Mahamahopadhyaya Kashinath Vasudev Abhyankar

Gaekwad's Oriental Series
Published under the Authority of
the Maharaja Sayajirao University
of Baroda.

General Editor :
B. J. Sandesara,
M. A.,Ph,D.

No. 134








Retired Professor of Sanskrit, Gujarat College, Ahmedabad.
Hon. Professor of Sanskrit, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona



First Edition : 1000 Copies.

Printed (on behalf of the M. S. University of Baroda Press)
by M, N. Chapekar, Aryasanskriti Mudranalaya, 1575/2
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the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda by Dr. Bhogilal,
J. Sandesara, Director, Oriental Institute, Baroda, March, 1961.

Price Rs. 25- 00

Copies can be had from —
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The Memory of
the late Mahāmahopādhyāya


my father, whose example has inspired
me to undertake this and similar
other works on Sanskrit Grammar.


We take this opportunity to place before the world of Sanskrit scholars this Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar, which, we are confident, will be an indispensable reference book for all students working in this field as well as allied branches of knowledge.

Prof.Kashinath Vasudev Abhyankar has the good fortune to inherit traditional Sanskrit learning from his father, Mahāmahopādhyāya Pandit Vasudevashastri Abhyankar, who is well known for his translations of The Brahmasūtra Śāṅkara Bhāṣya and The Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. Prof. Abhyankar had a brilliant academic career and is a reputed teacher and a very well known scholar of Sanskrit Grammar and Prakrit language and literature. He has himself edited several books, and is at present bringing out revised editions of The Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya and Paribhāṣenduśekhara and has compiled a Paribhāsāsaṅgraha all of which are being published by the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona. His exhaustive introduction to The Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya is enough to show that he is pre-eminently qualified for preparing this Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar, which is a valuable product of a life-time of devoted scholarship.

We are thankful to the University Grants Commission and the State Government for the liberal financial assistance they have given towards publication of this work.

Oriental Institute, Baroda,


Object of this Dictionary

No apology is needed for undertaking the compilation of the present 'Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar', which, although concise, is expected to meet the needs of Sanskrit scholars and research students of Vyākaraṇa and other Shastras by serving as a useful reference book in their study of, and research work in, any branch of Sanskrit learning. The many independent treatises in the several Shastras and the learned commentaries upon them, as also the commentaries on classical poems and dramas, are, in fact, full of grammatical explanations of words and constructions, involving a liberal use of grammatical expressions and technical terms at several places. The elementary knowledge of grammar which a general scholar of Sanskrit possesses, is not found sufficient for his understanding fully the grammatical references in these books, especially so at present, when the practice of sending young boys to the Tolls and Sanskrit pāṭhashālas to study the standard classical works with commentaries along with some standard elementary treatises on grammar, has already stopped. The number of Sanskrit Pandits and Shastris,who had to obtain a sound footing in grammar before they undertook the study of the higher texts of the several Shastras, and who therefore could be consulted by young scholars and research workers in the several Shastras, has also diminished considerably. The usual Sanskrit Dictionaries such as those of Monier Williams, V.S.Apte and others are found of no avail in supplying explanations of the grammatical technique which confronts modern scholars at every step in their critical reading of the several Sanskrit texts. In these circumstances it is only the technical dictionaries of the type of the present 'Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar' that can render a valuable assistance to scholars and research workers in their reading of the higher Sanskrit texts in the several Shastras.

Beginnings of Sanskrit Grammar

Every science has necessarily its own terminology and a special vocabulary. The remark is true with respect to Sanskrit Grammar or Vyākaraṇaśāstra which has developed as a science during the last two thousand years and has got several technical terms and numerous words with a special grammatical significance. The origin of grammar can well-nigh be traced to the Period of the Brāhmaṇas i. e. about 2000 B.C., when Vedic scholars began to discuss the meaning of the inspired Vedic hymns by carefully showing disconnected, the words of the Vedic hymns and noting down the differences in accents as also the changes caused by their coalescence in the continuous recital or the Saṁhitāpāṭha. They also tried to explain the sense of the Vedic words by tracing them back to the roots of suitable senses and laid down rules for their proper and correct


pronunciation. These three pursuits viz. (a) the discussion of the features of the Pada text, (b) the derivation of words, and (c) directions regarding the proper pronunciation of the Vedic words, were carried on with vigour with a view to preserving the Vedic texts intact, and the treatises dealing with these three branches were respectively called by the names prātiśākhya, Nirukta and Śikṣā, all of which could rightly be called Vyākaraṇa or Grammar, as they were devoted to determining the correct words as distinguished from the incorrect ones. Although a number of books were written by Vedic scholars in these three branches, not more than five or six Prātiśākhya works, a solitary Nirukta work, and a few Śikṣā works are the only available works at present.

Development of Sanskrit Grammar

In course of time, on Ihe analogy of the derivation of words, an analysis of the word into its constituent elements such as the base, the affix, the augments and the modifications, was undertaken by grammarians. This separation of the different elements of a word constituted vyākaraṇa or grammar, which was developed as an art by ancient grammarians like Āpiśali, Śākaṭāyana and others before Pānini. It was Pāṇini who carried it to perfection, and his work, the Aṣṭādhyāyī, compact yet exhaustive, and laconic yet clear,is simply a marvellous product of art by a man of amazing intelligence. As a result, the works on grammar by all ancient scholars who flourished before Pāṇini disappeared in course of time leaving only a few quotations behind them. Pāṇini was followed by a number of grammarians who wrote popular treatises on grammar, based, no doubt, on Pāṇini's grammar, some of which, in their turn came to have auxiliary works, glosses and explanatory commentaries. These different treatises, written by Sarvavarman, Candragomin, Devanandin, Pālyakīrti Śākaṭāyana, Hemacandra, Kramadīśvara, Jumaranandin, Supadma and others with their auxiliary works and commentaries, came to be looked upon as different systems of grammar. These treatises present two kinds of treatment : some of them are arranged in Sutras in the same manner as the Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini which treats one after another the several grammatical elements such as technical terms, padas of roots, case-relations, compound words, kṛt affixes, taddhita affixes, substitutes, accents and euphonic changes; while others give a topic-wise treatment following in that respect the ancient grammarians before Pāṇini such as Indra, Vedic Śākaṭāyana and others who treated one after another the different topics of grammar such as the euphonic changes, declension, conjugation, compound formation, nouns derived from roots, nouns derived from nouns and the like. The special feature of all these grammars was that they entirely omitted the Vedic peculiarities and accents.

Sanskrit Grammar as a Science

The subject of Sanskrit grammar was first treated as a science by the two epoch-making grammarians, first by Kātyāyana a few centuries after Pāṇini,


and then by Patañjali, the exponent of Kātyāyana who lived in the second century B. C. It was carried to perfection by the stalwart grammarian Bhartṛhari of the seventh century A. D. Later grammarians, prominent among whom were Jayāditya, Vāmana, Kaiyaṭa, Haradatta, Bhaṭṭojī, Koṇḍabhaṭṭa and Nāgeśa, developed by their substantial contributions, the work of Pāṇini as a science to such an extent that the number of smaller and greater works well nigh rose to eight hundred and that of the authors to four hundred. The grammar of Pāṇini, which is looked upon as the standard one at present gives about a hundred technical terms, more than two hundred suffixes, about two thousand primary roots and more than five thousand special words arranged in more than two hundred and fifty classes according to the special grammatical peculiarities shown by each class. The number of independent primary words, besides these five thousand special words, if roughly estimated, may exceed even twenty-five thousand. Besides these primary roots, primary nouns, affixes and technical terms in the different Shastras, there is a vast number of secondary roots and secondary nouns, which is rather impossible even to be approximately determined.

Nature and Scope of this Dictionary

The preparation of a comprehensive dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar, a subject which has been developed fully by Sanskrit Grammarians for the last two thousand years, is certainly a stupendous work which can only be done by a band of grammarians who have got a sound footing in the subject. In the light of what has been said above, the present dictionary is only an honest and humble attempt in that direction made by the compiler who was inspired to undertake this rather arduous venture by his close study of the subject for more than sixty years according to the traditional method of the East, combined with the critical and comparative method of the West. As the work was done single-handed, and finished within a limited time with a view to making it available to students and scholars of Sanskrit at as early a date as possible, the number of books consulted was a limited one. The number of entries is more than four thousand out of which the important ones are in the form of short articles supplying very briefly the necessary information from the different sources with quotations from or references to the original works. All the standard works in grammar have been carefully consulted including the available Prātiśākhya works, the Mahābhāṣya, the Kāśikā, the Vākyapadīya, the Siddhānta-Kaumudi and others. The Kātantra, the Śākatāyana, the Jainendra, the Haima and other grammars, as also the different Paribhāṣa works have been consulted at important places. Minor works and commentaries are not consulted as the important words and topics occurring therein have been mostly included here on account of their occurrence in the major works. Attention is, of course, paid to grammatical importance and significance, and only such such words and such senses of them as have a grammatical significance, have been included in the present dictionary along with affixes, augments, substitutes and technical terms mostly given


in Pāṇini's grammar. Names of authors and books, printed as well as found in a manuscript form, have been included as far as practicable in the present work. A scrupulous attention has been paid to the Prātiśākhya works, the Mahābhāṣya and the Kāśikā which are looked upon as supremely authoritative in the field of Sanskrit grammar. It must be admitted that the scholarly index works of Dr. Bothlingk and Dr. Renou were found very useful in providing references to standard grammar works. The abbreviations for the titles of books consulted and those of grammatical terms are given separately at the beginning of the present 'Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar.' Names of books and authors have been sometimes given in the Roman script and sometimes in the Devanagari script.

Acknowledgements are due to Mr. M. N. Chapekar, Aryasanskriti Mudranalaya, Poona, who has given ample co-operation in getting this Dictionary printed in the shortest possible time. For facility of printing, accents of Vedic passages and words are not shown, nor italics have been used for Sanskrit terms written in the Roman script nor the breaking of a word at the end of a line is done scrupulously at the end of a syllable or a constituent part. In spite of all possible care, some slips have crept in for which the indulgence of the reader is craved. It is expected that Sanskrit scholars will make full use of this work and offer their valuable suggestions for future undertakings of this type.

A sincere sense of gratitude must be conveyed to Dr. Bhogilal J. Sandesara, the Director of the Oriental Institute, Baroda, at whose initiative the project of this ' Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar, undertaken some years ago, but postponed from time to time, was not only pursued with vigour, but completed and turned into a volume in the Gaekwad Oriental Series.

601-2 Sadashiv Peth,
Laxmi Road, Poona 2.
Varshapratipadā, Shake 1883.


K. V. Abhyankar.


l. Words in this dictionary are arranged in the serial order of the Sanskrit alphabet which is current everywhere, viz. the fourteen vowels beginning with अ and ending with औ, and then the thirty-three consonants consisting of the five guttural, the five palatal, the five cerebral, the five dental and the five labial consonants and then the four semi-vowels and the four sibilants. क्ष् is taken as a combination of क् and ष्, and ज्ञ् as one of ज् and ञ्.

2. Words are given in their noun-base (प्रातिपदिक) such as अकर्मक, अकार, अक्षर etc., without the addition of any case affix.

3. At places of option where any one of the anusvāra and the parasavarṇa could be used, the anusvāra is consistently used, and a place after the vowels and before the consonants is assigned to it in the alphabetical order. For example, the words containing anusvāra such as संकर्ष, संक्रम, संचय, संज्ञा, संतान, संधि, संप्रसारण, संयोग, संवरण, संसर्ग, संहिता etc., are all placed after स and before सक्, सकर्मक etc.

