Buddha in the second column of page 733: it begins with 'mm.', indicating a visesana; however, six lines down is 'm. a wise or learned man', so Buddha can also be a masculine naman; and further down (just before the bold type -kapalinl) is 'n. knowledge', thus the word Buddha can also be a neuter noun. Thus the same pratipadika form may be a visesana or a naman, so if the heading word indicates 'mm.' one may yet find 'm.' etc. buried in the text for that word. The converse does not apply: had the entry been 'Buddha, m. a wise man', there will be no 'mm.' buried in the text — this reflects the overall structure of the dictionary in tapering down from the general to the particular, from a quality (visesana) to the specific (naman). A fuller illustration of this principle is shown under the entry 4)h near the bottom of the third column of page 481: 1st line: mf(a)n. long, lofty, tall . . . visesana form 5th line: (am) ind. long, for a long time . . . avyaya form 7th line: m. a long vowel . . . pum-linga naman 12th line: (a) f. an oblong tank . . . strT-linga naman 14th line: n. a species of grass . . . napumsaka-linga naman. This is the general order followed in the dictionary within the text for an entry word. Return to page 733, and lightly read through the text for the word Buddha: the information provided about Gautama Buddha (the founder of Buddhism) is typical of the encyclopaedic scope of the dictionary. Now lightly read through the text for the word Buddhi in the third column. Here, as a bonus, you are given an insight into the mythology of India, where the gods and their consorts are the personification of universal forces: from Daksa (the Creative Force) arises Buddhi (Intelligence), which, guided by Dharma (Law), produces Bodha (Knowledge). 13.4 References and Abbreviations On page xxxiii of the Introduction is the List of Works and Authors that Monier- Williams has consulted in compiling the dictionary: look for a few works that you know to see how it is abbreviated in the body of the dictionary, for example, Bhag. for Bhagavad-gTta and MBh. for MahaBharata. The next page of the dictionary has a list of symbols that are used: read through and understand these. The last four symbols are not very clear, but will be elucidated in the next section. The following page of the dictionary lists the abbreviations that are used. Make it a discipline to look up the references (when appropriate) and abbreviations (always) when you are not sure what it stands for — this way you will very soon become familiar with them. 13.5 Special Symbols ° and A^AA The little circle (°) is a standard abbreviation symbol in the devanagarT script to denote either the first or last part of a word that has to be supplied from the context. Monier- Williams also uses this symbol to abbreviate English words in order to save space. As an illustration of its use, if the word 'conscious' is under discussion, rather than repeat the word in full, the abbreviation con° or even c° may be used; similarly °ly would mean consciously, and °ness, consciousness. The caret symbols denote a joining of vowels, short or long. These are used in the transliterated script for samasa (compound words), and very helpfully indicate the length of the final and initial vowels at the point of union, so that the words may readily be looked up separately: ^ denotes the joining of two short vowels, as a + a => a, denotes the joining of a short with a long vowel, as a + a => a, ^ denotes the joining of a long with a short vowel, as a + a => a, denotes the joining of two long vowels, as a + a => a. These are also used when the rules of sandhi change the vowel sound, e.g. a + i => e, a + u => o etc. 13.6 Significance of Hyphen and Caret Symbols Turning again to page 733 column two, find the samasa listed under Buddha beginning with -kapalinT and -kalpa: the hyphen not only indicates that the word is appended to Buddha (see section 12.3), but that kapalinT and kalpa are words that may be separately looked up in the dictionary, and this is why the next samasa, -kaya-varna-parinispatty-abhinirhara is itself hyphenated (each element, kaya and varna for example, may usually be separately found in the dictionary). Where the samasa is printed in full, as in Buddhagama, which stands for Buddha-agama, this use of the caret symbol allows the second word of the samasa to be correctly determined as beginning with a dlrgha a, so that agama can be separately looked up. Similarly, the samasa printed as Buddhaiduka stands for Buddha-eduka and not Buddha-aiduka (which are the two possibilities listed in the vowel sandhi grid of 10. A. 3): the reasoning here is that, although ^ and ^ are both long vowels, the 'weaker' of the two vowels in terms of guna and vrddhi (see section 10. A. 2), is given the thin stroke in the caret symbol. 13.7 Supplement to Dictionary If a word is not found in the main dictionary, look for it in the supplement of Additions and Corrections beginning on page 1308. 13.8 Dictionary Practice Look up the words in the following list in the dictionary: the words may be at any of the four levels of alphabetical order, and they may be printed in devanagarT or transliterated Roman or both, and hyphenated appropriately. i. 3Mi|oiin^ch ii. j-m1j-msii<mh 2. ^RTWrfT 12. ft%^> 3. RMlf^cMrt 13. ^TK 4. 4H*fd 14. VLIH4N 5. *f^wi is. arsTRfa 6. TO 16. -SngTrf 7. 4HJ|<H<H(ul 17. l^<Ui|J|jf 8. srf^nf is. -q<fwqTC 9. sllrt^M^ 19. J^dlRl 10. ^JNsfldl 20. 3T^trT Lesson 14 14.1 Tracing a Word to its Dhatu Since the dictionary is essentially etymologically arranged, it is quite straightforward to trace a word to its dhatu. This is best illustrated by example: find the word Vy-anjana in the third column of page 1029. Vy-anjana, mfn. manifesting, indicating ... m. a consonant . . . n. decoration, ornament; manifestation, indication . . . specification; a mark, badge, sign, token; ... a consonant. Since this entry is not in devanagarT, follow the entry words backwards (towards 3T) until an entry given in devanagarT (the outermost level of alphabetical order). In the middle of the second column is: °^5l vy-yj ' anj ... to anoint thoroughly; to decorate, adorn, beautify; to cause to appear, manifest, display; This is the kriya from which the naman vyanjana derives. The next step in analysing this word is to look up the two component parts of this verb, namely vy- and dhatu ahj. In the second column of page 1028 is found: o*T vy, in comp. before vowels for 3.vi Here is an example of vowel sandhi used in forming a word. In the third column of page 949 is the entry: W 3.vi, ind. . . . used as a prefix to verbs and nouns ... to express 'division', 'distinction', 'distribution', 'arrangement' . . . Compare this with the sense of the upasarga vi- given in 7.B.I. The dhatu of vyanjana is given in the first column of page 11: 3TsT o,nj, ... to decorate ... to celebrate ... to cause to appear, make clear . . . Compare all this information with the description of vyanjana given at the start of the first lesson. Now that may appear to be a very flowery description of what is simply a consonant, but in this complicated hi-tech age the profundity of simple things is often overlooked: the ability to form a range of consonants is what separates man from animal. A dog may be able to howl a perfect prolonged U3 , but can it embellish that to say 'Who could fool you?'. Without adorning the vowel sounds with consonants there would be no language: without language there would be no mathematics or science, no history or philosophy, no culture or civilisation — all this rich diversity is founded on the simplicity of vowels and consonants. Indeed, many scriptures speak of the creative power of speech, and that creation itself is spoken into existence. 14.2 Dhatu Entry Information Turn again to the dhatu budh at the bottom of the first column of page 733. That the dhatu is printed in large devanagarT means that it is a major dhatu; this is followed by the numeral '1', which indicates that there is another entry budh, which may or may not be another dhatu (in fact it is a visesana listed in the first column on the next page). Next, 'cl.i. P.A.' indicates that the dhatu conjugates according to class-1 rules in both parasmai-pada and atmane-pada; this is followed by the Dhatu-Patha reference '(Dhatup.xxi,ll)'. The following two words, which are printed in light italic, 'bodhati, °te show the lat (present indicative) prathama purusa eka-vacana forms, i.e. bodhati and bodhate for parasmai-pada and atmane-pada respectively. Next there is 'cl.4. A.' which means that it may also be found as a class 4 atmane- pada verb; '(xxvi,63)' is a Dhatu-Patha reference; next 'budhyate' shows the lat conjugation as a class-4 verb. The 'ep. also P. °tV means that in the epics it may also be found conjugated in (class-4) parasmai-pada, where the form will be buddhyati. (Observe, just as a matter of interest, that the dhatu vowel remains unchanged when conjugated as a class-4 verb, but in the class-1 conjugation the vowel has the guna form; some other classes use the vrddhi form.) The next eight lines show conjugations of this dhatu for other lakara (tenses and moods) etc., before starting the English translations 'to wake' etc. (Again, simply note that some of the forms have the first syllable 're-duplicated' (e.g. bubodha) or prefixed with 'a' (e.g. abudhram).) Within the English translation section, passive forms of the verb are given, as also derivative verb forms. The last four lines show associated verbs in several other Indo-European languages. Some dhatu entries give much less information, such as qPT near the top of the first column, whilst others give more information, such as y/<£ l.kr at the end of page 300, but the overall format is similar. 14.3 Numbered Entries Words having the same spelling may have quite different etymologies; having different derivations, their meanings will be quite different: in such cases, where entries have the same spelling, Monier- Williams numbers these 1,2,3, and so on. For example, turning to the second column on page 32, find the two consecutive entries for 3mNcI — 3iHl Md 1. anu-cita, mfn. (/l. ci), set or placed along or . . . 