4, Each word entered, has got only one paragraph assigned to it, although the explanation of the word may cover sometimes a full page or more.

5. The meaning or meanings of a word are given immediately after it, and therefore no capital letter is used at the beginning of the word with which each meaning begins.

6. The various senses of a word are given one after another with serial numbers placed before them. The several senses of a word are arranged as far as possible in their chronological order of origin.

7. The various senses are usually illustrated with quotations from standard authors with full references as far as possible. From among the Prātiśākhya works, the Ṛkprātiśākhya is generally quoted,while from among the numerous grammar works, the Mahābhāṣya and the Kāśikā are quoted profusely.

8. The first figure in references, which is generally the Roman one, refers to the main section such as the adhyāya or the Kāṇda or the Paṭala, while the next one refers to the subordinate sections, such as the stanza or the Sūtra or the like. When there are three figures they refer to the adhyāya, the pāda and the Sūtra in the case of Pāṇini, and to the Maṇḍala,the Sūkta and the stanza in the case of the Ṛksaṁhitā.

9. When a particular form is illustrated, the illustration begins with the abbreviation 'e.g.'; while usually, when the sense given is illustrated, the explanation or the quotation in Sanskrit begins with the abbreviation 'cf'.

10. Each of the different senses of a word or of the uses of a word in different ways, begins with a separate number (1), (2), (3), etc.; when however, the same sense is given with different shades of it, by words which are practically synonymous, no separate numbers are given, the shades of senses being separated by a colon, or by a comma.

11. As the senses given in such dictionaries are more or less technical or conventional, the literal or the usual sense of the words is given only when it is allied to the conventional sense.

12. Sanskrit words are generally given in the Devanāgari script; when, however, the Roman script is used, the diacritical marks which are in current use at present, are employed.

(In order of abbreviations used)

A. Pr.= Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya.
Aṣṭādhyāyī=Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.
Bh. Vr.=Bhāṣāvṛtti of Puruṣottamadeva.
Bhār. Śikṣ=Bhāradvāja Śikṣā.
C. Vy., Cān. Vy. = Cāndra vyākaraṇa.
Dhātuvṛtti = Madhavīya Dhātuvṛtti.
Durgācārya = Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.
Durgasiṁha=Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti.
Durgh. Vṛ = Durghaṭavṛtti of Śaraṇadeva.
Hem.=Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.
Hem. Pari. = Hemacandra's Paribhāṣāpāṭha as given by Hemahaṁsagaṇi.
Jain., Jain. Vy.=Jainendra Vyākaraṇa by Pujyapāda Devanandin.
Jain. Pari. =Jainendra Paribhāṣāvṛtti by K. V. Abhyankar.
Kaiy., Kaiyaṭa = Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.
Kas.=Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.

Kaś. viv. = Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, known by the name Nyāsa.
Kāt. = Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.
Kāt. Pari. Durg. = Kātantra Paribhāṣāvṛtti by Durgasiṁha.
Kāv. Prak. = Kāvyaprakāśa of Mammaṭa.
Laghumañjūṣā = Laghumañjūṣā of Nāgeśa.
M. Bh. = Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).
Mahābhāṣya Vol. VII=The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona.
Mahābhāṣyadīpika = commentary on the Mahābhāṣya by Bhartṛhari.
Muktāvalī = Nyāyamuktāvalī of Viśvanāthapañcānana.
Nir. = Nirukta of Yāska.
Nyāsa=Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by
Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa.
P., Pan=Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.

Padamañjarī=Padamañjarī, a commentary
on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta.
Pāṇ. Śik.=Śikṣā of Pāṇini.
Par. Bhāṣ. = Paribhāṣābhāskara of
Haribhāskara Agnihotrī.
Par. Śek. = Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa.
Paramalaghumañjūṣā = Paramalaghumañjūṣā of Nāgeśabhaṭṭa.
Pari. Sang. = Paribhhāṣāsaṁgraha by K. V. Abhyankar.
Phiṭ. Sūtra =Śāntanava's Phiṭsūtra.
Pradīpa = Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.
Puruṣottam=Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.
R. Pr. =Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)
R. T. = Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya.
R. V., Ṛgveda, Ṛk. Saṁh=Ṛgveda-saṁhita.
Śabdakaustubha = Śabdakaustubha of Bhaṭṭojī Dīkṣita.
Śak. = Śākaṭāyana's Śabdānuśāsana.
Śak. Pari = Śākaṭāyana Paribhāṣāpātha.
S. K. Sid.Kau. = Siddhāntakaumudī.
Sīradeva = Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.
Śiva Sūtra = Māheśvarasūtras.

Śṛing-Prak. = Sṛingāraprakāśa of Bhoja.
T. Pr. = Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.
Tait. Saṁh. = Taittirīya Saṁhita.
Tattvabodh. = Tattvabodhinī by Jinendrasarasvati.
Tattvacintāmaṇi = Tattvacintāmaṇi of Gaṅgeśopādhyāya.
Tribhāṣyaratna = commentary on the Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.
Uddyota = Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.
Uṇ. Sūtra = Uṇadisūtrapañcapādi.
Uṇ. Sūtravr. = Uṇādisūtravṛtti by Ujjvaladatta.
Upamanyu = Nandikeśvarakārikābhāṣya by Upamanyu.
Uvvaṭa = Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.
V. Pr. = Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.
Vaidikābharaṇa = commentary on the Taittirīya
Vaiyakaraṇabhuṣaṇa=Koṇḍabhaṭṭa's Vaiyakaraṇabhuṣaṇasara.
Vak. Pad.=Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari.
Vak. Pad. ṭīka = Commentary on Bhartṛhari's Vākyapadīya.
V., Vārt. = Vārttikas on the Sūtras of Pāṇini as given in
the Mahābhāṣya (Dr. Kielhorn's edition.)
Vyāḍi = Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.


abl. ablative case,
above a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.
ace. accusative case.
adj. adjective.
adv. adverb.
Āhn. Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya.
aor. aorist.
Ātm. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada.
caus. causal.
cf. confer, compare.
com. commentary.
comp. compound.
cond. conditional.
conj. conjugation.
dat. dative case.
desid. desiderative.
dual. dual number.
ed. edition.
e.g. exempli gratia, for example.
etc. et cetera, and others.
f., fem. feminine.
freq. frequentative.
fut. future.
gen. genitive case.
gend. gender.
gr. grammar.
i.e. id est, that is.
imperf. imperfect.
impera. imperative.

ind. indeclinable.
inf. infinitive.
ins., inst. instrumental case.
kṛt. kṛt (affix).
lit. literally.
loc. locative case.
masc. masculine gender.
ms. manuscript.
neut. neuter gender.
nom. nominative case.
Pan. Pāṇini.
p.p.p. past passive participle.
Parasmai. Parasmaipada.
pari, paribhāṣā.
part, participle.
pass, passive voice.
perf. perfect.
pers. person.
pi. plural.
pres. present tense.
pron. pronoun.
sec. second.
sing, singular.
subj. subjunctive.
suf. suffix.
tad. taddhita affix.
Vārt. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).
Ved. Vedic.
vide see
v. 1. varia lectio, another reading,
voc. vocative case.

A Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar.

अ (1)the first letter of the alphabet in Sanskrit and its derived langua- ges, representing the sound a (अ): (2) the vowel a (अ) representing in grammatical treatises, except when Prescribed as an affix or an aug- ment or a substitute,all its eighteen varieties caused by accentuation or nasalisation or lengthening: (3) personal ending a (अ) of the perf. sec.pl.and first and third pers.sing.; (4) kṛt affix c (अ) prescribed espe- cially after the denominative and secondary roots in the sense of the verbal activity e. g. बुभुक्षा, चिन्ता, ईक्षा, चर्चा etc.cf. अ प्रत्ययात् etc. (P.III 3.102-106); (5) sign of the aorist mentioned as añ (अङ्) or cañ (चङ्) by Pāṇini in P. III i.48 to 59 e.g. अगमत्, अचीकरत्; (6) conjugational sign mentioned as śap (शप्) or śa (श) by Pāṇini in P. III.1.68, 77. e.g. भवति, तुदति etc.; (7) augment am (अम्) as prescribed by P. VI.1.58; e.g. द्रष्टा, द्रक्ष्यति; (8) augment aṭ (अट्) prefixed to a root in the im- perf. and aorist tenses and in the conditional mood e. g. अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् cf. P. VI.4.71; (8) kṛt affix a (अ) prescribed as अङ्, अच्, अञ्, अण्, अन्, अप्, क, ख, घ, ञ, ड् , ण, etc. in the third Adhyāya of Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī; (9) tad. affix a (अ) mentioned by Pāṇini as अच्, अञ् अण्, अ etc. in the fourth and the fifth chapters of the Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini; (10) the samāsānta affix a (अ), as also stated in the form of the samāsānta affixes (डच् , अच्, टच्, ष्, अष् and अञ्) by Pāṇini in V.4.73 to 121;(11) substitute a (अश्) accented grave for इदम

before case-affixes beginning with the ins. case: (12) remnant (अ) of the negative particle नञ् after the elision of the consonant

n (न्) by नलोपो नञः P. vi.3.73.

अं (ं) nasal utterance called अनुस्वार and written as a dot above the vowel preceding it. cf. स्वरमनु संलीनं शब्द्यते इति; it is pronounced after a vowel as immersed in it. The anusvāra is considered (l) as only a nasalization of the preceding vowel being in a way completely amalgamated with it. cf. T. Pr. V. 11,31; XV. 1; XXII. 14 ; (2) as a nasal addition to the preceding vowel, many times prescribed in grammar as nuṭ (नुट् ) or num (नुम् ) which is changed into anusvāra in which case it is looked upon as a sort of a vowel, while, it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into a cognate of the following consonant (परसवर्ण) or re- tained as n (न्). cf. P. VIII.4.58; (3) as a kind cf consonant of the type of nasalized half g(ग्) as des- cribed in some treatises of the Yajurveda Prātiśākhya: cf also R. Pr.1.22 V.Pr.14.148-9. The vowel element of the anusvāra became more prevalent later on in Pali, Prkrit, Apabhraṁśa and in the spoken modern languages while the consonantal element became more predominant in classical


अंशिसमास the same as एकदेशिसमास or अवयवसमास or अवयवषष्ठीतत्पुरुष prescribed

by the rule पूर्वापराधरोत्तरोमकदेशिनैका-

धिकरणे P.II.2.1 and the following P.II.2.2 and 3; c.g पूर्वकायः, अपरकायः, अर्धपिप्पली etc.

अंशुगण, also अंश्वादिगण a class of words headed by अंशु which have their last vowel accented acute when they stand at the end of a tat- puruṣa, correspond with the word प्रति as the first member. cf. P. VI.2.193.

अः ( : ) visarga called visarjanīya in ancient works and shown in writing by two dots, one below the other, exactly of the same size, like the pair of breasts of a maiden as jocularly larly expressed by Durgasiṁha. cf. अः ( : ) इति विसर्जनीयः । अकार इह उच्चार- णार्थः । कुमारीस्तनयुगाकृतिर्वर्णो विसजर्नीयसंज्ञो भवति ( दुर्गसिंह on कातन्त्र I.1.16). विसर्ग is always a dependent letter included among the Ayogavāha letters and it is looked upon as a vowel when it forms a part of the preceding vowel; while it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into the Jihvāmūlīya or the Upadhmānīya letter.