3iHl Md 2. an-ucita, mfn. improper, wrong, unusual strange . . . Note the numerals and the different derivations indicated in the transliterated forms. The first is derived from i/l. ci, which in turn indicates that there is more than one dhatu ci (in fact there are three); the second is derived from i/ uc > which is found by looking up ucita on page 172c. Further down the column are two entries for anucchindat which have different derivations from the same dhatu. Note that the numerals appear before the transliterated form, both here and in 3mNcI above. Also note that these words do not have consecutive entries: indeed they may be separated by several pages, as we shall see shortly. In the next column, observe that there are two entries for 34 H ^1 1 , which both have SO the same etymological derivation, but the first is a verb and the second a noun. Turning to page 662, find the entry for pratipana in the middle of the second column, where it is given as — 1. -pana m. (for 2. see s.v.) — now find the meaning of 's.v.' in the list of abbreviations on page xxxv (two pages before page 1). The entry for pratipana that we are now examining is at the third level of alphabetical order, and we now need to find it at the outermost (devanagarl) alphabetical order: this is at the bottom of the second column on page 667. Here Monier- Williams gives a clear reference to where we have just come from: where the numbered entries are widely spaced (five pages in this case), he usually, but not always, gives pointers to where the other entry may be found. Be aware that the numbered entries inform you that there are at least two entries with the same spelling: for example, there are five entries for cit on pages 394-5, and a sixth on page 398. It would be a useful exercise to find them. Be warned that this numbering system is not perfect: for example, y^ll is indicated as a verb in the first column of page 659, and as a noun in the second column, but these are not numbered. Again, in the third column of page 401 are two entries for hCI , but neither of refer to cet in 397c, which in turn does not refer to the other two. Although there are these inconsistencies, there are fortunately very few of them. 14.4 Misleading Words Because of the etymological foundation of the dictionary and its four levels of alphabetical order, some words may not be straightforward to find. We shall examine three such words here. Astaiiga — Turn to page 116: according to the heading words we should find astaiiga here. If we look down the second column there are three entries for asta, and in the next column asta, but there is no astaiiga, not even at the third level of samasa. However, for reasons best known to himself, Monier- Williams has here decided to have a separate entry word for samasa where the adjoining word starts with 'a': astaiiga is on the third line of the first column of page 117. Vicara — Turn to page 950: again, according to the heading words we should find vicara in the middle of the second column. All the samasa listed on this page are derived from Th on the previous page. The trick here is to escape out of the current level of alphabetical order to the next higher level: searching backward for the entry word under which these samasa are listed, we come to Th on the previous page. This is the outermost (devanagarl) level — now remain at that level and search for vicara. The next devanagarl entry is In 31 on 953b, and the page ends with N^rt : continue forward at the devanagarl level, looking for Ih^K. This will be found near the bottom of 958c where it simply refers to vi-^/car, and thus the entry word is found near the bottom of 958b. Sattva — This will be found listed as "HT^ in 1138b, where it gives a cross-reference to page 1135 column 2: and indeed there it is listed as Sat-tva. However, if the word had not been found on page 1138, you would not have found it on this page, not according to the heading words which indicate that it is on the previous page. It is in fact listed at the third level in 1134c where it simply gives 'see below' — this means scan forward over entry words (at level-1 or -2) for the entry. These examples illustrate that the page heading words are a useful guide to get within ten pages or so of the target word, but that they can also mislead. This confusion arises because the page heading words may refer to any of the first three levels of alphabetical order: if the word sought is not quickly found on the expected page, then examine the heading words a few pages before and after. If the word is still not found, then examine entries at the next level of alphabetical order, until finally at the outermost devanagarT level. 14.5 Difficult Words Some words, because of their etymological development, are just plain difficult to find. When you have exhausted all the tricks that you know with the dictionary (see sections 12.5, 13.7, and 14.4), then consider the following: (a) If it is a short word (one or two syllables) then it may not be listed in the dictionary at all: the declension of pronouns, for example, is irregular and the only recourse is to lists of paradigms. (b) If it has three or more syllables, treat it as a samasa and use the sandhi rules to split it into parts at every syllable — this process may seem rather laborious, but it does get there if the word is listed in the dictionary. This detective work is illustrated with two words: Yatatman — The word is not found as a samasa under *T or *TcT, and there is no entry word Yata. So let's split the word at a: we could have yata-atman, yata-atman, yata-atman, or yata-atman. The first two don't help because we have already found that there is no entry word Yata — but there is an entry word

  • TcT. Don't get excited: it is a guess and could be wrong. Nevertheless, following

this clue to page 845 we find Yatatman in the third column — who would have guessed that it came from dhatu yam? Svadhyaya — Having worked our way to the devanagarT level of alphabetical order, we find the closest entry is "WIhM, but reading the text for that entry we find 'svadhyaya, see pl277, col. 2.' And indeed there we find two entries: the first as a noun and the second as a verb. Alternatively we could have tried splitting the word ourselves, working from the left again, to produce su-adhyaya, su-adhyaya, sva-dhyaya, sva-adhyaya, sva- adhyaya, sva-adhyaya, or sva-adhyaya. Having found nothing useful under ^T (five entries) or ^T (four entries) or "Wl, we would have arrived at ^ and thus find the entries in 1277b. However, this is not the end of the story: we want to find the dhatu from which this word derives, but cannot find adhyaya on page 23 where we would expect it. So we do the same trick again, starting from the left, giving a-dhyaya: but nothing suitable is found under 3T (six entries), nor is the entry word dhyaya found. So we proceed to the next syllable: adhi-aya, adhT-aya, adhya-aya, adhya-aya, adhya- aya, and adhya-aya. Again we find nothing helpful under 3TTh (two entries), but under 3ThT we find the entry word Adhy-aya! Having found the word, we return to the devanagarT level (3ThT), and there the dhatu is given as y/. 14.6 Dictionary Practice Look up the following words in the dictionary and trace their etymology as shown in 14.1 (as an aid, the English equivalent is also given): 1. 3R-RT (fearlessness) 2. H u l (abundance) 3. y rM I $ K (withdrawal) 4. 3l^lHrH (steadiness) 5. R3 c h<Hlq<5 (skilled in painting) 6. Hlm<HlfHrll (not too much pride) Lesson 15 15.1 Introduction to Dhatu-Patha A word standing alone expresses a universal: in a sentence it refers to a particular, and its meaning is restricted according to the context. A word is thus given many meanings in the dictionary: the particular meaning is selected according to the context in which it is used. Nouns, which name things, 'freeze' an aspect of the activity of a dhatu; whereas verbs, which express the activity of a sentence, derive directly from the dhatu. A dhatu is therefore the most universal element of all words; and the Dhatu-Patha is a dhatu dictionary, as it were: it provides a sense of the underlying meaning of the dhatu — usually in just one word! The Dhatu-Patha (lit. 'Recitation of Roots') also encodes a wealth of grammatical information about the conjugation of verbs and the formation of nouns derived from each dhatu: much of this information will not be used at this stage of the study. This lesson is concerned with extracting the artha, or 'meaning', of each dhatu from the Dhatu-Patha, and its application in the study of the scriptures. 15.2 The Contents Page This lists the ten gana, or classes of dhatu conjugation. Each gana is named after the first dhatu in its section: for example, the first is J<lll^ g l u l , which word is formed from bhu-adi-gana, the class beginning with ^/bhu, where adi means 'beginning with'. The eleventh class, «h u S lK g l u l , is a class of dhatu derived from nouns, i.e. names that have come to be used as verbs. As an example of this class in the dictionary, see 2. Payasya in 586a, where 'Nom.' is the abbreviation for 'Nominal Verb'. (Note: 'Nominal' is the adjectival form of 'noun', and here means 'derived from a noun'.) The immediate utility of this page is that it connects the dictionary classification, e.g. cl.l, with that used in the Index, i.e. J-^T . Note that this publication makes use of alternate character forms to those we have been using in this course (see section 9. A. 2); and since the page numbers are also in devanagarT, note the numeral forms used (especially for 8 and 9). 15.3 The Text Body Turn to the first page of the body of the Dhatu-Patha: after the heading the rest of the page, and subsequent pages, are divided into two columns. In the lefthand column the first entry is: This is the first dhatu (bhu) together with its artha, or 'meaning', (sattayam). Following this are a few lines of technical information which may be ignored, and the next entry is: ^r pji and so on. Note the layout which gives the dhatu and artha in two columns: there may be more than one dhatu in the first column, and the artha may spread over more than one line. For example, a little lower down is the entry: =TT*J, ^TPJ WTTrTTWqf- Y^t:^l giving both dhatu the same artha. In the Dhatu-Patha each dhatu usually has an extra syllable appended to the end of it, and sometimes one appended before it: for example, the above four appear in the dictionary as ^T ^T *TPT and »TT*T. These extra syllables are called anubandha (lit. 'bound along with'), and encode further grammatical information which is not now required: our interest at this stage is in the basic dhatu and its artha. The artha is generally expressed in saptamT vibhakti, which may be translated as 'in the sense of. For example, the dhatu edh (to prosper, increase, become happy grow strong- mw231c) is used 'in the sense of vrddhi (growth, success, fortune, etc. — MWlOlla)'. Thus all words derived from this dhatu have this sense of expansive good fortune — a sense that may be overlooked in some of the English words offered in translation. Where the artha is a single word, the eka-vacana form is used; when two words (formed into a samasa), the dvi-vacana form; and when three or more words, the bahu-vacana form. When the artha has two or more words, the compound formed is an itaretara dvandva samasa (see ll.B.l), forming a simple list of words which, not compounded, would be expressed in the same vibhakti and be joined together with ^T (and). In this type of samasa only the last word of the compound takes a vibhakti ending; the others remain in their pratipadika form. To get back to the pratipadika form as listed in the dictionary, use the following: (a) eka-vacana endings have six forms: for an ending in -e, read -a, for an ending in -ayam, read -a, for an ending in -yam, read -i, for an ending in -au, read -i, for an ending in -i, remove -i (i.e. ends in halanta vyanjana), for an ending in -uvi, read -u, (b) dvi-vacana samasa end in -yoh, which is removed, (c) bahu-vacana samasa end in su, for those ending in -esu, read -a, in other cases simply remove the -su. The itaretara dvandva samasa will generally not be found in the dictionary as one would expect to find a samasa listed, instead the words will need to be looked up separately. This is straightforward enough: simply start at the left and find the word in the dictionary that uses most syllables; assume that is the first word, and then repeat the process with