अ (ೱ) क् (ೱ) जिह्वामूलीय, represented by a sign like the वज्र in writing, as stated by Durgasiṁha who remarks वज्रा- कृतिर्वर्णो जिह्वामूलीयसंज्ञो भवति. the Jihvā- mūlīya is only a voiceless breath following the utterance of a vowel and preceding the utterance of the guttural letter क् or ख् . It is looked upon as a letter (वर्ण), but dependent upon the following consonant and hence looked upon as a consonant. e. g. विष्णु ೱ करोति.

अ ೱ प् (ೱ) Upadhmānīya represented by a sign like the temple of an ele- phants stated by Durgasiṁha who remarks "गजकुम्भाकृतिर्वर्ण उपध्मानीयसंज्ञो भवति." Kāt.I. It is a voiceless breath following the utterance of a vowel and preceding the utterance of the labial letter p ( प् ) or ph ( फ ). It

is looked upon as a letter ( वर्ण ), but dependent upon the following consonant and hence looked upon as a consonant. अ:कार name given to the nom. case in the Taittiriya Prātiśākhya. cf अ:कार इति प्रथमाविभक्तेरुपलक्षणम् T. Pr. I. 23.

अक् ( 1 ) condensed expression (प्रत्याहार ) representing the letters अ, इ, उ, ऋ and लृ in Pāṇini's Grammar cf. P. VI.1.12, 101; VII.4.2. (2) sign (विकरण) of the benedictive in Vedic Literature in the case of the root दृश् c. g. पितरं च दृशेयं P.III.l.86 V 2; ( 3 ) remn- ant of the termnination अकच् P. V. 3. 71 ; ( 4 ) substitute (अादेश) अकङ् for the last vowel of the word मुधातृ ( P.IV.1.97 ) e. g. सोघातकिः.

अक (1) affix अक substituted for the afiix वु given in Pāṇini's Grammar as ण्वुच् as in अाशिका,शायिका (P.III. 3.111); ण्वुल् as in कारकः, भोजको व्रजति, विचर्चिका (P.III.1.133, III.3. 10,108); वुच् as in उपकः (P.V.3.80); वुञ् as in निन्दकः, राजकम्, भालवकः (P. III.2.146, IV.2.39, 53 etc.); वुन् as in प्रवकः, सरकः; क्रमकः, पदकः. III.1.149, IV.2.6l etc.

अकङ् substitute ( अादेश ) for the last letter of the word मुधातृ prescribed along with the tad. affix इञ् by P. IV.1.97. e.g. सौघातकिः

अकच् affix prescribed before the last syllable of pronouns and indeclin- ables without any specific sense for it (P.V.3.71) e. g. सर्वकः, उच्चकैः etc.

अकथित not mentioned by any other case-relation such as अपादान, संप्रदान and अधिकरण; stated with respect to the indirect object, governed by roots possessing two objects such as दुह्, याच् and others, which in the passive woice is put in the nominative case. The in-


direct object is called akathita because in some cases there exists no other case-relation as, for example, in पौरवं गां याचते or भिक्षते, or माणवकं पन्थानं पृच्छति; while, in the other cases, the other case-relations (with the activity expressed by the verb) are wilfully suppressed or ignored although they exist, as for instance in गां दोग्धि पयः, अन्ववरुणद्धि गां व्रजम्; see अकथितं च P.1.4.51 and the Mahābhāṣya thereon.

अकम्पित not shaken; tremulous: said with respect to vowels in Vedic utterance, kampa being looked upon as a fault of utterance., cf अकम्पितान् । कम्पनं नाम स्वराश्रितपाठदोषः प्रायेण दाक्षिणात्यानां भवति । तमुपलक्ष्य स वर्ज्य:। R.Pr.III.31

अकर्तृ a case-relation excepting that of the subject to the verbal activity. cf. अकर्तरि च कारके संज्ञायाम् P. III.3.I9.

अकर्मक intransitive, without any object, (said with regard to roots which cannot possess an object or whose object is suppressed or ignored). The reasons for suppression are briefly given in the well-known stanza ; धातोरर्थान्तरे वृत्तेर्धात्वर्थेनोपसंग्रहात् । प्रसिद्धेरविवक्षातः कर्मणोऽकर्मिकाक्रिया ॥ In the case of intransitive roots, the verbal activity and its fruit are centred in one and the same individual viz. the agent or कर्ता cf. फलव्यापारयोरेकनिष्ठतायामकर्मकः Vāk. Pad.

अकाण्डताण्डव name of the commentary by Harinātha on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara (परिभाषेन्दुशेखर) of Nageśabhaṭṭa.

अकाम (अकामसंधि) an invariable (नित्य) euphonic change (संधि) such as the dropping of th' consonant r ( र् ) when followed by r. cf. R. Pr. IV.9. रेफोदयो लुप्यते द्राघितोपधा ह्रस्वस्या-

कामनियता उभाविमी । e. g. युवो रजांसि, सुयमासो अश्वा रथ: R. V. I. 180.1.

अकार the letter a, (अ) inclusive of all its eighteen kinds caused by shortness, length, protraction, accentuation and nasalization in Pānini's grammar, in cases where a(अ) is not actually prescribed as a termination or an augment or a substitute. cf. अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P. I.1.73. The letter is generally given as the first letter of the alphabet ( वर्णसमाम्नाय ) in all Prātiśākhya and grammar works except in the alphabet termed Varṇopadeśa, as mentioned in the Ṛk Tantra cf. ए ओ ऐ औ अा ॠ लॄ ई ऊ ऋ लृ इ उ अाः । रयवलाः । ङञणनमाः । अः ೱ क ೱ पाः । हुं कुं खुं गुं घुं अं अां एवमुपदेशे etc. R. T.I. 4.

अकारक not causing any verbal activity; different from the kārakas or instruments of action such as the agent, the object, the instrument, the recipient (संप्रदान), the separated (अपादान) and the location, (अधिकरण) cf. M. Bh. on I.4.23, 29 and 5l and on II.3.1.

अकार्य not a grammatical positive operation: e. g. elision (लोप.) cf. ननु च लोप एवेत्कार्यं स्यात् । अकार्यं लोपः । M. Bh. on I.3.2.

अकालक (1) not limited by any time-factors for its study such as certain periods of the day or the year. (2) not characterized by any technical terms expressive of time such as adyatanī, parokṣā occurring in the ancient Prātiśākhya and grammar works. The term akalika is used by the writers of the Kāśikāvṛtti in connection with the grammar of Pāṇini. cf. “पाणिन्युपज्ञमकालकं व्याकरणम्” Kās. on P. II.4.21 explained by the writer of the Padamañjarī as


पूर्वाणि व्याकरणानि अद्यतनादिकालपरिभाषायुक्तानि तद्रहितम् ।

अकालापक different from the Kālāpa or the revised Kātantra Grammar cf. पाणिन्युपज्ञमकालापकं व्याकरणम् kāś. On P.II.4.21.

अकित् not marked by the mute letter k ( क् ) and hence not disallowing guṇa or vṛddhi substitutes for the preceding vowel, cf. सृजिदृशोर्झल्यमकिति P.VI.1.58; दीर्घोऽकित: P. VII. 4.83.

अकृत् lit. non-krt: an affix applied to a root, but different from the conjugational affixes. cf. अकृत्सार्वधातुक्रयोर्दीर्ध: P. VII. 4.25.

अकृत not established; said of a grammatical operation which has not taken place e. g. अकृतसंधिकार्यम् M. Bh. on V. 2.100, W. 3.84, also कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि नित्यम् M. Bh. on VI.4.62.

अकृतकारि doing or accomplishing what is not done or accomplished; the expression is used in connection with grammatical operations like ह्रस्वकरण or दीर्घकरण only in cases where it is necessary i, e. where already there is no hrasva or drgha cf. अकृतकारि खल्वपि शास्त्रमग्निवत् । तद्यथा । अग्निर्यददग्धं तद्दहति । M. Bh. on VI. 1.127. the rules of Grammar, like fire, are applied to places where they produce a change.

अकृतव्यूह short expression for the grammatical maxim अकृतव्यूहाः पाणिनीयाः which means "the followers of Pāṇini do not insist on the taking effect of a rule when its cause or causes disappear." See Par. śek. Par. 56.

अकृतसंधि word or expression without the necessary euphonic changes cf वरुणादीनां च तृतीयात् स च अकृतंसंधीनाम् P. V.3.84 vārt. 1.

अकृतसंहित words ending with a breathing or visarga which are not looked upon as placed immediately before the next word and hence which have no combination with the following vowel e. g. एष देवो अमर्त्यः R. V. 1X.8.1.

अकृत्रिम non-technical: not formed or not arrived at by grammatical operations such as the application of affixes to crude bases and so on; natural; assigned only by accident. cf the gram. maxim कृत्रिमाकृतिमयोः कृत्रिमे कार्यसंप्रत्ययः which means "in cases of doubt whether an operation refers to that expressed by the technical sense or to that which is expressed by the ordinary sense of a term, the operation refers to what is expressed by the technical sense." Par. śek. Par.9 also M. Bh. on I.1.28.

अकृत्स्न-अकृत्स्ना, an epithet applied to the pronunciation of Veda words improperly which does not serve any useful purpose. cf. अकृत्स्ना अप्रयोजना इत्यर्थ: Uvaṭa on R. Pr. XIV. 68.

अङ्कित not possessing the mute letter k (क्) or g (ग्) or ( ङ् ) and hence not preventing the guṇa and vṛddhi substitutes for the preceding vowel, if they occur. e. g. मृजेर ङ्कित्सु प्रत्ययेषु मृजिप्रसङगे मार्जिः साधुर्भुवति M.Bh. on P. I.I.I Vart.10.

अक्त definite, known or specified definitely. cf. अक्तपरिमाणानामर्थानां वाचका भवन्ति य एते संख्याशब्दाः परिमाणशब्दाश्च M. Bh. I.1.72.

अक्रियाज not a result of a verbal activity; the expression is used in connection with qualities ( on a substance) as opposed to the activities found in it. cf. अाधेयश्चाक्रियाजश्च सोs सत्त्वप्रकृतिर्गुणः M. Bh. on IV. 1.44.


अक्षद्यूतादिगण a class of words headed by अक्षद्यूत which take the tad. affix hak ( इक) in the sense of 'resulting from' e. g. अाक्षद्यूतिकं वैरम्, जानुप्रहृतिक्रम्, गातागार्तकम् etc. cf. P IV.4.19.

अक्षर a letter of the alphabet, such as a (अ) or i (इ) or h (ह) or y (य्) or the like. The word was originally applied in the Prātiśākhya works to vowels (long, short as also pro- tracted), to consonants and the ayogavāha letters which were tied down to them as their appendages. Hence अक्षर came later on to mean a syllable i. e. a vowel with a con- sonant or consonants preceding or following it, or without any con- sonant at all. cf. ओजा ह्रस्वाः सप्तमान्ताः स्वराणामन्ये दीर्घा उभये अक्षराणि R Pr. I 17-19 cf.एकाक्षरा, द्व्यक्षरा etc. The term akṣa- ra was also applied to any letter (वर्ण), be it a vowel or a conso- nant, cf, the terms एकाक्षर, सन्ध्यक्षर, समानाक्षर used by Patañjali as also by the earlier writers. For the etymo- logy of the term see Mahābhāṣya अक्षरं न क्षरं विद्यात्, अश्नोतेर्वा सरोक्षरम् । वर्णे वाहुः पूर्वसूत्रे । M. Bh. Āhnika 2 end.

अक्षरपङ्क्ति name given to the dvipada virāj verses divided into padās of five syllables. cf विराजो द्विपदाः केचित् सर्वा आहुश्चतुष्पदाः । कृत्वा पञ्चाक्षरान्पादांस्तास्तथाSक्षरपङ्क्तयः R. Pr. XVII. 50.