the following syllables — but do remember that sandhi rules apply at the junction of words. Some entries in the Dhatu-Patha differ from the common format of dhatu and artha illustrated above. For example, when the artha is given as two separate words, both in saptamT vibhakti, then the first of the pair is a visesana. The last entry on the first page is of this type: Here the dhatu hrad (to delight or refresh -mw1307c) is used 'in the sense of unmanifest (avyakta-MWlllb) sound (sabda-MWl052b)'. The quality of happiness and refreshment referred to, is thus that which comes from within, from the stillness of unmanifest sound, and not that happiness and refreshment that comes from without, i.e. through the senses — here we have a subtlety of meaning that is not at all obvious from the English translation. The interpretation of other variations in the format is described: (a) When the dhatu is followed by ^T ( = and, also), then this has the same artha as the previous dhatu. (b) When the artha is given as a word followed by ^T, then the artha for that dhatu is that word together with the artha of the previous dhatu. (c) When the artha is followed by Hl^cl , it means that this artha is not given elsewhere in the Dhatu-Patha. (Hl^cl = ^T-3^Tn = not spoken, i.e. not mentioned elsewhere.) (d) When the artha is followed ^T^% (= ^m-^ = thus in one) or ffcT^T (= ^ I n-3i "™M = thus in another), this refers to artha given in different versions of the Dhatu-Patha as handed down, and are comments by the compiler of this edition. (e) Where the artha is given as a samasa ending in 3PTt«  (prathama bahu-vacana of 3PT; bahu-vacana because the artha applies to several dhatu), then ' 3T 5 Tt« ' may be translated as 'for the purpose of, i.e. expressing motive. For example, dhatu W™{ has the artha f^TPlf: (ff^TT = injury, harm- MWl 297c), and may be construed as 'for the sake of (causing) injury', or 'with the aim of harming'. (f) Some entries have an unusual format, enclosed by purnavirama (II) and may have the order of dhatu and artha reversed: these dhatu have a special meaning when they are I <H rl causatives (treated as having an ffcT 3-T which prevents the normal lengthening of 3T in the causative). 15.4 The Index In the body of the Dhatu-Patha the dhatu are grouped together according to common grammatical features of their development into words. This ordering is not at all helpful in seeking the entry for the dhatu. Fortunately the Dhatu-Patha includes an index listing the dhatu in alphabetical order and indicating where each dhatu is listed in the body. The index also provides more grammatical information, some of which is helpful in finding the correct dhatu. The index starts on page 53: each page is divided into two columns, so that a dhatu together with its grammatical information is listed on one line, in fact, one row of tabulated data, six columns wide. These columns, from left to right, provide the following information: (a) The dhatu together with its anubandha: the index is ordered alphabetically according to this column. (b) The gana to which the dhatu belongs: this column has just the first syllable of the gana, which is shown in full on the contents page. (c) The bhasa (= speech; synonymous with pada used in this course), which may be atmane-bhasa, parasmai-bhasa, or ubhayato-bhasa (= both, i.e. atmane and parasmai ). (d) Whether the dhatu is "HC (= ^T-^ C, accepts augment f? in its expansion), or 3i I H C (= 3T*T-§C, does not do so): this may be ignored at this stage. (e) The page number on which the dhatu together with its artha may be found. (f) The column on that page where it may be found. The first entry of the index shows that the dhatu 3T^> (with its anubandha) belongs to J-qil^ g l u l , is TT^T-^TT^T, and may be found on page 17 column 1, as: Note that the index has two entries for dhatu 3T^> with different anubandha vowels (i.e. 3T^> and 3TTh>), whereas the dictionary lists only one dhatu 3T^>. Where the dhatu has more than one entry in the index, do make use of the information given in the dictionary immediately after the dhatu heading word: this information gives the class (gana) and bhasa of the dhatu (see (b) and (c) above); for example, 'cl. 1 A.' means class 1 (bhvadi-gana) and atmane- bhasa; 'cl. 4 P.' means divadi-gana parasmai-bhasa, etc. (the table of contents in the Dhatu-Patha gives the order of the gana). Where the dictionary gives both bhasa, as 'P. A.', this is the equivalent of ubhayato-bhasa in the Dhatu-Patha. At the end of the index, on page 99, is an Addendum listing entries that had been omitted from the main index. 15.5 Dhatu Spelling Changes The spelling of the dhatu may differ from that given in the dictionary: (a) An initial ^T may be spelt here with an initial ?. E.g. ^T Vf^T listed as f^T; ^mA^K V^PT as ^. (b) An initial ^T may be spelt here with an initial T E.g. ^TK V^ listed as W?; 3tr? 7%^ as "°^- (c) When the dhatu has a final f? as an anubandha, it may require the insertion of a nasal after the vowel of the dhatu. E.g. 3TFT^ V^T^ listed as [3]=Tfc; *W5W> 7*^3 as JTT%. These spelling changes may also be combined, as in M'-^l /l«i«-<* which is listed in the Dhatu-Patha as f^rf^. (Those seeking the technical reasons behind these changes should consult the commentaries to Panini 6.1.64, 6.1.65, and 7.1.58 respectively.) 15.6 Illustrations of Dhatu-Patha Use The dhatu for each word of the previous exercise of Dictionary Practice (section 14.6) will be used as a practical demonstration in the use of the Dhatu-Patha: the dhatu is located in the index, then its artha found in the body, and finally the artha is examined in the dictionary. (1) Mv758a ^/Ht l.bhi, cl.3.P. ... to fear, be afraid of Dh.P. Index: [f^]4t 3T T° 3P QS ? Dh.P Body: f>T*ft *T^I Mv747a ^-RT bhaya n. (^bhi) fear, alarm, dread . . . Notes: This dhatu has its anubandha syllable placed in front of it: in the index this is enclosed in square brackets so that the dhatu HT may be found in alphabetical order. The class (juhotyadi-gana) and bhasa agree with the information provided in the dictionary, so the dhatu entry [>I<HT is sought in the Dhatu-Patha body in the first column of page 26: it is the second entry. The notes in section 15.3 may be used to 'remove' the vibhakti from the artha (although this declension should be familiar), and the remaining word in its pratipadika form is looked up in the dictionary. In this case the given artha is itself derived from the dhatu being examined, and thus provides no further insight into the sense of the dhatu than that provided by the dictionary entry. (2) Mv648a 1/ 1 ? pri, cl.9P. ... to fill . . . to sate, cherish, nourish Dh.P. Index: TJ ?0T o T° %° 3S ? Dh.P. Body: "<J MlrtHM<U|i|l: I Mv623a Palana mf(l)n. guarding, nourishing ... n. the act of guarding, protecting, nourishing, defending . . . Mv642a Purana mf(l)n. filling, completing, satisfying . . . m. 'completer' . . . n. the act of filling or filling up. Notes: The index has three entries for dhatu ?? so the class (kryadi-gana) and bhasa information from the dictionary is used to select the correct one. The dhatu with its artha are in fact at the top of the second column of page 39: there are a number of such errors, so beware! The vibhakti ending of the artha is the dvi-vacana form (see section 15.3), so we can expect to look up two words in the dictionary. As nouns (which is the sense here), both words end in '-na' (with or without sandhi changes) — this is a common neuter suffix usually meaning 'the act of . . . ', and is given as such in the dictionary translation. The artha palana adds the sense of 'nourishing' to the 'filling up' of purana (which itself derives from the dhatu pr). This gives a beneficial aspect to the dhatu: it is not to fill to the point of bloatedness, nor is it to fill with rubbish, but the sense is of generous abundance. (3) MWl302a yf l.hri, cl.l. P.A. ... to take, bear, carry Dh.P. Index: |>T ^° 3° 3P Qo ? Dh.P. Body: f^^tl MWl289a Harana mf(a or l)n. carrying, holding, containing . . . n. the act of carrying or bringing or fetching. Notes: The gana and bhasa are used to select the dhatu entry. (4) Mv252b v /c h J -'^ kamp, cl.l. A. ... to tremble, shake. Dh.P. Index: ^T ^° 3TT° ^"° 6 Q Dh.P. Body: ^T ^cT^I Mv391b Calana, mf(a)n. moving, movable, tremulous . . . n. shaking motion, shaking, trembling. Notes: If the dhatu is not found at its expected place in the alphabetical order in the index, nor in the Addendum, then check for applicable dhatu spelling changes (see section 15.5): the third rule applies here. (5a) Mv395b 1/Ncl A.cit, cl.l ... to perceive, fix the mid upon, attend to . . . Dh.P. Index: f%ft ^° T° %° Q ? Dh.P. Body: f^ff ^l^l mw1133c Sam-jnana mf(l)n. producing harmony . . . n. unanimity, harmony with . . . consciousness . . . right perception Notes: Again, the gana is used to select the entry in the index. Observe the aspect of harmony and unity provided by the artha: there is no passion or ulterior motive in the perception or attention of the dhatu cit. (5b) mw300c y/<£ l.kri . . . cl.2. P. . . . to do, make, perform, accomplish. Dh.P Index: [|]f^TrT° 3° 3P 36 Q Dh.P. Body: | f >T ^T^t I Mv254a Karana mf(a)n. doing, making, effecting, causing ... m. a helper, companion . . . n. the act of making, doing, producing, effecting, . . . NOTES: The dictionary entry for this dhatu is quite lengthy: reading through the first column of page 301, it also gives 'cl.l.P.' and 'cl.5.P.' as well as 'cl.8 (this is the usual formation in the Brahmanas, Sutras, and in classical Sanskrit)'. The Dhatu-Patha does not list a class 2 dhatu ^>, hence the return to the dictionary for more information. In practice the cl.5 dhatu should also be examined, but its artha l^-H l^-ll-H , meaning 'in the sense of injury' is inappropriate to the original word that led us to the dhatu in the first place. (5c) Mv963b a/T9<? l.vid, cl.2. P. . . . to know, understand, perceive, learn . . . Dh.P. Index: "fe 3T° T° %° Qa ? Dh.P. Body: t%^ ^1 Mv426a Jhana n. knowing, becoming acquainted with, knowledge . . . Notes: The gana and bhasa given in the dictionary are used to choose among the five entries in the index for dhatu N<5 . (6) Mv783a i/J-M man, cl.8. 4. A. . . . to think, believe, imagine. Dh.P. Index: £R f^° 3TT° 3T° QS Q and 3=R rT° 3K° ^"° 36 Q Dh.P. Body: 3=R ^ I and 3=R 3f#^ I Mv426a Jhana n. knowing, becoming acquainted with, knowledge . . . MWlOlb Ava-bodhana, n. informing, teaching, instruction. Notes: Since the dictionary gives two classes for this dhatu and both are listed in the index, the artha for both need to be examined. In fact, given the original word that led to the dhatu, and which was to do with pride, both artha seem applicable: one to the opinion held in the mind, and the other to the expression of that opinion in word or deed (thus informing others). 15.7 Study of the Scriptures Since most scriptures are available in translation, it would be a pointless exercise to apply the dictionary and Dhatu-Patha to merely confirm the translation; in fact, all translations are significantly flawed by two factors: the first is the translator's level of understanding of the subject (in respect of the scriptures that means spiritual understanding) and his ability to express that understanding in another language; secondly, the student (the reader of the translation) has his own limited associations with the words in his native tongue. These sources of error and misunderstanding are minimized by studying the scriptures in the original language, and, through tracing the etymology of each word to its finest, most universal source, thereby overcoming the limitations that the individual has with particular words and ideas. The translations are helpful in selecting a passage for study, and to confirm that the correct word is being traced through the dictionary. After this preparatory work with the dictionary and Dhatu-Patha, the passage is considered in relation to the section of scripture in which it occurs, in relation to the scripture as a whole, in relation to the entire Veda: the mind is thus turned towards the spiritual world, and slowly trained to view all of life in terms of that spiritual world. It does take practice before realising that the scriptural texts can only be understood through contemplation and meditation. As an illustration of this method of study, let us examine a verse from the Bhagavad GTta: Chapter 10 Verse 33 is selected simply because it has some words and concepts introduced in this course. It is an extract from SrT Krsna's response to Arjuna's asking for details of His Glory and powers; the first line of the verse is: Of letters I am the letter A; I am the copulative of compound words. At first glance, this statement does not appear to be at all profound or have any spiritual associations whatsoever, but nonetheless we pursue it through the dictionary and Dhatu-Patha to see what may be discovered. Removing the sandhi from this line, we have: 3T$KI u l I JH sasthl bahu-vacana of 3TSTC. ""N • • • Mv3b 3f$R a-kshara mfn. imperishable ... n. a syllable, letter, vowel, sound, word. MWla 3T 3. a a prefix having a negative or privative or contrary sense. Mv327a Ksara mfn. melting away, perishable; m. a cloud; n. water; the body. Mv327a i/^T^ ksar, cl.l. P. to flow, stream, glide; to melt away, wane, perish . . . Dh.p. m ^rf° tt° %° ?<: q i m m$^ Mwll32a Sam-calana n. moving about, agitation, trembling, shaking. ^^K* — prathama eka-vacana of 3T^K. Mwla 3^-kara m. the letter or sound a. (see beginning of Lesson 3. A). Mv274b chK l.kdra mf(l)n. y/l.kri . . . making, doing, working . . . m. (ifc.) an act, action; the term used in designating a letter or sound or indeclinable word . . . mw300c 1/ ^> l.kri . . . cl.2. P. . . . to do, make, perform, accomplish DhP - [f]f r3 lrr o 3° 3T° 36 Qlf^r^oh Mv254a Karana mf(l)n. doing, making, effecting, causing ... m. a helper, com- panion . . . n. the act of making, doing, producing, effecting . . . 3TT^5T — eka-vacana uttama-purusa lat (present indicative) of i/ as = I am ■ Mvll7a 1/3TTT l.as cl.2. P. to be, live, exist, be present. . . Dh.P 3W 3T° ° %° Qy ? I 3TTT ^l mw760c 2.Bhu mfn. becoming, being, existing . . . f . the act of becoming or arising; the place of being, space, world or universe. $"-£: — prathama eka-vacana of $«-§ . Mv503b ^"^ n. a couple, male and female ... m. a copulative compound (or any compound in which the members if uncompounded would be in the same case and connected by the conjunction 'and'). Mv503b ^ original stem of dvi. mw504c f$ two. <WU-llRl*<W sasthl eka-vacana of <UWlR)«K Mvl206b "H IJ-Hl^Hch mf(l)n. (from sam-asa), comprehensive, concise, succinct, brief; relating to or belonging to a compound word; m. or n. a compound word, Bhag. Mvll52a "H <H 2.sam ind. (connected with 7.sa and 2.sama), with, together with, along with, altogether. Mvll52a , H<H 2.samamf(a)n. even, smooth . . . same, equal, similar like, equivalent, like to or identical or homogeneous with . . . MWllllb^T 7.5a ind. expressing 'junction', 'conjunction' ... 'similarity', 'equality' . . . 'having the same'. mw159c l.Asa m. seat. mw159c A /3il , M 2. as to sit quietly, abide, remain. Dh.P. 3TRT 3P 3TT° t° Q3 ?l 3TRT 3^%^FTl Mv207a Upa-vesana n. the act of sitting down, a seat; the being devoted to or engaged in. ^ — avyaya ^T . Mv380a ^T 2. ca ind. and, both, also, moreover, as well as . . . Reflections: The following personal reflections are offered as illustrative of this process of study: they are neither right nor wrong, neither good nor bad; they are simply what were presented to the mind in considering the passage. In all languages the first letter of the alphabet is A. The primacy of its position at the head of the alphabet reflects its role as the source of the whole alphabet. In Sanskrit this is easy to demonstrate: the figure given in 1.A.6 summarizes the core role of 3T in forming all the vowels; and from the five mouth positions of these vowels, are derived all the consonants. All words are formed from sound, and all sounds are derived from 3T; they are all but a modified form of that 3T, which is their source and support. In responding to Arjuna's question, Krsna gives many examples of being the foremost of several classes, and here the illustration is being the A of letters. Here the allusion is also to Consciousness as being the underlying Source and Support of the manifest creation (-^/asa bhuvi, 'in this world'). The sounds of the alphabet are imperishable (aksara): they may be manifest, they may change, they may be unmanifest, but are not subject to absolute destruction. If the sounds of the alphabet are imperishable, how then does one describe their source and support, the ever-present 3T? This may be understood as referring to the immutable Consciousness underlying the whole creation. The mark of the dvandva samasa is that there is an equality between the joined elements, and each retain its individuality (see ll.B.l). Giving this as the foremost of the samasa — where there is no difference in importance between the elements — places the emphasis on that which links them together. By analogy it is Consciousness that underlies the ever-changing variety of creation, holding it all together as one, yet allowing the elements to retain their individuality. By way of illustration, the attention at the moment is on the words on this page, on their significance and meaning. But what of the letters which form the words? Or the ink that forms the letters? And what about the paper that holds the ink in place? The plain white paper, which is taken for granted, is like Consciousness; and all the words, which are deemed important and interesting, are like creation. 15.8 Study Practice As a practice in using the dictionary and Dhatu-Patha in studying the scriptures, the other half of this verse from the Bhagavad GTta is offered, together with its grammatical division down to the pratipadika level. Examine each word in the dictionary, tracing it to its dhatu where possible, then find the artha in the Dhatu-Patha, and examine those words in the dictionary. Having done this mechanical work, consider the passage in a universal or spiritual sense, and write down what is presented to the mind. There are no right or wrong answers here, so do not look for clever results: the exercise is one of stretching the mind to larger issues than those that daily life normally offers. There is no rush with this part of the exercise: let the scripture come to mind over a period of a week or so, and then write down your understanding in clear readable English. As with all exercise, a little performed regularly has the greatest benefit in the long term. Sr^TTSPT: *FTr7t Vmi f%^ d) J^ : II I am verily Time inexhaustible; I am the Dispenser facing everywhere. Removing the sandhi from this line, we have: 3^*T ^ 3^PT: *FTr7: ^TRU 3^*T 1%^ cfl JTO : II 3T|T3T — prathama eka-vacana of personal pronoun T. ^ — avyaya = verily, indeed. 3f<8fPT« — prathama eka-vacana of aksaya = inexhaustible. ^Irt • — prathama eka-vacana of chlrt = time. Note: from the information given in the dictionary, it is not possible to select which of the entries in the Dhatu-Patha index is the correct one: one needs to examine the artha for the three possibilities and compare that with the meaning given in the dictionary. (The last entry is the most appropriate.) ^ICll — prathama eka-vacana of dhatr = dispenser. lq J ^ICll<H'*Sl« — prathama eka-vacana of visvatomukha = facing everywhere. Note: the verb 3TTT3T used in the first line of this verse, is implied here. Suggestions for Further Study There are many reasons for studying Sanskrit, from comparative linguistics to liberation, from poetry to philosophy, from simple chanting to mythology. Whatever the reason, the next obvious step is further study of the grammar. A personal bias needs to be declared here: my interest in Sanskrit lies in studying the scriptures, therefore translating from English into Sanskrit is irrelevant, and the building of a vocabulary detracts from the penetration of the scriptures (because of the limited worldly associations with familiar words). Furthermore, the range of grammar needs to be very wide: from the full etymology of each word (including the significance of each affix) to the figurative use in the most sublime writings. There are a wide range of books on Sanskrit grammar available, ranging from the introductory level to academic tomes: the majority of these approach the subject as they would any other foreign language, i.e. with a view to translation, rather than treating the study as a means to penetrate writings which express ideas and concepts foreign to the Western mind-set. Despite the above qualifications, the general reader will find the first five books in the list useful to further study of the grammar: (a) The Geeta, The Gospel of the Lord Shri Krishna, translated by Shri Purohit Swami, Faber and Faber: 80 pages, paperback. In clear easy-to-read language, rather than a literal translation: a delightful book, though expensive for its size. This translation provides a simple way of getting the context of a verse being studied, and is also useful in selecting a verse of interest to study. The verses are not numbered: it is worth the effort to work through the book numbering the verses in pencil, as well as putting the Chapter number in the top outer margin of each page. (b) The Bhagavad-Gita, translated by Winthrop Sargeant, SUNY: 739 pages, paperback. The Glta is written with simple and straightforward grammar, which, together with its magnificent philosophy and wealth of practical advice, makes it an ideal work with which to begin. This translation is especially suited to the Sanskrit student, as it expresses the grammar of the text as well as giving a word-by- word translation. (c) Sanskrit Manual, A Quick-reference Guide to the Phonology and Grammar of Classical Sanskrit, George S. Bucknell, Motilal Banarsidass: 254 pages, hardcover. As the title implies, it is a reference work containing many tables of noun declension and verb conjugation, with indices linking noun- and verb-endings and verb stems to the paradigm tables. A useful tool to determine the prdtipadika forms of nouns, tense etc. of verbs, from inflected words. (d) Teach Yourself Sanskrit, Michael Coulson, Hodder and Stoughton: 493 pages, paperback. This covers the grammar of Classical Sanskrit in some detail. Each chapter has translation exercises into and out of Sanskrit, with answers given at the back of the book. As a 'part-time' student studying alone, this is a 'hard' book because of its style, depth, and large vocabulary. It is useful as a semi-reference book when examining a particular concept in depth: the next book is a lot easier for general study. (e) A Rapid Sanskrit Method, George L. Hart, Motilal Banarsidass: 208 pages, paperback. Divided into thirty lessons, each introducing one or two topics, this book gives a broad understanding of the language without getting bogged down in details and exceptions. Each lesson has translation exercises, in both directions, but answers are not provided. (f) LaghukaumudT of Varadaraja, translated by James R. Ballantyne, Motilal Banarsidass: 451 pages, hardcover or paperback. This contains approximately one third of the sutras of Panini's Astadhyayi gathered together thematically to exhaustively explain word formations in Classical Sanskrit; the text and commentary are in devanagari with English translation. This is an exacting work and not to be tackled lightly, but is essential study to penetrate to the full spiritual significance of words. For further scriptural study, the Bhagavad Glta with Samkara's commentary in translation by A.M.Sastry is published by Samata Books; the major Upanisads are published with word-by- word translations of Swam! Sarvananda etc., by Sri Ramakrishna Math; or with Samkara's commentary by Advaita Ashrama (Eight Principal Upanisads, and Chhandogya, by Swam! Gambhlrananda; Brhadaranyaka by Swam! Madhavananda). Answers to Exercises Answers: Lesson 1 l.B.3.d.l. You stand and I speak. 