अक्षरसमाम्नाय alphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically inde- pendent letters generally begin- ning with the vowel a (अ). Al- though the number of letters and the order in which they are stat- ed differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enu- merate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five

simple vowels or monothongs (समा- नाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthā- varṇa, the twenty five class-conso- nants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for exam- ple in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the Vājasaneyi- Prātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protract- ed vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmu- līya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ,ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mention- ing 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semi- vowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmu- līya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enume- ration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast


with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasa- neyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. cf. V. Pr. VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prā- tiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali.cf. सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदि- तव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । M. Bh. Ahnika.2-end.

अक्षराङ्ग forming a part of a sy- llable just as the anusvāra ( nasal utterance ) or svarabhakti (vowel- part) which forms a part of the preceding syllable. cf. अनुस्वारो व्यञ्जनं चाक्षराङ्गम् R. Pr. I.22, also स्वरभक्तिः पूर्वभागक्षराङ्गम् R. Pr. I.32.

अखण्डशाब्दबोध unitary import; the meaning of a sentence collectively understood.

अगति (1) absence of any other re- course or alternative. cf. अगत्या हि खलु परिभाषाश्रीयते. Puruṣottamadeva- Pari. vṛtti Pari.119;(2) which is not a word termed gati. cf. चनचिदिवगोत्रा- दितद्धिताम्रेडितेष्वगते: P. VII.1.57.

अगमकत्व non-communicativeness, inability to communicate ade- quately the intended meaning. cf. सविशेषणानां वृत्तिस्तर्हि कस्मान्न भवति । अगमकत्वात् M. Bh on II.1.1: cf. also अगमक: निर्देशः अनिर्देशः।

अगुण् non-secondary, principal; cf. ध्रुवचेष्टितयुक्तिषु चाप्यगुणे तदनल्पमतेर्वचनं स्मरत M. Bh. on I.4.51.

अगृहीत uncomprehended, uninclud- ed cf.नागृहीतविशेषणा शक्तिर्विशेष्यमुपसंक्रामति । cf. also नाज्झलौ इत्यत्र अगृहीतसवर्णानामचां ग्रहणम् Padamañjari on Kāś VIII. 3.57.

अग्नि a term in the Kātantra grammar for a word ending in i ( इ ) or u ( उ ) cf. इदुदग्निः Kāt. II.1.8, अग्नेरमोs कारः Kāt. II.1.50.

अग्निग्निपदादिगण a class of words headed by the word अग्निपद to which the tad. affix अण् is added in the senses of 'given there' or 'done there' e. g. अग्निपदम्. cf. अण्प्रकरणे अग्निपदादिभ्य उपसंख्यानम् P. V.1.97 Vārt. 1.

अग्निवेश्य an ancient writer of Vedic grammar mentioned in the Taittirīya prātiśākhya. cf. कपवर्गपरश्च (विसर्ग:) अग्निवेश्यवाल्मीक्योः ( मतेन ऊष्माणं न आपद्यते ) T.Pr. IX. 4.

अग्निवेश्यायन writer of Vedic grammar, mentioned in the Taittirīya prātiśākhya. cf. नाग्निवेश्या- यनस्य ( मते उदात्तपरः स्वरितपरो वा अनुदात्तः स्वरितं नापद्यते इति न) Tait. Pr. XIV.32.

अग्नौकरवाणिन्याय analogy conveyed by the expression अग्नौ करवाणि implying permission to the agent to do certain other things in a sacrificial session when, as a matter of fact, he is only permitted to work as an agent at the sacrificial action ( अग्नौकरण ), by virtue of the reply ' कुरु ' to his request made in the sentence अग्नौ करवाणि. cf. अग्नौकरवाणि- न्यायेन भविष्यति M. Bh.on. II.2.24.

अग्र the original Samhita text as oppo- sed to pratṛṇna ( प्रतृण्ण ) or pada- pāṭha, (पदपाठ) which is the recital of separate words.

अग्रवाल (Vasudeva-Śarana Agravāla), a modern scholar of Sanskrit grammar, the author of "India as known to Pāṇini".

अग्रहण non-inclusion, non-compre- hension. cf. विभक्तौ लिङ्गविशिष्टाग्रहणम् Par. Śekh. Par. 72, M. Bh. VII. 1.1 Vart. 13.

अग्लोप elision of the vowel a, i,u , r or l ( अ, इ, उ, ऋ or लृ ) which prevents Sanvadbhāva cf. सन्वल्लघुनि चङ्परेSनग्लोपे P. VII.4.93, as also नाग्लोपिशास्वृदिताम् VII.4.2 where the elision prevents the shortening of the penultimate vowel if it is long.

अघोष unvoiced, merely breathed; a term applied to the surd conso- nants, ś, ṣ s, and visarga which are uttered by mere breathing and which do not produce any sonant effect. cf. T. Pr.I.12; R.Pr.I.11. The term jit ( जित् ) is used for these letters as also for the first two consonants of a class in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya cf. द्वौ द्वौ प्रथमौ जित्; ऊष्माणश्च हवर्जम् V. Pr. I.50.51.

अङ् The vikaraṇa before luṅ affixes, substituted for the affix cvi ( च्वि ) in the case of the roots mentioned by Pāṇini in sūtras III.1.52-59:(2) the Vikaraṇapratyaya in Vedic Literature before the benedictive affixes prescribed by Pāṇini in Sūtra III.1.86; (3) kṛt affix in the feminine gender showing verbal activity applied to roots marked with the mute letter ष् and the roots भिद्, छिद् and others. P.III.3 104-106.e.g. जरा, त्रपा, भिदा, छिदा etc.

अङित् not marked with the mute letter ṅ ( ङ्) signifying the absence of the prohibition of the guṇa or the vṛddhi substitute. cf अङिति गुणप्रतिषेधः ( वक्तव्यः ) M.Bh. III.3.83 Vārt. 2. In the case of the preposi- tion ā ( अा ) unmarked with ṅ (ड् ), it signifies a sentence or remembr- ance of something cf. वाक्यस्मरणयोरङित् e.g. आ एवं नु मन्यसे, आ एवं किल तत् cf. M. Bh. on I.l.14.

अङग (l) the crude base of a noun or a verb to which affixes are added; a technical term in Pāṇini's grammar for the crude base after which an affix is prescribed e. g. उपगु in औपगव,or कृ in करिष्यति etc. cf. यस्मात् प्रत्ययविधिस्तदादि प्रत्ययेSङ्गम् P.I.4.13; (2) subordinate part. constituent part cf. पराङ्गवद् in सुबामन्त्रिते पराङ्गवत्स्वरे P. II.1.2, also विध्यङ्गभूतानां परिभाषाणां Par. Śek. Par. 93.10: (3) auxiliary for an operation, e. g. अन्तरङ्ग, बहिरङ्ग etc. cf. अत्राङगशब्देन शब्दरूपं निमित्तमेव गृह्यते Par. Śek. Par.50; (4) element of a word or of an expression cf. अङ्गव्यवाये चाङ्गपरः R. T. 190, अङ्गे च क्म्ब्यादौ R.T. 127. व्यञ्जनं स्वराङ्गम् T. Pr. 21.1.

अङगवत् considered as auxiliary or part of another e.g. पूर्वाङ्गवद्भावः, पराङ्गवद्भाव:; cf सुबामन्त्रिते पराङ्गवत्स्वरे P.II.1.2 and the Vārtika thereon "परमपि च्छन्दसि पूर्वस्याङ्गवद् भवतीति वक्तव्यम्."

अङ्गवृत्त an operation prescribed in the section named aṅgādhikara, comprising the fourth quarter of the sixth book and the whole of the seventh book of Pāṇini.

अङ्गाधिकार a large section of Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī covering five quarters (VI.4.1 to the end of VII) in which the various operations undergone by crude bases before various affixes etc. are prescribed.

अङ्गुल्यादिगण class of words headed by अङ्गुलि to which the tad. afix ठक् ( इक् ) is added in the sense of comparison ( इवार्थे ); e. g. अङ्गुलीव अाड्गुलिक: cf. Kāś. on P. V.3.108.

अच् the short term or pratyāhāra in Pāṇini's Grammar representing a vowel, e.g. अजन्त (ending with a vowel), अच्संधि (vowel coalescence or combination).

अचिकित्स्य impossible to amend, not to be discussed. cf. एवं च 'पूजितो य:


सुरैरपि' इति अचिकित्स्यः अपशब्दः;Pada- mañjari on P.II.2.12.

अजादिगण class of words headed by अज to which the fem.affix अा is added, sometimes inspite of the affix ई being applicable by other rules such as जातेरस्त्रीविषयात्o P. IV. 1.63 and other rules in the section. e. अजा, एडका, त्रिफला, उष्णिहा, जेष्ठा, दंष्ट्रा. cf P. IV.1.4.

अजितसेन author of the Cintāmaṇi- prakāśika a gloss on Cintāmaṇi, the well known commentary by Yakṣa- varman on the Sabdānuśāsana of Śākatāyana. Ajitasena was the grand pupil of Abhayadeva; he lived in the 12th century A.D.

आजिरादिगण class of words headed by the word अजिर which do not allow lengthening of the final vowel by P. VI.3.119. although they form technical terms e. g. अजिरवती, पुलिन- वती etc. cf. Kāś on P. VI.3.119.

अज्भक्ति See under स्वरभक्ति.

अञ् (1) tad. affix a ( अ ) with the mute letter ñ ( ञ्), prescribed (i) after the words उत्स and others in various senses like progeny, dyed in, produced in, come from etc.P. IV.1.86, (ii) after the words विद and others in the sense of grandson and other descendents.P. IV.1.104. For other cases see P. IV. I. 141, 161; IV.2.12,14 etc. IV.3.7 etc. IV.4.49. The feminine is formed by adding i ( ई ) to words ending with this affix अञ्, which have the vṛddhi vowel substituted for their initial vowel which gets the acute accent also e.g. औत्सः, औत्सी,औदपानः, बैदः, बैदी.

अट् (I) token term standing for vowels and semi-vowels excepting l ( ल्) specially mentioned as not inter- fering with the substitution of ṇ

( ण् ) for n ( न् ) e.g. गिरिणा, आर्येण, खर्वेण etc. Sec P.VIII.4.2; (2) aug- ment a (अट्) with an acute accent, which is prefixed to verbal forms in the imperfect and the aorist tenses and the conditional mood. e.g. अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् Sec P.IV.4.71; (3) augment a ( अट् ) prescribed in the case of the roots रुद्, स्वप् etc. before a Sārvadhātuka affix begin- ning with any consonant except y ( य्), e.g. अरोदत्, अस्वपत्, अजक्षत्, आदत् etc.; see P.VII.3, 99, 100;(4) aug- ment a ( अट् ) prefixed sometimes in Vedic Literature to affixes of the Vedic subjunctive (लेट्) e.g. तारिवत्, मन्दिवत् etc. see P.III.4.94.

अठच् tad. affix अठ prescribed after the word कर्मन् by the rule कर्मणि घटोऽ ठच् cf कर्मणि घटते कर्मठः पुरुषः Kāś. on p. V.2.35.

अडच् tad. affix अड applied in the sense of pitiable or poor to a word preceded by the word उप when the whole word after उप is dropped, e.g उपड् ( उपेन्द्रदत्त + अड् ) see. p. V. 3. 80.