4. I stand and he speaks. 2. He stands and you speak. 5. You speak and I stand. 3. I speak and you stand. 6. I stand and speak. l.B.3.e.l. tisthati vadami ca 4. vadasi tisthati ca 2. tisthasi vadati ca 5. tisthami vadati ca 3. vadasi tisthami ca 6. vadami tisthasi ca Answers: Lesson 2 2.B.2.C.I. They (pi.) stand and they (two) speak. 2. You (two) stand and we (two) speak. 3. We (pi.) speak and they (two) stand. 4. You (s.) stand and you (two) speak. 5. You (pi.) stand and you (two) speak. 6. They (two) speak and we (pi.) stand. 7. He stands and they (pi.) speak. 8. You (s.) stand and we (two) speak. 2.B.2.d.l. tisthavah vadatha ca 2. vadathah tisthanti ca 3. tisthathah vadathah ca 4. tisthanti vadami ca 5. tisthati vadatha ca 6. vadatah tisthati ca 7. tisthamah vadathah ca 8. vadatha tisthasi ca Answers: Lesson 3 3.B.3.C.I. The horse leads the man. 2. The man and horses (two) are standing. 3. The horses (two) lead the man to the trees (pi.). 4. The horse stands and the man speaks. 5. The man and the horse are leading. 6. We (pi.) lead the men (two) to the trees (pi.). 3.B.3.d.l. narah asvam nayate 2. asvau naram nayete 3. narah vadanti nayante ca 4. asvah naram vrksam nayate 5. vrksah asvah ca tisthatah 6. narah asvan nayante Answers: Lesson 4 4.B.3.d.l. The horse carries the man to the tree. 2. The man goes to the tree by horse. 3. You (pi.) take the trees (pi.) from the horse. 4. The horse carries the tree for the man. 5. The man and the horse go from the tree. 6. He leads the horse from the tree for the man. 4.B.3.e.l. asvena gacchati 2. asvam naraya nayethe 3. vrksan asvaih vahanti 4. asvan vrksat gacchamah 5. vrksam narat asvena labhavahe 6. asvah naram vrksebhyah vahanti Answers: Lesson 5 5.B.2.d.l. man, you are standing on the horse. 2. The horses (pi.) of the men (pi.) are standing. 3. The man takes the tree from the horse. 4. The man's horses (pi.) are standing among the trees (pi.). 5. The horses (two) carry the trees (pi.) for the man. 6. He takes the man from the tree by horse. 7. The horse goes to the man from the tree. 8. He stands on the horse and speaks. ■5.B.2.e.l. asvayoh tisthati 2. vrksesu narah asvah ca tisthatah 3. narayoh vrksah tisthanti 4. narasya asvah naram vrksebhyah vahati 5. asvau naram vrksam vahatah 6. (he) asva vrksam naraya vahasi 7. narasya asvan vrksat labhate 8. naram asvam vrksat vahathah Answers: Lesson 6 6.B.3.C.I. The girl leads the horse to the tree for fruit. 2. The horse carries the man and the girl to the tree. 3. The man's horse takes the fruit from the girl. 4. The men (two) take the fruit (pi.) of the trees (pi.) to the horse. 5. The girls (pi.) lead the men (pi.) to the fruit (pi.) by horse. 6. The girls (two) stand among the trees and speak. 7. I go to the trees (two) and take the fruit (pi.). 8. The man carries the fruit (two) from the tree for the girl. 9. The girls (two) take the fruit (pi.) from the man's tree. 10. The girl and the man carry the tree to the horse. 6.B.3.d.l. narah tisthati ca bala vadati 2. asvam nayethe ca phalam labhe 3. narah bala ca vrksesu asvabhyam gacchatah (assume two horses). 4. naram balam ca asvam vrksat labhavahe 5. narah vrksan asvena phalebhyah gacchati 6. bala phale vrksat asvebhyah labhate 7. asvah vrksam balam naraya vahati 8. narah asvam phalena nayate 9. asvah phalani balah naraya vahati 10. bale asve tisthatah ca phalam vrksat labhete Answers: Lesson 7 7.B.2.e.l. balam vrksat narasya asvam vahavah 2. narah bala ca tisthatah vadatah ca 3. asvah vrksasya phale balabhyah labhate 4. balayah asvah phalani naraya vahati 5. narah vrksasya phalam balayai labhante 6. narasya bala asvan vrksan nayate 7.B.2.f.l. We (two) carry the girl from the tree to the man's horse. 2. The man and the girl stand and talk. 3. The horse takes the tree's fruit (two) from/for the girls (pi.)- 4. The girl's horse carries the fruit (pi.) for the man. 5. The man takes the fruit (s.) of the tree for the girl. 6. The man's girl leads the horses (pi.) to the trees (pi.). 7.B.2.g.l. phalani vrksat asvena vahatha 2. balayah asvau phalani naram labhete 3. asvam vrksasya phalani nayethe 4. narah vrksam asvat balayai labhate 5. bala asvah ca vrksesu phalebhyah gacchatah 6. asvah vrksan narebhyah vahanti ■ ■ a *J m 7.B.2.h. 4>rilA pTTcT 3T%T ^Tl ? II «llriWI: 3Pfr 4>rilA TOT ^T^l Q II 3P5PT pTCT M^rtlPl ^T^l 3 II TO pPT 3TOTcT ^Tc^ rTJ#l 8 II ^TrTT 3P5T: ^ phT ^T«r: ^rp^^: I a II C so 3P5T: pTR =ft«T: ^T^l £ II Answers: Lesson 8 8.B.5.C.I. bala agnim sundarat narat gacchati 2. narah alpam vrksam balam agnaye slghram labhate 3. sundarT bala alpam asvam nadim nayate 4. narau sundarani phalani alpat vrksat labhete 5. guravah alpam sundaram asvam nadyau nayante 6. alpah vrksah sundare agnau tisthati 8.B.5.d.l. The girl goes to the fire from the handsome man. 2. The man quickly takes the small tree to the girl for fire. 3. The beautiful girl leads the small horse to the river. 4. The men (two) take the beautiful fruit from the small tree. 5. The teachers (pi.) lead the small beautiful horse to the rivers (two). 6. The small tree stands in the beautiful fire. 8.B.5.e.l. narasya guruh nadim asvena gacchati 2. bala alpam phalam narasya gurum vahati 3. balayah guruh alpayam nadyam tisthati 4. guroh bala sundare asve tisthati 5. sundarT bala naram alpam gurum slghram nayate 6. guruh alpasya vrksasya sundaresu phalesu tisthati 8.B.5.f. ^FFT *J^: ^ffR 3T%T TOrfcTl ? II ^T^aTrTJT^^TJTqTW^r^T^^I Qll «lriWI: *J^: 3TFTPTm ^JHT frrsfrT I 3 II

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SO s» so so so Answers: Lesson 9 9.B.5.C.I. narah phalani labhate iti bale vadatah 2. he guro bale nayase iti alpah narah vadati 3. asvah vrksasya phalani balayai vahati 4. phalam vrksayat asvena naraya vahatah 5. vrksam alpau agnT asvaih slghram vahami 6. nadT alpam vrksam sundarlm balam vahati 9.B.5.d.l. "The man is taking the fruit (pi.))" the girls (two) say. 2. "O teacher, you are leading the (two) girls," the small man says. 3. The horse carries the fruit (pi.) of the tree for the girl. 4. They (two) carry the fruit (s.) from the tree by horse for the man. 5. I quickly carry the tree to the small fires (two) by horse (pi.). 6. The river carries the small tree to the beautiful girl. 9.B.5.e.l. phalani asvam labhe iti bala gurum vadati 2. vrksam nadlm vahami iti narah balam vadati 3. balayah phale naram slghram labhadhve 4. phalani balayah vrksat labhavahe 5. narah bala ca sundaram gurum nadya gacchatah 6. sundarT bala asvam alpan vrksan phalebhyah nayate 9.B.5.f. 4>rilA 3P5PT cT^T ^frf ^TrTT *F^T c^fcM ? || -s. ^ so V pm =TftTT ^if^T ^ =R: «llriW ^^fcTl Qll 4>rilA «llrtMI: pTRT cfflRf I 8 II =TC: ^TrTT ^T M*<m W^R =RJT ^T^cT: I a II so -s. so "s ^ ^r^fr ^wn st-to 3Tc*tr ptr ^t«t: ^p#i s so -s.-s.0-s. Answers: Lesson 10 l.sq^r i6. ^h^ 2. <HrMI-M 17. 1%^T 3TTFT 3.W^Nr 18. M<<HloHH -s. 4. * <£* K 19.^fcT 5.3^T 20. ft?ll-M 6.^nf^ 2i."qre^: 7. 31M^cK 22. JT^mpf -s. 8.*^ 23.3T^T 9. JT^ff or JTf^ffft 24. *?||-M 10. ^OT 25.%^ n.sui-rM^dH 26. ^r i2.q^r 27. (%#r^m -s. 13. n£^ 28. J|3*c4<H

so ^ 

i4. jtt^t 29. v^m i5.^st% 3o.yT^nr Answers: Lesson 11 1. HiNrM pmT^TTOT^T: The men (two) carry the small tree to the fire from the horse. The girl takes the horse and the man from the tree. 3. WT^Pg" ^tfrf W^frTl *RfcT "I carry the fruit (pi.) to the horse," the teacher says to the girls (pi.). 4. ^ 3Tr<f =R piMI^Tly ^r^TrT: (see 10.A.4.b) The teachers (two) go quickly to the small man from the tree. 5. =ret pmpt wmrm 3T%r *^rfcr The man carries the tree to the fire for the girl by horse. 6. ^TrTPy-HrMi ^T# pn?R% The girl leads the horse to the small river from the tree. 7. =Rt pii-M>A«frs%r J l^€*Rl The man goes to the trees (pi.) for fruit (pi.) by horse. "The teacher is going to the fire from the man," the small girl says. 9. ^IrtlrMly-^^TF^ -Kl$^d: The girl and the small horse go to the fire from the man. 10. 3Tr^WT: "^TWT: <H-<Aq jfa J|^6*N: (no sandhi) We (two) are going among the beautiful trees for small fruit (pi.). Answers: Lesson 12 The words are given in the form found in the dictionary: 1. 3llcJ-M 135a 2. Hetu 1303c 3. zft^ 856b 4. Pra-kriti 654a 5. Jnana 426a 6. A-nanda 139c 7. Vy-akarana 1035c 8. 9T^FT 737c 9. *R359b 10. Rajas 863b 11. Citta395c 12. 5ftf%226c 13. t%^T 999a 14. hridaya 1302c 15. WT637a NO 16. Manas 783c 17. Sffft 1057c 18. Bhakti 743a 19. 3R^T25a 20. frojf306b or Krishna 308a Answers: Lesson 13 1. ^"-q^ -vyatireka 46b 2. rTST -sattva -ta 894b 3. Vi-vaha -kala 987b 4. Sam-skrita 1120c 5. chlri -yuga 262a 6. Mudha 825b 7. Sam-gama -mani 1128c 8. Kshatriya -dharma 325b 9. «TR^ -rupa -dhrik 729b 10. Bhagavad -glta 744a 11. Mano -bhava -sasana 785b 12. Vi-veka 987c 13. Sam-yoga 1112b 14. Dhyana -yoga 521a 15. Adhy-aropa 23b 16. Sraddhatri 1095c 17. Hiranya -garbha 1299c 18. Th -paksha -pada 643c 19. Mleccha -jati 837c 20. A-grihTta 1309a Answers: Lesson 14 1. mw60c 3P-RT a-bhaya, mf(a)n. . . . n. absence or removal of fear. MWla 3T 3.a . . . having a negative or privative or contrary sense Mv747a ^-RT bhaya n.(y/bhi) fear, alarm, dread . . . Mw758a Hf l.bhi, cl.3. P. . . . to fear, be afraid of . . . 2. Mv642a Purna, mfn. . . . n. fulness, plenty, abundance Mv641a "T^ pura, {y/pr% Caus.) . . . Mv648a Y pri, cl.9. P. . . . to fill . . . to sate, cherish, nourish . . . 