अण् (I) token term ( प्रत्याहार ) for all vowels and semivowels which, when prescribed for an operation, include all such of their sub-divi- sions as are caused by length, pro- traction accent or nasalization. cf अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P. I.1.60;(2) token term for the vowels अ, इ and उ in all Pānini's rules except in the rule - I.1.69 given above e.g see ढ्रलोपे पूर्वस्य दीर्घोणः P.VI.3. 111, केऽणः P.VII.4.13. and अणोऽ प्रगृह्यस्य. P.VIII.4.57: (3) tad, affix. a ( अ ) prescribed generally in the various senses such as 'the offspring', 'dyed in,' 'belong- ing to' etc. except in cases where other specific affixes are prescribed cf प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् P. IV.1.83; (4) kṛ.


affix a ( अ ), applied, in the sense of an agent, to a root with an antecedent word (उपपद) stand- ing as its object. e. g. कुम्भकारः, see P.III.2.1: काण्डलावः, see P.III.3.12.

अणादि-a term applied to all taddhita suffixes collectively as they begin with अण् cf. P.IV.1.83.

अणु the minimum standard of the guantity of sound, which is not perceived by the senses, being equal to one-fourth of a Mātrā; cf. अणोस्तु तत्प्रमाणं स्यात् मात्रा तु चतुराणवात् ॥ see T.Pr. 21.3, V. Pr. 1.60, A.Pr. III.65. Ṛk. tantra, however, defi- nes अणु as half-a-mātrā. cf. अर्धमणु ( R.T. 1.41 ).

अणुदिच्छास्त्र - the rule prescribing cognateness (सावर्ण्य) of letters. The term refers to Pāṇini's sūtra अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P.I.1.69. The terms ग्रहणकशास्त्र and सवर्णशास्त्र are used in the same sense.

अण्णैयाचार्य author of लिङ्गनिर्णयभूषण, who was a Tamil Brāhmaṇa by caste.

अत्(1) tech. term in Pāṇini's grammar for short अ, cf तपरस्तत्कालस्य P. I. 1. 70; अदेङ् गुणः P.I.1.2; (2) personal ending अ for इ ( इट् ) of the Ist pers. sing. Ātm. in the Potential, P III. 4. 106; (3) case- affix in the case of युष्मद् and अस्मद् for abl. sing. and pl. P.VII. 1.31,32: (4) tad-affix अत् (अ) prescribed after किम् in the sense of the loc. case before which किम् is changed to कु, क्व being the tad. formation; cf. P. V.3.12 and VII.2.105:(5) substitute अत्(शतृ) for लट् forming the present and future participles in the Parasmaipada. active voice cf. लटः शतृशानचौ. P.III. 2.124 and लृटः सद्वा P. III.3.14.

अतङ् non-Ātmanepadin verbal affixes ति, तः...मस्, P. III.4.78, Cān. I.4.11, Śāk. 1.4.101.

अतत्काल not taking that much time only which is shown by the letter (vowel) uttered, but twice or thrice, as required by its long or protracted utterance ; the expres- sion is used in connection with vowels in Pāṇini's alphabet, which, when used in Pāṇini's rules, ex- cept when prescribed or followed by the letter त्, includes their long, protracted and nasalized utter- ances: cf. अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः I.1.69.

अतदनुबन्धक not having the same mute significatory letter, but having one or two additional ones, cf. तदनुबन्धकग्रहणे नातदनुबन्धकस्य ग्रहणम् (Par. Śek. Pari. 84.)

अतद्धित an affix which is not a tad- dhita affix. cf. लशक्वतद्धिते P.1.3.8; M. Bh. I.3.4, V.3.1 etc.

अतन्त्र implying no specific purpose: not intended to teach anything, अविवक्षित; e.g. ह्रस्वग्रहणमतन्त्रम् Kāś and Si. Kau. on तस्यादित उदात्तमर्धह्रस्वम् P.1.2.32: cf. also अतन्त्रं तरनिर्देशः ( the use of तरप् does not neces- sarily convey the sense of the comparative degree in Pāṇini's rules) M. Bh. on P. I.2.33. This statement has been given as a distinct Paribhāṣa by Vyāḍi and Sākaṭāyana. The author of the Mahābhāṣya appears to have quo- ted it from the writings of Vyāḍi and the earlier grammarians See also M. Bh. on अल्पाच्तरम् P. II.2.34.

अतसुच् ( अतस् ) tad. aff. अतस् applied to the words दक्षिण, उत्तर, पर and अवर;e.g.दक्षिणतो वसति; उत्तरत आगतः, परतो रमणीयम्, परस्ताद्रमणीयम् , अवरत आगतः अवरस्ताद्वसति. cf. P.V.2.28, 29.


अताद्रूप्यातिदेश conveyance of only the properties of one to another without conveying the actual form, des- cribed as the significance of an- tādivadbhāva. cf. न वा अताद्रूप्याति- देशात् M. Bh. on P. VI.1.85 Vārt. 26. See ताद्रूप्यातिदेश below.

अताम् personal affix of the third pers. pl. Ātm. in the Imperative (लोट्). cf. P. III.4.90.

अतिक्रम passing over a word in the क्रमपाठ without repeating it; passing beyond, cf. अतिक्रम्य परिग्रहः R. Pr. X.7, which means catching a word for repetition by coming back after passing over it, e. g. इन्द्राग्नी अपात् । इन्द्राग्नी इति इन्द्राग्नी । or अनु दक्षि । दक्षि दावने | दक्षीति दक्षि ।

अतिजगती one of the varieties of-in fact, the first variety of-the Atic- chandas metre, which see above: this Atijagatī consists of 52 sylla- bles.e. g. तमिन्द्रे जोहवीमि मघवानमुग्रम् Ṛk. Saṁh.8.97.13 cf, प्रथमातिजगत्यासां सा द्विपञ्चाशदक्षरा R. Pr. XVI.80.

अतिदेश extended application; trans- fer or conveyance or application of the character or qualities or attributes of one thing to another. Atideśa in Sanskrit grammar is a very common feature prescribed by Pāṇini generally by affixing the tad. affix मत् or वत् to the word whose attributes are conveyed to another. e. g. लोटो लङ्वत् P. III. 4.85. In some cases the atideśa is noticed even without the affix मत् or वत्; e.g.गाङ्कुटादिभ्योऽञ्णिन् ङित् P. 1.2.1 . Atideśa is generally seen in all grammatical terms which end with 'vadbhāva' e. g. स्थानिवद्भाव (P.I.1.56-59), सन्वद्भाव (P.VII.4.93), अन्तादिवद्भाव (P. VI.1.85), अभूततद्भाव (P.IV.60) and others. Out of these atideśas, the स्थानिवद्भाव is the most

important one, by virtue of which sometimes there is a full repre- sentation i.e. substitution of the original form called sthānin in the place of the secondary form called ādeśa. This full representation is called रूपातिदेश as different from the usual one which is called कार्यातिदेश, cf. M. Bh. VIII.1.90 Vārt. 1 and VIII.1.95. Vart.3. Regarding the use of अतिदेश there is laid down a general dictum सामान्यातिदेशे विशेषानतिदेशः - when an operation depending on the general properties of a thing could be taken by extended application, an operation depend- ing on special properties should not be taken by virtue of the same : e. g. भूतवत् in P. III.3.132 means as in the case of the gene- ral past tense and not in the case of any special past tense like the imperfect ( अनद्यतन ) , or the perfect ( परोक्ष ). See Par. Śek. Pari. 101, M. Bh. on P. III. 3. 132. There is also a general dictum अति- देशिकमनित्यम्- whatever is transfer- red by an extended application, need not, be necessarily taken. See Par. Śek. 93.6 as also M. Bh. on P.I.1.123 Vārt.4, I.2.1 Vārt. 3, II.3.69 Vārt.2 etc., Kaiyaṭa on II. 1.2 and VI.4.22 and Nyāsa on P. I.1.56 and P. I.2.58 Vārt. 8. The dictum अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् is given as a Paribhāṣā by Nāgeśa cf. Pari. Śek. 93. 6.

अातिधृति one of the varieties of Atic- chandas consisting of 76 syllables. e. g. स हि शर्धो न मारुते तुविष्वाणिः Ṛk. Saṁh. I.127.6.

अतिनिचृत् a variety of the Gāyatri metre consisting of 20 syllables, cf. R. Pr. XVI.22.


अतिपत्ति absence of any possibility ; Sec क्रियातिपत्ति. cf. P. III.3.139 Cān. 1.3.107. अतिप्रयत्न intense effort; characteri- stic effort as required for uttering a vowel with विक्रमस्वरित.

अतिप्रसङ्ग over-application of a de- finition which is looked upon as a serious fault: e. g. अतिप्रसङ्गो व्रश्चा दिषु P.VI.1.66 Vārt. 3.

अतिबहु too much,rather unnecessary e. g. इदं चाप्यद्यत्वे अतिबहु क्रियते, M. Bh. on I.1.38, इदमतिबहु क्रियते M. Bh. on I.4.63, VI.1.145; नातिबहु प्रयोक्तव्यम् M. Bh. on VIII.1.4.

अतिरिक्त surplus, redundant: cf. Nir. IV.20; see Kaiyaṭa on M. Bh. V. 1.131.

अतिव्यक्त quite distinct; used with respect to pronunciation नातिव्यक्तं न चाव्यक्तमेवं वर्णानुदीरयेत् cf. T. Pr. XVII.8.

अतिव्यस्त quite apart, used with respect to lips which are widely apart ( विश्लिष्टौ ) in the utterance of long अा and ओ; cf. T. Pr. II.12, 13.

अतिव्याप्ति the same as अतिप्रसङ्ग, which see above. Extensive application with respect to a rule which applies to places where it should not apply. See Par. Śekh on Pari. 28, Pari. 85; also Padamañj. on Kāś. II.I.32.

अतिशक्वरी a variety of Aticchandas metre consisting of 60 syllables. e. g. सुषुमा यातमद्रिभिः Ṛk. Saṁh. I. 137.1. cf, R. Pr. KVI.82.

'अतिशय excess or excellence as shown by the affixes तर and तम cf. तरतम- योश्चातिशये V.Pr.V.2; क्रियाप्रधानमाख्यातं तस्मादतिशये तखुत्पद्यते M. Bh. on VI. 2.139; VIII.1.71 ; (2) desire as shown by the affix क्यच् in Pāṇini's grammar; cf. यश्च अतिशये R. T. 126.

अतिशायन excellence, surpassing; the same as अतिशय in V. Pr. V. 2 cf. अतिशायने तमबिष्ठनौ P. V. 3.55, also cf. भूमनिन्दाप्रशंसासु नित्ययोगेऽतिशायने । संसर्गेऽ स्तिविवक्षायां भवन्ति मतुबादय: M. Bh. on V.2.94, where अतिशायन means अतिशाय. Patañjali, commenting on P. V.3.55 clearly remarks that for अतिशय, or for अतिशयन, the old grammarians, out of fancy only, used the term अतिशायन as it was a current term in popular usage; cf. देश्याः सूत्रनिबन्धाः क्रियन्ते यावद् ब्रूयात् प्रकर्षे अतिशय इति तावदतिशायन इति M. Bh. on , P. V.3.55.

आतिस्पर्श excess of contact, which to a certain extent spoils the pro- nunciation and leads to.a fault. अतिस्पर्श is the same as दुःस्पर्श, the letter ळ being called दुःस्पृष्ट on account of excess of contact. This excess of contact ( अतिस्पर्श) in the case of the utterance of the letter र् results into a fault as it practically borders on stammering; cf. अतिस्पर्शो बर्बरता च रेफे, R. Pr. XIV. 26.

अतिस्वार्य ( अतिस्वार also ) name of the seventh musical note in the sing- ing of Sāman. cf.क्रष्टुप्रथमद्वितीयतृतीय- चतुर्थमन्द्रातिस्वार्याः T. Pr. XXIII. 13.