3. Mv677b Praty-ahara m. drawing back . . . abstraction Mv677b y*Tn| praty-d-^/hri P. -harati to withdraw mw663c Praty, in comp. before vowels for prati above Mv661b y Id 1. prati, ind. (as a prefix . . . towards, back . . . Mvl26a 3TT 4. a (as a prefix . . . near, near to, towards . . . Mvl302a ^ l.hri, cl.l. P.A. . . . harati ... to take, bear, carry. Note: It is not the second dhatu ^ because of its meaning in translation; this is confirmed by the conjugational form harati given at 677b. 4. mw8c A-capalya, am, n. freedom from unsteadiness. MWla 3T 3. a ... having a negative or privative or contrary sense. Mw393a Capalya, n. . . . agitation, unsteadiness, fickleness Mv393a "^IHrt capala, n. (from cap ) mobility . . . unsteadiness. Mv388b "^Hrt capala, mf(a)n. {-^Jkamp . . . ) shaking, trembling Mv252b ch^-M kamp, cl.l. A. ... to tremble, shake 5. Mv396b Citra-karman . . . °rma-vid, mfn. skilled in the art of painting . . . Note: See 10.B.1 on page 83: ... if the pratipadika ends in -an, then the n is dropped . . . Mv396b Citra-karman n. any extraordinary act . . . painting . . . Mv396a Citra, mf(a)n. conspicuous, excellent, distinguished . . . Mv395b Ncl A.cit, cl.l. ... to perceive, fix the mind upon, attend to . . . Mv258b ch-HH karman, a, n. ... ^Jkri . . . act, action, performance . . . mw300c ^> l.kri . . . cl.2.P. ... to do, make, perform, accomplish . . . Note: It is not the second dhatu ^> on 304a because its meaning given in translation is not appropriate to that given for karman. mw963c 2.Vid, mfn. knowing, understanding, a knower Mw963b Ih<5 l.vid, cl.2. P. . . . to know, understand, perceive, learn . . . Note: This has a more appropriate meaning than 4.Vid on page 965a, or its dhatu Ih<5 3. via 1 on 964c. 6. Mv523b Nati . . . -manin . . . (°ni-ta, f., Bhag.) Nati . . . -manin, mfn. not too proud or arrogant. Nati (for na+ ati . . .), not very much, not too. Mv523a «T 2.na ind. not, no, nor, neither . . . MWl2b Ati . . . prefix . . . excessive, extraordinary, intense, too . . . Mv810b J-Hm^ manika, manita, 1.2. manin. See p809, cols. 2 and 3. Mv809b Mani -ta f. (ifc.) fancying that one possesses, imaginary . . . Mani, in comp. for 1. manin. mw809c 1. Manin mfn (fr. ^Jman or fr. l.mana) . . . haughty, proud . . . Mv809a <HM l.mana, m. (^man) opinion . . . self-conceit, pride . . . Mv783a <HH man, cl.8.4. A. . . . to think, believe, imagine. Answers: Lesson 15 MWl24b 3TIT3T nom. sg. T. Mv232b ^c| ind. just so, indeed, truly, really. Mv3b 3T<8fPT a-kshaya mf(a)n. exempt from decay, undecaying. MWla 3T 3. a . . . having a negative or privative or contrary sense. Mv328a 3. kshaya m. loss, waste, wane, dimunition, destruction, decay. Mv328a i/T^fl 4:.kshi cl.l.P. to destroy, corrupt, ruin, kill, injure. Dh.P. f$T ^T° TT 3P a Q 1 1% ST^I Mv278a W*W) 2.kala m. (y/3. kal to calculate or enumerate) . . . time (in general). Mv260a i/chrt 3.fca/ ... P. (rarely A) . . . to impel, incite, urge on . . . Note: Of the four entries for chrt , the first may be eliminated because it is atmane-pada, and for the others the artha must be examined. The last is selected as being most suited to the dhatu meaning given in the original word chlrt . Dh.P. W^i ^° T° %° 8Q Q I ^ $fr | Dh.P. ^ ^ 3° %° 8a ? I ^ 3Tn^K^Tl Dh.P. ^ ^° 3° %° 8£ ? I TO WT 4H^jl3 xTI Mv329a Kshepe m. a throw, cast . . . moving to and fro, sending, dismissing . . . delay, procrastination . . . insult, invective, abuse. Mvl62a A-svadana n. the act of eating, tasting, enjoying. Mv347a Gati f. going, moving, gait . . . movement in general. Mvll28b Sam-khyana n. becoming seen, appearance, reckoning, enumeration, calculation . . . measurement. Mv514a Dhatri m. establisher, founder, creator, bearer, supporter, arranger. Mv513b y/^l l.dhd cl.3. P. A. to put, place, set . . . direct or fix the mind or attention upon . . . appoint, establish, constitute; to make, produce, generate, create, cause. Dh.P. [5]^TT3T ^P 3° 3T° QS Q I ^TT3T -MKU|ifit|U|4|: | L s© J -s s© so >, Mv515a Dharana mf(l)n. holding, bearing, keeping, preserving, maintaining . . . n. the act of holding, bearing . . . immovable concentration of the mind upon. Mv650b HH -na mfn. nourishing; n. the act of nourishing, keeping, supporting. mw994c Visva-to-mukha in comp. for visva-tas, mfn. facing all sides, one whose face is turned everywhere. mw994c Visva-tas ind. from or on all sides, everywhere, all round, universally . . . Mv992b Tq J ^" mf(a)n. (probably from y/l.vis to pervade) all, every, everyone; whole, entire, universal, all-pervading, all-containing, omni-present. Mv989a ^/Tq"5l l.vis cl.6. P. to enter, pervade, to be absorbed in . . . Dh.P. to cT° V 3P 3S ? I f^T y%3FTl mw692c Pra-vesa-na n. entering, entrance or penetration into . . . mw819c <H"lsl mukha n. the mouth, face, countenance . . . opening, aperture, entrance into or egress out of. Reflections: In the West, time is viewed linearly, as beginning in some remote past and continuing to some unimaginable future; in the East, however, time is viewed cyclically: the cycle of day and night, the phases of the moon, the rotation of the seasons, the cycle of birth and death, and so on up to cycles lasting billions of years. That Time is indestructible is simply an acknowledgement of the fact that these cycles keep on tirelessly repeating. In daily life, time is viewed as a subdivision of some convenient cycle (e.g. time of day), or as a multiple of cycles (e.g. years): this is the measurement or reckoning aspect. Time is inextricably linked with movement: if there was no movement there would be no time, for time is a measure of the change of position or state relative to some more durable 'constant'. In one sense time can be viewed as an effect of movement, as a measure of the movement; in another sense time can be viewed as the cause of movement, as the underlying constant, relative to which movement takes place. In the light of the Vedic teaching, the latter view would be more appropriate: thus here Krsna represents the Absolute Unmoving Consciousness within which all movement takes place. In the second half of the line, 'Providence' may be a better word to use than 'Dispenser': the latter has a sense of purposive action (i.e. seeking a result), whilst the former is more an impersonal principle. This is more in keeping with the artha of the dhatu as 'nourishing, supporting', rather than the active role of 'creator, arranger' given for dhatr, and more appropriate to the universal aspect implicit in visvatomukha. The all-pervading Consciousness thus provides the space, intelligence, and food for all beings: indeed It provides for their total sustenance and nourishment, even their very existence. Taking mukha in the sense of 'mouth', it represents a two-way opening through which food enters, and speech exits; taking it in the sense of 'face', it may be interpreted as symbolizing all senses. Thus sarvatomukha could be viewed as the sum total of all senses, both active and receptive, through which all creation is nourished and through which Consciousness Itself is nourished. Or again, sarvatomukha could refer to Consciousness as the Witness, and dhatr to the manifest appearance of that Consciousness. English Grammatical Terms On the assumption that the reader can speak correct English but is unfamiliar with formal grammar, the technical terms will not be strictly denned but briefly described and followed by illustrative examples where appropriate. These terms are gathered together thematically under three headings — Sentence Elements, Parts of Speech, and Finite Verb Forms — and then followed by an alphabetical list of other common terms that do not fit under these headings. NB: These notes are about English Grammar: the grammar of Sanskrit is rather different — do not confuse the two. The purpose of these notes is to briefly illustrate the technical terms and concepts of English grammar, which may be used to demonstrate similar or contrasting concepts in Sanskrit grammar. 1. Sentence Elements A sentence comprises one or more of five elements, each of which may comprise one or more words: (a) Subject: (S) in English grammar this is considered the main element or focus of the sentence, and the rest of the sentence (the predicate) is considered to be a statement about the subject. It expresses the agent of an active verb. For example: Jack and Jill (S) went up the hill (predicate). (b) Verb: (V) this expresses the activity of the sentence; it agrees with the subject in person and number. It is the most essential word, and every grammatically complete sentence must have one explicitly stated: even the subject may be implied, as in the command 'Run!'. For example: The children (S) are playing (V). (c) Object: There are two types: (i) Direct Object: (0<j) expresses that which is directly acted upon by the verb; (ii) Indirect Object: (O;) is the recipient or beneficiary of the activity. She (S) gave (V) the food (O d ) to the dog (O;). He (S) built (V) the dog (O;) a kennel (O d ). (d) Complement: This completes the sense expressed by the verb. There are two types: (i) Subject Complement: (C s ) used with intransitive verbs, or transitive verbs in the passive voice, expressing an attribute of the subject; (ii) Object Complement: (C ) used with transitive verbs in the active voice and expressing an attribute of the direct object of the sentence. Love (S) is (V) blind (C s ). The judge (S) set (V) the prisoner (O d ) free (C ). He (S) became (V) a doctor (C s ). They (S) elected (V) him (O d ) chairman (C ). (e) Adverbial: (A) these express a wide range of meaning (time, place, manner, etc.) related to the activity of the sentence as a whole. Unlike the other elements, there may be several of these in one simple sentence. Again (A) it (S) rained (V) steadily (A) all day (A). 2. Parts of Speech There are nine types of word called Parts of Speech. These are: (a) Noun: used to name a person or thing. There are two types: (i) Proper nouns name a person, place, etc., and are usually written with an initial capital letter: John and Mary went to London on Tuesday. (ii) Common nouns name general things, both concrete and abstract: The love of money is the root of all evil. (b) Pronoun: used instead of a noun to designate a person or thing without naming it: He kissed her when they met; she enjoyed it. Note: nouns and pronouns are categorized according to number, gender and case. (c) Adjective: qualifies a noun or pronoun: The happy dog wagged its long tail at the familiar figure. (d) Article: a name for the three adjectives 'a', 'an', 'the': A boy gave an apple to the teacher. (e) Preposition: 'governs' a following noun or pronoun, expressing its relation to another noun or pronoun or to the verb: As the sun rose in the East, the girl stepped from the house into the garden. (f) Conjunction: connects one word or phrase or sentence, with another: Jack and Jill wanted to go, but were detained. (g) Interjection: an exclamation expressing emotion: Alas Oh Ah Ahoy (h) Adverb: qualifies a verb or adjective or another adverb: The very tall man spoke quite softly. (i) Verb: expresses the activity of the sentence: He built a house. They dig a hole. She was here. 3. Finite Verb Forms The activity of the sentence is expressed by the verb. There are three types: transitive, intransitive, and auxiliary. (a) A verb taking an object is called transitive (the 'energy' of the activity is transferred to the object, as it were), and one that doesn't is called intransitive. Verbs are typically one or the other, but may often be used either way: He beat the drum. I live. The children are playing [a game]. (b) The main verb may be accompanied by one or more auxiliary verbs used to express tense or mood: I had slept. I will sleep. I must have been sleeping. (c) The verb is the dynamic part of the sentence, animating the relatively static nouns etc. As such it is the most flexible of the parts and appears in a wide variety of forms to express its manifold potential. Among these are: (i) Person: the verb form indicating the grammatical person (first, second, third) of the subject of the sentence: I am here. You are there. He is everywhere. (ii) Number: the verb form indicating the grammatical number (singular, plural) of the subject of the sentence: He stands here. They stand there. Note: the verb agrees with the grammatical subject in person and number. (iii) Tense: the verb form indicating various times (past, present, future) at which the action is perceived as taking place: He stood. He stands. He will stand. (iv) Aspect: the verb form expressing the activity as: (a) Indefinite: the degree of completeness of the action is not specified, (b) Continuous: the action is not yet complete but still continuing, (c) Perfect: the action is in a completed or perfect state, (d) Perfect Continuous: combining the force of the previous two. These four are shown in order, in the past, present, and future respectively: He stood. He was standing. He had stood. He had been standing. He stands. He is standing. He has stood. He has been standing. He will stand. He will be standing. He will have stood. He will have been standing. (v) Mood: the verb form indicating an (emotional) quality or manner of the activity, There are three basic moods: (a) Indicative: asserts a statement as a fact; it may also express a condition or question: He stands. If he stands . . . Did he stand ? (b) Imperative: expresses a command, advice, or entreaty: Go ! Follow the instruction of your teacher. Help me! (c) Subjunctive: expresses an action, not as a fact, but as a condition, desire, or purpose: Were he here . . . May you live long. He eats that he may live. (vi) Voice: the verb form indicating the relation of the subject to the activity as: (a) Active: e.g. He opened the door. (b) Passive: e.g. The door was opened by him. Continued overleaf 4. More Grammatical Terms Affix - a verbal element joined to a word to form a new word, for example: heroine, unhappy. See Prefix, Suffix. Agent - one who instigates or causes or performs the activity of the verb; the role of the semantic subject of the sentence. Agreement - see Concord Apposition - a noun or pronoun is in apposition with another when it refers to the same person or thing and is mentioned immediately after it (often offset by commas) to identify or describe it. E.g.: John, my neighbour, called to see me. I spoke to my neighbour, John. Case - one of the forms of a noun or pronoun, which expresses its relation to some other word, and (loosely) the relation itself. English uses two cases: the unmarked common case, and the genitive case. For just six pronouns the common case is split into subjective and objective: I/me, we/us, he/him, she/her, they/them, and who/whom. Clause - a combination of words having a subject (stated or implied) and a predicate. See also Compound and Complex Sentence. Complex Sentence - a construction having more than one clause, one being the main clause and the other(s) subordinate clause(s) which form sentence element (s) of the main clause. E.g.: Show (S) me (O;) [what (O d ) you (S) did (V)](O d ). Compare with Compound Sentence. Compound Sentence a construction having more than one clause which are coordinate, i.e. two or more simple sentences linked together with conjunction(s) to form one larger complex sentence. E.g.: John rang the bell. I opened the door. I opened the door when John rang the bell. Compare with Complex Sentence. Concord - the agreement between words in case, number, gender, and person, and in particular between the grammatical subject and the verb. E.g.: The window is open. The windows are open. [3.c.ii] Conjugation - the change of form of verbs to express tense, mood, etc. [3] Declension - the change of form of nouns and pronouns to express different grammatical relations. See Case. Etymology - the facts relating to the formation and derivation of words; the expounding of the elements of a word with their modifications of form and sense. Exclamation - See Interjection [2.g]. Finite Verb - expresses the activity of a clause or sentence, [l.b, 2.i, 3] Gender - in English, nouns and pronouns express natural (as opposed to grammatical) gender, i.e. the masculine gender denotes a male, feminine denotes a female, neuter denotes neither sex, and common denotes either or both. Examples of this last are: I, doctor, committee. Genitive - a grammatical form of a noun or pronoun, expressing its relation to another word as source, possessor, etc.. The form usually manifests with an 'apostrophe-s', e.g. the book 's author, the author 's book. It may generally be rephrased with the preposition 'of, e.g. the author of the book, the book of the author. Gerund - a non-finite verb form that functions as a noun. It usually ends in '-ing'. E.g.: Writing a textbook is more difficult than teaching orally. Grammar - the rules describing the best use of language. The two primary areas of study are morphology and syntax. Infinitive - A non-finite verb form that functions as a noun or adjective or adverb; it names the activity in the most general sense. It is usually preceded by 'to'. E.g.: he likes to read. You need not read this. He considered the matter to have been settled. Inflection - the change of word form to express different grammatical relations, including the declension of nouns and pronouns, the conjugation of verbs, and the comparison of adjectives and adverbs. Morphology - the study of word structure, primarily affixes and inflection. English makes little use of this to express grammat- ical meaning. Non-finite Verb - A verb which has been turned into another Part of Speech; it may express aspect and voice. See Gerund, Infinitive, Participle. Number - the property in words of expressing that one (singular), or more than one (plural) person or thing is spoken of. Participle - a non-finite verb form that functions as an adjective. It participates in the nature of a verb expressing aspect and voice, and may take take an object, and in the nature of an adjective in qualifying a noun. E.g.: Having heard this he went away. Person - The three classes of pronouns and corresponding verb forms denoting the person speaking (first person), the audience addressed (second person), and the rest of the world (third person). [2.b, 3.c.i] Phonetics - the science of vocal sounds (es- pecially of a particular language) that deals with their production and representation. Phrase - a group of words which operate together as an element of a sentence. E.g. 'turning left' (participial phrase), 'on a hill' (adverbial phrase), 'because of (prepositional phrase) . Prefix - a verbal element joined to the beginning of a word to qualify its meaning, e.g. impossible, antiseptic, hypersensitive. Reflexive - describes transitive verbs where the subject and direct object refer to the same thing or person; also pronouns so used (usually ending in '-self'). E.g. He saw himself in the mirror. Semantic - relating to significance or meaning. For example, with a passive verb, the grammatical subject expresses the semantic object. Sentence - a combination of words forming at least one clause. It is meaningful by itself. See also Complex Sentence. Simple Sentence - a series of words in connected speech or writing, forming the grammatically complete expression of a single thought. A combination of words forming only one clause. See also Complex Sentence. Suffix - a verbal element joined to the end of a word to form a new word, e.g. short ly, fault less, friends/lip, caxeful. Syntax - the study of sentence structure, primarily the conventions of arrangement by which the connection and relationship of words are shown. Verb - See Finite Verb and Non-finite Verb. Word - a minimal element of speech having meaning as such. By itself it expresses a universal concept; in a sentence it denotes a specific thing, attribute, relation, etc. Sanskrit Glossary and Index Each entry word is given a simple translation (in single quotes where it is literal); followed by a brief description, and page reference(s) to where the word may be more fully described or applied. A-kara: the sound or letter a. [21] Avasana: cessation of sound, e.g. at the end of a line of verse. [85, 87] A-ghosa, unvoiced: characteristic of those consonants that are uttered with the vocal Avyaya, indeclinable: that class of words cords not vibrating. [14, 73] that do not have vibhakti endings. [9, 75] Anga, stem: that part of an inflected word AvyayTbhava Samasa: an adverbial that remains unchanged (except for sandhi) compound, the first word of which is the in the process of inflection. [9] more important. [83, 89] An-udatta, 'not raised': one of the three Astan, eight: the cardinal number; the pitches or tones (svara) of the vowel accent figure eight. [64] system of Vedic Sanskrit. [71] Atmane-pada, 'expression for oneself: Anunasika, nasal: characteristic of those verbal voice. [25, 104, 113] sounds uttered through both nose and month M4 731 Atmane-bhasa, 'expression for oneself: verbal voice, synonymous with atmane- Anubandha, 'bound along with': a letter pada. [113] or syllable attached to a dhdtu and marking _ some peculiarity in its inflection. [110] Abhyantara-prayatna, 'inner effort': the method (within the mouth) of articulating Anusvara, 'after sound': (1) a nasal sound sounds. [13, 73] following a svara. [6] (2) sandhi substitute for an m before a consonant. [64,86] Itaretara Dvandva Samasa: the basic copulative compound whose number is the Antahstha, 'stand between': general name sum of its members. [88, 111] for the semi- vowels ya ra la va. [21, 79] Iti, 'thus': used as inverted commas, or Artha, 'meaning': the word(s) provided in separating a word from its definition. [75] the Dhatu-Patha as the sense of the meaning _ of a dhdtu. [109-112] Isat-sprsta, 'slight contact': the 'inner effort' applicable to the semi-vowels ya ra Ardha-sprsta, 'half-contact': the 'inner la and va. [21,73] effort' applicable to the usman consonants _ sa sa sa and ha. [22] Isad-vivrta, 'slightly open': the 'inner effort' applicable to the usman consonants A-luk Samasa: a samasa wherein the first sa sa sa and ha. [22, 73] word does not lose its vibhakti. [83] Uttama-Purusa, 'last person': grammat- Alpa-prana, 'little breath': characteristic ical person, distinction in verb endings of those consonants uttered with minimal denoting the agent of the verb ( = English breath. [14-15,73] first person). [9] Avagraha, 5": symbol for the elision of Udatta, 'raised': one of the three pitches 3T at the beginning of a word due to or tones (svara) of the vowel accent system sandhi. [63,80] in Vedic Sanskrit. [71,91] Upadhmaniya, ~: the rare half visarga the members would have the same case before pa or pha. [22,63] ending. [88] Upapada Tatpurusa Samasa: determi- Karman: the immediate object of the native compound having a dhatu derivative agent, expressed in dvitiya with an active as its final member. [89] verb, or prathama with a passive verb. [49] Upasarga, verbal prefix: (1) a prefix to Ka-varga, &a-group: the group of stops verbs to qualify or change its meaning. [60] beginning with ka, i.e. ka kha ga gha (2) one of the four types of words. [75] na. [13, 63] Ubhayato-bhasa, 'expression for both': -kara, 'action': suffix appended to a verbal voice, dhatu conjugation in parasmai- Sanskrit letter/sound to name it, e.g. ka- bhasa or atmane-bhasa. [113] kara. [21] Usman, 'heated': general name for the Kri Y^ verb: (!) full y inflected form of group of four consonants sa, sa, sa and the verb - [ 9 ] ( 2 ) one of the four tv P es of ha. [22, 73] word - I 75 ] Eka, one: the cardinal number; the figure Kriya-visesana, adverb: an indeclinable one [641 * na * Q uau fi es a verb. [67,75] Eka-vacana, 'one-speaking': grammatical Ksa: pronunciation of. [56] singular number; the word suffix denoting Gana, 'class': there are ten classes of that one person or thing is referred to. See dhatu. [17 109 113] also dvi-, bahu-vacana. [17, 26] Guna, 'quality': the secondary form of Eka-sruti, 'single hearing': the neutral vowels. [78, 101] sound of Classical Sanskrit, as contrasted with the tonal accent (svara) system of Ghosa, voiced: a characteristic of those Vedic Sanskrit [711 consonants that are uttered with the vocal cords vibrating. [14, 73] Osthya, labial: the mouth position used with the pronunciation of u, pa-varga, and Catur ' four: the cardinal number ' the va. [13,23,73] figure four. [64] T ^ j.i j.