अतिहार transfer of a consonant in a Stobha. See पुष्पसूत्र.

अतु short term used by Pāṇini to sig- nify together the five affixes क्तवतु, ड्वतुप्, ड्मतुप् मतुप् and वतुप् ;cf.अत्वसन्तस्य चाधातोः P. VI.4.14.

अतुल्यबल not having the same force: not belonging to the same type out of the four types of rules viz. पर, नित्य, अन्तरङ्ग and अपवाद. cf. अतुल्य- बलयोः स्पर्धो न भवति Jainendra Pari. 66.

अतुस् personal ending of perf. 1st pers. dual. cf. परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथु- सणल्वमाः P. III.4.82.


अतृन् krt affix अत् applied to the root जॄ in the sense of past time. cf जीर्यतरेतृन् P. III.2.104.

अते personal ending of pres. 3rd per. pl. substituted for झ ( अन्त ), the अ of झ ( अन्त ) being changed into ए and न being omitted: see झोन्त: (P.VII.1.3) अदभ्यस्तात् (P. VII. 1.4) and टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे (P. III. 4.79).

अत्यन्तगति complete contact of the verbal activity ( क्रिया ); cf.P. V.4.4.

अत्यन्तसंयोग constant contact; com- plete contact, uninterrupted con- tact. cf. अत्यन्तसंयोगे च P. II.1.29; II.3.5.

अत्यन्तापह्नव complete or absolute denial or concealment offacts; cf. परोक्षे लिट् । अत्यन्तापह्नवे च । 3.2.115, Vārt, 1.

अत्यय past happening, cf अत्ययो भूतत्वमतिक्रमः । अतीतानि हिमानि निर्हिमम् ! निःशीतम् Kāś. on P. II.1.6.

अत्यल्प rather too little, an expres- sion used by Patanjali idiometi- cally cf. अत्यल्पमिदमुच्यते M. Bh. on I.1.69 etc.

अत्यल्पस्पृष्ट having a very slight con- tact (with the organ producing sound),as in the case of the utter- ance of a vowel.

अत्यष्टि a variety of Aticchandas metre consisting of 68 syllables. e. g. अथा रुचा हरिण्या पुनानः Ṛk. Sam. 8.111.1.

अत्यादिगण the group of prepositions headed by अति which are com- pounded with a noun in the acc. case ; cf. अत्यादयः क्रान्ताद्यर्थे द्वितीयया M. Bh. om P. II. 2.18.

अत्युच्चनीच characterized by a sharp utterance; a name of the grave accent

अत्युपसंहृत very closely uttered, uttered with close lips and jaws,

(said in connection with the utterance of the vowel अ ); cf. T. Pr II. 12. See अतिसंश्लिष्ट.

अत्व also अत्व change of a vowel into short अ.

अत्वत् possessing or having a short अ vowel in it; archaic form used by Pāṇini in उपदेशेsत्वतः (P. VII. 2.62) instead of अद्वत् the correct one; cf. छन्दोवत्सूत्राणि भवन्ति M. Bh. on I.1.1 and I.4.3.

अथ Uṇādi affix अथ prescribed in Uṇādi Sūtras 393-396 e.g. see शपथ, अवभृथ, आवसथ ctc.

अथर्वप्रातिशाख्य the Prātiśākhya work of the Atharva veda believed to have been written by Śaunaka. It consists of four Adhyāyās and is also called शौनकीया चतुरध्यायिका.

अथुच् kṛt. affix अथु with उ accented, applied to roots marked by Pāṇini with the mute syllable टु in the sense of verbal activity: c. g. वेपथुः श्वयथुः, cf ट्वितोथुच् P.III.3.89.

अथुस् conjugational affix of perf. 2nd pers. dual Parasmai. substituted for the personal ending थस्, cf. P. III. 4.82.

अदन्त ending with the short vowel अ; cf. P. VIII.4.7: a term appli- ed to nouns of that kind, and roots of the tenth conjugation which are given with the letter अ at their end which is not looked upon as mute (इत्) c.g. कथ,गण. etc. Mark also the root पिच described by पतञ्जलि as अदन्त cf. पिबिरदन्तः M. Bh. on I.1.56., M. Bh. on II. 4.43.

अदर्शन a term in ancient grammars and Prātiśākhyas meaning non- appearance of a phonetic member वर्णस्यादर्शनं लोपः (V. Pr 1. 141),explain- ed as अनुपलब्धिः by उव्वट. Later on, the idea of non-appearance came to be associated with the idea of expectation and the definition of


लोप given by Pāṇini in the words अदर्शनं लोपः (as based evidently on the Prātiśākhya definition) was explained as non-appearance of a letter or a group of letters where it was expected to have been present. See M. Bh. on I.1.60 Vārt. 4 and Kaiyaṭa thereon.

अदादि name given to the class of roots belonging to the second conjugation, as the roots therein begin with the root अद्. The word अदिप्रभृति is also used in the same sense; cf. अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः p.II. 4.72: cf.also अदाद्यनदाद्योरनदादेरेव given by Hemacandra as a Paribhāṣā corresponding to the maxim लुग्विकरणालुग्विकरणयोरलुग्विकरणस्य Hem. Pari.61.

अदि Uṇādi affix अदि e. g, शरद्, दरद्; cf. शॄदॄभसोsदि; Uṇ. 127;

अदिप्रभृति See अदादि above.

अदुक् aug. अद् added to the word एक before the negative particle न; e.g. एकान्नविंशतिः, एकान्नत्रिंशत् cf. P.VI 3.76.

अदृष्ट not seen properly; doubtful; in- distinct;said with respect to a letter which is not distinctly deciphered in the Saṁhitāpātha: e.g. तन्नः ( R. Saṁh. I. 107. 3 ): the last letter त् of तत् is deciphered in the Pada-pātha which is given as तत्- न: cf. अदृष्टवर्णे प्रथमे चोदकः स्यात् प्रदर्शकः R. Pr. X. 15.

अदोष absence of fault; absence of inconvenience. The expression सोप्यदोषो भवति often occurs in the Mahābhāṣya: cf. MBh. on I. 3.62; I. 4.108, etc.

अद्ङ् substitute for case affixes सु and अम् added to words ending with the affixes डतर and डतम and to the words अन्य, अन्यतर and इतर. cf. P,VII.1.25.

अद्यतनी tech. term of ancient gram- marians signifying in general the present time of the day in question, the occurrence of the immediate past or future events in which is generally expressed by the aorist (लुड्) or the simple future ( लृट् ); the other two corres- ponding tenses imperfect and first future (viz. लड् and लुट्) being used in connection with past and future events respectively, provid- ed the events do not pertain to that day which is in question; cf. 'वा चाद्यतन्याम्' M.Bh. P.III.2.102 Vār.6, वादृतन्याम् P, VI.4.114. Vārt. 3; (2) term for the tense showing immediate past time called लुङ् in Pāṇini's grammar e. g. मायोगे अद्यतनी । मा कार्षीत् Kāt. III. 1.22, Hem. III. 3.11.

अद्रव्यवाचिन् not expressive of any substance which forms a place of residence (of qualities and actions); cf. तथा व्याकरणे विप्रतिषिद्धं चानधिकरण- वाचि ( P. II.4.13 ); इत्यद्रव्यवाचीति गम्यते । M.Bh. on II.1.1.

अद्वियोनि lit. not made up of two elements, and hence, produced with a single effort, an expression used for simple vowels ( समानाक्षर ) such as अ, इ, उ, ऋ, लृ and simple consonants क्, ख्, ग् etc. as distinguished from diphthongs ( सन्ध्यक्षर ) such as ए, ऐ, ओ, औ and conjunct consonants क्व, ध्र , etc. which appear to have been termed द्वियोनि cf. अपृक्तमेकाक्षरमद्वियोनि यत् R.Pr.XI.3.

अद्व्युपसर्गे not preceded by (two or more) prepositions; i. e. preceded by only one preposition. cf. छादेर्घेऽद्व्युपसर्गस्य P.VI.4.96 prescrib- ing short अ for the long अा of the root छाद् before the kṛt. affix घ, eg. प्रच्छदः


अधिक (1) additional or surplus acti- vity which a rule in grammar sometimes shows; अधिकः कारः or अधिकं कार्यम्; cf. M. Bh. on I.3.11, Kāś. on III.2.124, Bh. Vṛ. on III.4.72; ( 2 ) surplus subject matter e. g. अथाख्याः समाम्नायाधिकाः प्राग्रिफितात् (V.Pr. I.33.)

अधिकरण (1) support: a grammati- cal relation of the nature of a location : place of verbal acti- vity. cf. अाधारोsधिकरणम् P.I.4.45; (2) one of the six or seven Kārakas or functionaries of verbal activity shown by the locative case. cf सप्तम्यधिकरणे च P.II.4.36;(3)substance, 'dravya' cf. अनधिकरणवाचि अद्रव्यवाचि इति गम्यते M.Bh. on II.1.1.

अधिकार governing rule consisting of a word (e.g. प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः etc.) or words (e.g. ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे etc.) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference bet- ween अधिकार and परिभाषा; cf. अधिकार: प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम्. The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत. The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापार: अधिकारः Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्यय: P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य P.VI.4.1

समासान्ताः P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeated. The repeti- tion goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्नि- पाताः P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा. This अधिकार or governance has its in- fluence of three kinds: ( 1 ) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् or अङ्गस्य; (2) by showing additional pro- perties e. g. the word अपादान being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्य- केभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराः: (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if opposing. These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित and hence termed अधिकार possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य and अधिक कार. For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; cf. सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च ।; गड्गाप्रवा- हवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥

अघिकारसूत्र a superintending aphori- sm, which gives no meaning of itself where it is mentioned, but gives its meaning in the number of


aphorisms that follow: e. g- the rules प्रत्यय:, परश्च and अाद्युदात्तश्च P. III.1.1, 2, 3 or सह सुपा. P.II.1.4.

अधिस्पर्शम् incompletely pronounced, referring to a letter so pronoun- ced.

अधुना tad. affix applied to the pro- noun इदम् which is changed into इ before the affix and then elided by P. VI.4.148, or changed into अ in which case धुना or अधुना could be looked upon as a tad. affix.

अध्यवसाय determination to begin an activity with a view to get the fruit. cf. य एष मनुष्यः प्रेक्षापूर्व- कारी स बुद्ध्या कंचिदर्थं संपश्यति, संदृष्टे प्रार्थना, प्रार्थिते अध्यवसायः,म् अध्यवसाये आरम्भः, आरम्भे निर्वृत्तिः, निर्वृत्तौ फलावाप्तिः cf. M. Bh. on I.3.14 and I.4.32.

अध्यात्मादि name of a class of words headed by the word अध्यात्मन् to which the tad. affix ठञ् is added in the sense of 'तत्र भवः' i.e. found therein, or existing therein. e. g. आध्यात्मिकम्, आधिदैविकम्, etc.cf M.Bh. on IV.3.60.

अध्यास superimposition : a relation between a word and its sense ac- cording to the grammarians; cf. Vāk. Pad. II.240. (2) appendage; cf. आहुस्त्वेकपदा अन्ये अध्यासानेकपातिनः R. Pr.XVII.43.

अध्याहार supplying the necessary ele- ment. cf. गम्यमानार्थस्य वाक्यस्य स्वरूपेणोपा- दानं वाक्यस्याध्याहारः Kāś on P.VI.1. 139., cf also Nir. I.1.13 and M. Bh. on Śiva Sūtra 1 Vārt 14.