-i ll 1 j i j. i CaturthT Vibhakti, fourth case: dative Kanthatalavya, guttural and palatal: ,, ' ' ,, ... . , , .,, ,, affix of nouns and adiectives. 33,51 the mouth position associated with the L J pronunciation of e, and at. [13, 73] Candrabindu, * 'moon-dot': the symbol Kanthnsthva e-nttnral anrl labial- the P laced above a vowel or V a la or va to mouth position associated with the pronun- indicate that the sound is n ^alized. [63] ciation of o, and au. [13, 73] Ca-varga, ca-group: the group of stops T ^ , , ,,i.i xi -x- beginning with ca, i.e. ca cha ja jha Kanthya, guttural: the mouth position _ ° ° associated with the pronunciation of a, ka- ' L ' J varga and ha. [13,23, 73] JihvamulTya, s : a rare half-visarga before Kartr: the agent of the verb, expressed in prathama with an active verb, or trtiya with Jna: pronunciation of. [57] a passive verb. [49] Ta-varga, ta-gvoup: the group of stops Karmadharaya Tatpurusa Samasa: de- beginning with ta, i.e. ta tha da dha terminative compound which, if dissolved, na. [13, 63] Tatpurusa Samasa, determinative com- pound: in which the first word qualifies the second. [83] Ta-varga, ta-gioup: the group of stops beginning with ta, i.e. ta tha da dha na. [13, 63] Talavya, palatal: the mouth position associated with the pronunciation of i, ca- varga, ya and sa. [13, 23, 73] Tin- Vibhakti, verbal suffix: the suffix of the kriyd indicating purusa and va- ccina. [9, 32] Trtlya Vibhakti, third case: instrumental suffix to nouns and adjectives. [33, 51] Tri, three: the cardinal number; the figure three. [64] Dantosthya, dental and labial: the mouth position associated with the pronunciation of the English T and V. [15, 21] Dantya, dental: the mouth position associated with the pronunciation of /, ta- varga, la and sa. [13, 23, 73] Dasan, ten: the cardinal number; the figure ten. [64] Dlrgha, 'long': the long measure, or vowels having this measure. [1,5] DevanagarT, 'city of immortals': (1) the name of the Sanskrit script. [1] (2) variations in symbols. [71] (3) used in dictionary. [92] Dva, two: the cardinal number; the figure two. [64] Dvandva Samasa, copulative compound: a type of compound in which the words are of equal importance. [83,88] Dvigu Tatpurusa Samasa: a determina- tive compound having a numeral or word denoting direction as its first member. [88] Dvitiya Vibhakti, second case: accusative affix to nouns and adjectives. [26, 51] Dvi-vacana, 'two-speaking': grammatical dual number; the word suffix denoting that two persons or things are referred to. See also eka- bahu-vacana. [17, 26] Dhatu, root: rudimentary meaningful verbal element from which words are derived. [8, 92, 103, 104, 109, 113] Dhatu-Patha, 'recitation of roots': name of a book giving the sense of meaning and grammatical information about each dhatu. [109-116] Nan- Tatpurusa Samasa: determinative compound with a negative particle as its first member. [89] Napumsaka-linga, neuter: one of the three grammatical genders. [26, 50] Navan, nine: the cardinal number; the figure nine. [64] Nama-dhatu, nominal verb: a verb derived from a noun. [75] Naman, 'name': a noun, one of the four types of word in Sanskrit. [75] Nipata, particle: one of the four types of word in Sanskrit. [75] Paiican, five: the cardinal number; the figure five. [64] PancamT Vibhakti, fifth case: ablative suffix to nouns and adjectives. [33,51] Pada, word: (1) traditionally divided into four types. [75] (2) general name for a fully inflected word. [86] (3) verbal voice, see atmane-pada and parasmai- pada. [25, 104, 113] Parasmai-pada, expression for another: verbal voice. [25,104,113] Parasmai-bhasa, expression for another: verbal voice, synonymous with parasmai- pada. [113] Pa-varga, pa-group: the group of stops beginning with pa, i.e. pa pha ba bha ma. [13, 63] Panini: a grammarian (circa 350 bc) whose work, the Astadhyayi, fully describes the grammar of Sanskrit in minute detail. No other language, to this day, has been so perfectly described. [78, 114] Pum-linga, masculine: one of the three grammatical genders. [26, 50, 65] Purusa, 'person': grammatical person, distinction in verbal suffix denoting the per- son or thing spoken of (prathama-purusa), spoken to (madhyama-purusa), and the person speaking (uttama-purusa). [9] Purna-virama, (II) full stop: indicates the end of a verse or end of a paragraph. [63] Pragrhya, 'to be taken separately': excep- tions to sandhi rules. [81] Pranava Sabda: a name applied to the mystical symbol -S>. [63] Pratyaya, suffix: general name for any type of suffix. [82] Prathama-Purusa, 'first person': gram- matical person, distinction in verbal suffix denoting the person or thing spoken of ( = English third person). [9] Prathama Vibhakti, first case: (1) nomi- native suffix of nouns and adjectives. [26, 51] (2) and vocative. [38] Prayatna, effort: the method of articulat- ing sounds: divided into dbhyantara- and bdhya-prayatna. [13] Prana, 'breath': see alpa-prdna and mahd- prana. [14] Pratipadika, word stem: the stem form (i.e. without any case ending) of a noun or adjective, as found in the dictionary. [26, 91] Pluta, 'prolonged': the prolonged measure, or vowels having this measure. [1,5,81] Bahu-vacana, 'many-speaking': the gram- matical plural number; the word suffix indicating that many (more than two) persons or things are referred to. See also eka- dvi-vacana. [17, 26] BahuvrThi Samasa, a descriptive com- pound: a compound forming an adjective qualifying an external noun. [83, 89] Bahya-prayatna, outer effort: the method (external to the mouth, i.e. the throat) of articulating sounds. [13, 73] Bindu, 'dot': the anusvdra mark above a vowel. [63] Bhasa, speech: verbal voice, see atmane-, parasmai-, ubhayato-bhasa. [113] Madhyama-Purusa, 'middle person': the second grammatical person; distinction in verbal suffix denoting the person spoken to ( = English second person). [9] Maha-prana, 'great breath': a character- istic of those consonants uttered with extra breath. [14, 73] Matrka: name applied to the first sixteen sounds of the Sanskrit alphabetical order. [6] Matra, 'measure': the length or duration for which a vowel is sounded; these may be hrasva dirgha or pluta. [1, 2] Murdhanya, cerebral: the mouth position associated with the pronunciation of r, ta- varga, ra and sa. [13, 23, 73] Repha: traditional name for ra which, unlike other sounds, does not use the -kara suffix. [21] La-kara, /-affixes: a common term for the ten primary tenses and moods of Sanskrit verbs. [17] Lat: a technical term for the present indicative (simple present tense); one of the la-kara. [17, 104] Linga, grammatical gender: there are three genders, pum- stri- napumsaka-linga. [26] Vacana, 'speaking': grammatical number; the word suffix that one, two, or more persons or things are referred to. See eka- dvi- bahu-vacana. [17, 26] Varga, group: grouping of consonants according to some common quality, e.g. ka- varga, pa-varga. [13, 14] Vibhakti: common term for the case endings used for nouns and adjectives (sup- vibhakti), as well as the personal endings for verbs (tin-vibhakti) . [32] Virama, stop: (1) symbol 'J indicates a consonant without a following vowel. [53] (2) symbol T indicates the end of a half- verse or end of a sentence. [63] Visesana, adjective: it has the same case, number, and gender as the noun that it qualifies. [65, 75] Visarga, 'emission': unvoiced breath after a vowel. [6, 73] Visarga Sandhi: euphonic changes arising with the visarga. [85] Visarjanlya, 'emitted': unvoiced breath after a vowel; synonymous with vis- arga. [6, 22, 63] Vrddhi, 'increase': strengthened form of vowels. [78, 101] Vyanjana, 'embellishment': general name for any consonant. [1, 103] Vyadhikarana Tatpurusa Samasa: de- terminative compound which, if dissolved, the members would have different case endings. [88] Sakti: name applied to the first sixteen sounds of the Sanskrit alphabetical order. [6] Sas, six: the cardinal number; the figure six. [64] SasthT Vibhakti, sixth case: genitive affix to nouns and adjectives. [38, 51] Samyoga, 'bound together': a conjunct consonant; consonants not having a sepa- rating vowel or pause. [53] Samjna, proper noun: personal or place name, technical terms whose meanings cannot be etymologically derived. [75] Sandhi, 'placed together': the system of euphonic changes that arise when sounds are uttered in proximity; it is the tendency to ease of pronunciation. [77-81, 85-87] Sandhi Vigraha, 'separation of sandM: removal of the sandhi between words in a sentence so that the words stand separately. [86] Sandhyaksara, compound vowel: general name for e ai o au. [4] Saptan, seven: the cardinal number; the figure seven. [64] SaptamT Vibhakti, seventh case: locative suffix to nouns and adjectives. [38, 51] Samanadhikarana Tatpurusa Samasa: determinative compound which, if dissolved, the members would have different case endings. [88] Samasa, 'placed together': a compound word. [83,94] Samahara Dvandva Samasa: copulative compound whose members are taken collec- tively as a unit; the compound is treated as a neuter singular noun. [88] Samprasarana: the process whereby an antahstha is replaced by a simple vowel. [81] Sambodhana, calling, addressing: case ending of nouns and adjectives, variation of prathamd-vibhakti. [38, 51] Sarva-naman, 'name of all': pronoun. [75] Savarna, homophonic: categories of sounds having the same mouth position and 'inner effort'. [63] Sup- vibhakti: case endings used for nouns and adjectives. [26] StrT-linga, feminine: one of the three grammatical genders. [26, 50, 65] Sthana, 'position': the various mouth positions used in uttering vowels and consonants. [13] Sparsa, 'contact': the general name for the pitches or tones (svara) of the vowel accent group of 25 stops ka through ma. [13, 73] system of Vedic Sanskrit. [71, 91] Sprsta, 'contact': the 'inner effort' for the Ral . technical term referri ng to any 25 sparsa ka through ma. [13, 73] consonant. [53] Svara, 'sound' or 'tone': (1) a general term for the vowels. [1] (2) a term for the tonal Halanta, 'consonant-final': ending in a accents (udatta an-udatta svarita) of Vedic consonant without a following vowel. [53] Hrasva, 'short': the short measure, or Svarita, mixed tone: one of the three vowels having this measure. [1]

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