अध्यै, अध्यैन् kṛt affixes substituted in the place of तुम् of the infinitive in Vedic Literature (P. III.4.9.), e. g. पिबध्यैः when अध्यैन् is substi- tuted, the initial vowel of the word becomes उदात्त. e. g. कर्मण्युपा- चारध्यै ।

अन्, tad. affix अ ( अन् ) ( 1) added to the word नीली in the sense of 'dyed in', to form the word नील,cf. P. IV.2.2. Vārt. 2; (2) added to the word अषाढा in the sense of 'produced in' cf अषाढाः उपदधाति M. Bh. on IV.3.34 Vārt. 2; (3) add- ed after the affix तीय in the same sense as तीय e.g. द्वितीयो भागः, तृतीयो भागः cf. पूरणाद् भागे तीयादन् P.V.3.48.

अन substitute for the affix यु ( युच्, ण्युट् ल्युट्, ल्यु, ट्यु, ट्युल् and others of which only यु remains), cf. युवो- रनाकौ P.VII.1.1 e. g. कारणा, हारणा, करणम्, हरणम्, नन्दनः, सायंतनम् etc.

अनड् (l) substitute अन् as Samāsānta at the end of a Bahuvrīhi comp. in the feminine for the last letter of the word ऊधस् and for that of धनुस् in all genders e.g. कुण्डोघ्नी (by apply- ing ई to कुण्डोधन्), शार्ङ्गधन्वा, अधिज्यधन्वा; cf. P V.4.131, 132; (2) substitute अन् for the last letter of the words अस्थि, दधि etc. before the affixes of the instrumental and the follow- ing cases beginning with a vowel e. g. अस्थ्ना, दध्ना, अक्ष्णा etc. cf. P. VII. 1.75; (3) substitute अन् for the last letter of the word सखि, of words ending in ऋ,as also of उशनस् and others before the nominative sing. affix सु. e. g. सखा, कर्ता, उशना cf. P. VII.1.93, 94.

अनच्क possessing no अच् or vowel in it. cf इन्द्रे द्वौ अचौ, एको यस्येतिलोपेनापहृतो- ऽपर एकादेशेन ततः अनच्कः इन्द्रशब्दः संपन्नः cf. Par. Śek. on Par. 52.: M.Bh. on I. 4.2 Vārt. 22.

अनञ् a word without the negative particle ( नञ् ) before it, e. g. धेनु- रनञि कमुत्पादयति, a sūtra in Āpiśali's grammar quoted in M. Bh. on IV.2.45 see also P. II. 1. 60, VII. 1. 37.

अनत uncerebralized; not changed into a cerebral ( मूर्धन्य ) letter.cf.


दन्त्यस्य मूर्धन्यापात्तिर्नति: Uvaṭa on R. Pr. IV.34.

अनतिदिष्ट not resulting from any ex- tended application or अतिदेश, cf. प्रकृत्याश्रयं अनतिदिष्टं भवति M.Bh. on IV. 1.151.

अनत्यन्तगति absence of the verbal activity in all ways or respects in- complete activity; e.g. छिन्नकम् not completely cut, cf. अनत्यन्तगतौ क्तात् P. V.4.4.

अनद्यतन period of time not pertain- ing to the day in question; used in connection with past time, to express which the imperfect is generally used; also in connection with the future time, to express which the first future is generally used e g- ह्यः अपचत्, श्वः कर्ता etc. cf. P.III.2.111,113; III. 3.15,135: V.3.21.

अननुबन्घक without any mute signi- ficatory letter attached; अननुबन्धकपरि- भाषा is the short name given to the maxim-'अननुबन्धकग्रहणे न सानुबन्धकस्य ग्रह णम्' See M.Bh. on I.3.1: V.2.9. There is a reading in the Par. Śek. निरनुबन्धकग्रहणे for अननुबन्धकग्रहणे, in which case the परिभाषा is called निरनुबन्धकपरिभाषा. See Par. Śek. Pari. 81.

अनन्तर (l) immediate, contiguous अव्यवहित. cf. हलोनन्तराः संयोगः P.1. 1.7, also गतिरनन्तरः P. VI.2.49: cf. अनन्तरं संयोगः V. Pr.I.48. ; (2) nearest, as compared with others of the same type; cf. अथवा अनन्तरा या प्राप्तिः सा प्रतिषिध्यते M.Bh. on I.1.43; cf. Pari. Śek. अनन्तरस्य विधिर्वा भवति प्रतिषेधो वा, which means that a prescriptive or prohibitive rule applies to the nearest and not to the distant one.Par.Śek. 61,Cān. Par.30.

अनन्त्य non-final cf. अनन्त्यविकारे अन्त्यस- देशस्य when a change does not con-

cern a final letter then it concerns that which immediately precedes the final, Par. Śek. Pari 95. cf. also M. Bh. VI.1.13 Vārt 5.

अनन्य not different, the same: cf. एकदेशविकृतमनन्यवत् that which has got a change regarding one of its parts is by no means something else; Par. Śek. Pari. 37.

अनन्यवद्भाव being the same, being looked upon as not different. See अनन्य above.

अनभिधान inability to express the meaning desired. The expression न वा अनभिधानात् frequently occurs in the Mahābhāṣya referring to such words or phrases as could be form- ed by rules of grammar or could be used according to rules but,are not found in current use recogniz- ed by learned persons or scholars; cf. तच्चानभिधानं यत्राप्तैरुक्तं तत्रैव, अन्यत्र तु यथालक्षणं भवत्येव Padamañj. on III. 2.1;also cf. अनभिधानाद् व्यधिकरणानां बहुव्रीहिर्न भविष्यति । यत्र त्वभिधानमस्ति तत्र वैयधिकरण्येपि भवत्येव समासः, कण्ठेकाल इति; Nyāsa on II. 2.24: for examples of अनभिधान, sec also M.Bh.अभिधानलक्षणाः कृत्तद्धितसमासाः अनभिधानान्न भविष्यन्ति M. Bh. on III.3.19. also on III. 2.1. V.5, IV.2.1. See Kāś. on III,1.22, III.3.158.

अनभिनिर्वृत्त that which is not applied; lit.(an operation or vidhi) which has not taken place or which has not been effective; cf. प्रसक्तस्य अनभिनिर्वृत्तस्य प्रतिषेधेन निवृत्तिः शक्या कर्तुं नानभिनिर्वृत्तस्य M. Bh. on I. 1.5; IV. 1.37. Cf. also न चानभिनिर्वृत्ते बहिरङ्गे अन्तरङ्गं प्राप्नोति । तत्र निमित्तमेव बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गस्य M.Bh. on VI.4.22: VIII.3.15.

अनभिहित not conveyed or expressed by another i.e. by any one of the four factors viz.verbal affix, kṛt affix,taddhita affix and compound. The rule अनभिहिते (P. II.3.I) and


the following rules lay down the different case affixes in the sense of the different Kārakas or auxiliaries of the verbal activity, provided they are not shown or indicated in any one of the above- mentioned four ways; e. g. see the acc. case in कटं करोति, the inst, case in दात्रेण लुनाति, the dat. case in देवदत्ताय गां ददाति, the abl. case in ग्रामादा गच्छति, or the loc.case in स्थाल्यां पचति.

अनभ्यास a wording which does not contain any reduplicative syllable; an epithet applied to such roots as are not to be reduplicated a second time before affixes of the perfect, as they are already re- duplicated; cf. लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य P. VI.1.8.

अनर्थक (1) without any signification;lit. having no meaning of themselves, i.e.possessing a meaning only when used in company with other words or parts of words which bear an independent sense;(the word is used generally in connection with pre- positions); e.g. अधिपरी अनर्थकौ P.1.4.93, cf. अनर्थान्तरवाचिनावनर्थकौ । धातुनोक्तां क्रिया- माहतुः । तदविशिष्टं भवति यथा शङ्के पय: ॥ M. Bh. on P.I.4.93; cf. न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः Nir. I. 1.3: cf. also अनर्थकौ अनर्थान्तरवाचिनौ Kāś. on I.4.93, explained as अनर्था- न्तरवाचित्वादनर्थकावित्युक्तम् न त्वर्थाभावादिति दर्शयति by न्यासकार; (2) meaningless, purposeless: cf. प्रमाणभूत आचार्यो दर्भप- वित्रपाणिः महता यत्नेन सूत्रं प्रणयति स्म । तत्राशक्यं वर्णेनाप्यनर्थकेन भवितुं किं पुनरियता सूत्रेण M.Bh. on I.1.1, as also सामर्थ्ययोगान्न हि किंचिद- स्मिन् पश्यामि शास्त्रे यदनर्थकं स्यात् M.Bh. on P. VI.I.77. See for details M.Bh. on I.2.45 Vārt. 12: III.1.77 Vārt. 2 and Kaiyaṭa and Uddyota thereon; (3) possessed of no sense absolutely as some nipātas केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः केचन च निरर्थकाः Uv.

on R. Pr. XII.9; निपातस्यानर्थकस्यापि प्रातिपदिकत्वम् P. I. 2.45 Vārt.12 cf. also जन्या इति निपातनानर्थक्यं P. IV. 4.82. Vārt. 1, एकागारान्निपातनानर्थक्यं P. V.1.113 Vārt. 1, also 114 Vārt.1.

अनर्थान्तरम् synonym, synonymous, conveying no different sense, e.g. सङ्घः समूहः समुदाय इत्यनर्थान्तरम् । M.Bh. on P. V.1.59; अपि च बुद्धिः संप्रत्यय इत्यनर्थान्तरम् M.Bh. on P.I.1.56.

अनर्थान्तरवाचिनः not conveying any different sense, अनर्थान्तरवाचिनौ अनर्थकौ M.Bh. on I.4.93.

अनल्विधि opp. of अल्विधि; an opera- tion not concerning a single letter, e.g. स्थानिवदादेशोsनल्विधौ P.I. 1.56 and M. Bh. thereon; cf. स्थानिवदादेशो ह्यवर्णविधौ Kāt. Pari.39.

अनवकाश having no occasion or scope of application; used in connection with a rule the whole of whose province of application is covered by a general rule, and hence which becomes technically useless, unless it is allowed to set aside the general rule: cf. अनवकाशा हि विधयो बाधका भवन्ति- rules which have no opportunity of taking effect( without setting aside other rules ) supersede those rules; M.Bh. on V.4.154, also Par. Śek. on Pari. 64.

अनवकाशत्व absence of any opportunity of taking effect, scopelessness con- sidered in the case of a particular rule, as a criterion for setting aside that general rule which deprives it of that opportunity cf. अनवकाशत्वं निरवकाशत्वं वा बाधकत्वे बीजम्. This अन- वकाशत्व is slightly different from अप- वादत्व or particular mention which is defined usually by the words सामान्य- विधिरुत्सर्गः । विशेषविधिरपवादः ।

अनवगतसंस्कार (a word) whose forma- tion and accents have not been ek- plained; cf. Nir. IV.1 ; V.2.


अनवयव lit. having no parts; impar- tite; without any concern with the individual component parts; appli- cation in totality; cf. सिद्धं तु धर्मोपदेशने अनवयवविज्ञानाद्यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु P. VI. 1.84 Vārt 5 and the Bhāṣya thereon; अस्मिञ् शास्त्रे अनवयवेन शास्त्रार्थसंप्रत्ययः स्यात् । a rule in grammar applies to all cases where its application is possi- ble; it cannot be said to have its purpose served by applying to a few cases only.

अनवस्था fault of having no end: end- lessness; cf. एवमप्यनवस्था स्याद्या मूलक्षय- कारिणी Kāv. Pr.; cf.अवश्यं ह्यनेन अर्थानादि- शता केनचिच्छब्देन निर्देशः कर्तव्यः स्यात् । तस्य च तावत्केन कृतो येनासौ क्रियते । अथ तस्य केनचित्कृतस्तस्य केन कृत इत्यनवस्था । M. Bh. on II.1.1.

अनवस्थान indefiniteness; cf. उच्चनीच- स्यानवस्थानात्संज्ञाया अप्रसिद्धिः M. Bh. on I. 2.30 Vārt 1.

अनवस्थित undetermined, indefinite; See M.Bh. quoted above on अनवस्थान; cf also आर्धधातुकीयाः सामान्येन भवन्ति अनवस्थितेषु प्रत्ययेषु । M. Bh. on I.1.56; III.1.4, VII.2.10, VII.4.9. The substitutes caused by an ārdhadhā- tuka affix are, in fact, effected by virtue of the prospective applica- tion of the ārdhadhātuka affix be- fore its actual application.

अनह्व tech. term used by the writers; of the Prātiśākhya works for fre- quentative formations such as रीरिष:, चाक्लृपत् etc.; cf A. Pr. 4.86.

अनाकाङ्क्ष not depending on another for the completion of its sense: cf. न यद्यनाकाङ्क्षे P. III.4.23, and Nyāsa thereon which explains अनाकाङक्षे as न विद्यते आकाङ्क्षा अपेक्षा यस्य तस्मिन्.

अनाकृति not capable of presenting (on its mere utterance) any tangible

form or figure the word is used in connection with a technical term (संज्ञाशब्द) which presents its sense by a definition actually laid down or given in the treatise: cf. अनाकृति: संज्ञा । अाकृतिमन्तः संज्ञिनः M. Bh. on I.1.1.

अनादर absence of consideration; dis- regard: cf. षष्ठी चानादरे P.II.3.38.

अनादि non-initial. e.g. अनादेश्च मुङ्वचनम् P. III.4.102, Vārt. 4; also M. Bh. on VII.1.3.

अनादिष्ट not replaced as a substitute; e. g. यः अनादिष्टादचः पूर्यस्तस्य निधिं प्रति स्थानिवद्भावः M.Bh. on I.1.57 Vārt. 1, III.2.3 Vārt.2, and VI.1.12 Vārt.10.

अनादेश (1) original, not such as is sub- stituted: e.g. युष्मदस्मदोरनादेशे P.VII. 2.86; (2) absence of statement, अनि- र्देश e.g. कर्तरि कृद्वचनमनादेशे स्वार्थविज्ञानात् P. III.4.67, Vārt. 1: cf the Pari. अनिर्दिष्टार्थाः प्रत्ययाः स्वार्थे भवन्ति Par. Śek. Pari. 113.

अनानन्तर्य not a close relation; dis- tance: cf. क्वचिच्च संनिपातकृतमानन्तर्य शास्त्र- कृतमनान्तर्ये क्वचिच्च नैव संनिपातकृतं नापि शास्त्रकृतम् । M. Bh. on VIII.3.13.

अनानुपूर्व्यसंहिता that saṁhitā text which has an order of words in it, which is different from what obtains in the Pada-pāṭha, and which appears appropriate accor- ding to the sense intended in the passage. There are three places of such combinations of words which are not according to the succcession of words in the Pada-pāṭha, quot- ed in the R.Pr. शुनश्चिच्छेपं निदितं सहस्रात् Rk. Saṁ. V.2.7, नरा वा शंसं पूषणमगो- ह्यम् Rk. Saṁ. X. 64.3; नरा च शंसं दैव्यम् Rk. Saṁh. IX. 86. 42. cf. एता अनानुपूर्व्यसंहिताः । न ह्येतेषां त्रयाणां पदानुपूर्व्येण संहितास्ति Uvvaṭa on R. Pr. II.78.


अनान्तर्य absence of proximity, ab- sence of cognateness; cf. इह तर्हि खट्वर्श्यो मालर्श्य इति दीर्घवचनादकारो न, अना- न्तर्यादेकारौकारौ न । M. Bh. on Śiva Sūtras 3-4.

अनाप्य having or possessing no āpya or object; intransitive (root): cf. चालशब्दार्थाद् अनाप्याद् युच् Cāndra I.2 97 standing for चलनशब्दार्थाद् अकर्मकाद् युच् P. III.2.148.

अनार्ष (1) non-vedic: not proceeding from any Ṛṣi, or Vedic Seer, cf. संबुद्धौ शाकल्यस्येतौ अनार्षे P. I.1.16, also Kāś. on the same: cf. किमिदमुपस्थितं नाम । अनार्ष इतिकरणः M.Bh.on VI.1.129: (2) pertaining to the Padapāṭha which is looked upon as अनार्ष i, e. not proceeding from any Vedic Seer; cf. अनार्षे इतिकरणः । स च द्व्यक्षर आद्युदात्तश्च, Uvvaṭa on R. Pr. III.23; cf. also A. Pr. III. 1.3.

अनि kṛt affix in the sense of curse, e.g. अजीवनिस्ते शठ भूयात्; cf.आक्रोशे नञि अनिः P.III.3.112. This affix अनि gets its न् changed into ण् after ऋ or रेफ of the preceding preposition as in अप्रयाणिः;cf. Kāś, on VIII.4.29.

अनिच् samāsānta affix after the word धर्म and some other words pre- scribed by P. V. 4.124-6, e. g. कल्याणधर्मा, सुजम्भा, दक्षिणेर्मा.

अनिट् (l) not admitting the augment इट् to be prefixed to it; the term is strictly to be applied to ārdhadhā- tuka affixes placed after such roots as have their vowel characterized by a grave accent ( अनुदात्तस्वर ); the term अनिट् being explained as अनिडादि qualifying the अार्धधातुक affix; (2) in a secondary way, it has be- come customary to call such roots अनिट् as do not allow the augment इट् to be prefixed to an ārdhadhā- tuka affix placed after them. Such roots are termed अनुदात्त verily be- cause they are possessed of an

anudātta vowel. e. g. कृ, भृ, जि, गम् , हन् etc. as against भु, धू, तॄ, श्वि, वृ, वद्, फल्, चल्, etc. which have their vowel characterized by an acute (उदात्त ) accent. For a complete list of such roots see the well-known stanzas given in the Siddhānta- kaumudī incidentally on अात्मनेपदेष्व- नतः P. VII.1.5. ऊदॄदन्तैर्यौतिरुक्ष्णुशीङ्स्नु- ....निहताः स्मृताः ॥ १ ॥ शक्लृपच्मुचिरिचवच्विच् .........धातवो द्व्यधिकं शतम् ॥ as also some lists by ancient gram- marians given in the Mahābhāṣya on एकाच उपदेशेनुदात्तात्. P. VII. 2.10 or in the Kāśikā on the same rule P. VII.2.10.

अनिट्कारिका (1) name given to Stanzas giving a complete list of such roots as do not allow the aug- ment इ ( इट् ) to be prefixed to an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. For such Kārikās see Sid. Kaum. on VII.1.5 as also Kāśikā on VII. 2.10; ( 2 ) a short treatise enumerating in 11 verses the roots which do not admit the augment इट् before the ārdhadhatuka affixes. The work is anonymous, and not printed so far, possibly composed by a Jain writer. The work possibly belongs to the Kātantra system and has got short glosses called व्याख्यान, अवचूरि, विवरण, टीका, टिप्पणी and the like which are all anonymous.

अनिट्कारिकाविवरण a short commen- tary by Kṣamāmāṇikya on the work Aniṭkārikā, which see above.

अनिङ्ग्य not separable into two padas or words by means of avagraha; cf. संध्य ऊष्माप्यनिङ्ग्ये: R. Pr. V.41; cf. also R. Pr. IX.25, XIII.30. See इङ्ग्य below.

अनित्य (l) not nitya or obligatory optional; said of a rule or pari- bhāṣā whose application is volun-


tary). Regarding the case and con= jugational affixes it can be said that those affixes can, in a way: be looked upon as nitya or obliga- tory, as they have to be affixed to a crude nominal base or a root; there being a dictum that no crude base without an affix can be used as also, no affix alone without a base can be used. On the other hand, the taddhita and kṛt affixes as also compounds are voluntary as, instead of them an independent word or a phrase can be used to convey the sense. For a list of such nitya affixes see M. Bh. on V. 4.7; (2) the word अनित्य is also used in the sense of not-nitya, the word नित्य being taken to mean कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि occurring before as well as after another rule has been appli- ed, the latter being looked upon as अनित्य which does not do so. This 'nityatva' has got a number of ex- ceptions and limitations which are mentioned in Paribhāṣās 43-49 in the Paribhāṣenduśekhara.

अनिर्दप्रथम an underived word: an ancient term used by writers of the Prātiśākhyas to signify 'original' words which cannot be subjected to निर्वचन.

अनिपात्य not necessary to be specifi- cally or implicitly stated, as it can be brought about or accomplished in the usual way: e. g. द्वन्द्वम् । लिङ्गम- शिष्यं लोकाश्रयत्वाल्लिङ्गस्य । तत्र नपुंसकत्वमनि- पात्यम् M. Bh. on VIII.1.15. See also M. Bh. on VII.2.27 and VI. 1.207.

अनिमित्त not serving as a cause, not possessing a causal relation; e. g. संनिपातलक्षणे विधिरनिमित्तं तद्विघातस्य Par. Śek. Pari. 85. See also M. Bh. on I.1.39.

अनियत not subject to any limitation cf. प्रत्यया नियताः, अर्था अनियताः, अर्था नियताः, प्रत्यया अनियताः M.Bh. on II. 3.50. In the casc of नियमविधि (a res- trictive rule or statement ) a limi- tation is put on one or more of the constituent elements or factors of that rule, the limited element being called नियत, the other one being termed अनियत; also see Kāś. on II.2.30.

अनियतपुंस्क whose sex-especially whether it is a male or a female-is not definitely known from its mere sight; small insects which are so. The term क्षुद्रा in P. IV.1.131 is explained in the Mahābhāṣya as क्षुद्रा नाम अनियतपुंस्का अङ्गहीना वा M. Bh. on P. IV.1.131.

अनिर्दिष्टार्थ whose sense has not been specifically stated ; the word is used with reference to such affixes as are not prescribed in any speci- fic sense or senses and hence as are looked upon as possessing the sense which the base after which they are prescribed has got: cf. अनिर्दिष्टार्थाः प्रत्ययाः स्वार्थे भवन्ति -affixes, to which no meaning has been assigned, convey the meaning of the bases to which they are added; cf. Par. Śek. Pari. 113; cf. also M. Bh. on III.2.4, III, 2.67, III.3.19, III. 4.9, VI.1.162.

अनिष्ट an undesired consequence or result; cf. अनिष्टं च प्राप्नोति इष्टे च न सिध्यति M. Bh. on I.3.1 , also cf. नानिष्टार्था शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः M. Bh. on VI.1.2.

अनिष्टिज्ञ ignorant or inattentive to what the Grammarian intends or desires to say. cf. तत्र सौर्यभगवतोक्तम्- अनिष्टिज्ञो वाडव: पठति । इत्यत एव चतुर्मात्रः प्लुत: M. Bh. on VIII.2.106.

अनीयर् kṛt affix, termed कृत्य also forming the pot. pass. part. of a


root; cf. तव्यत्तव्यानीयरः P.III.1.96. e.g. see the forms करणीयं, हरणीयं, the mute र् showing the acute accent on the penultimate vowel,

अनुकरण (l) imitation; a word utter- ed in imitation of another; an imi- tative name: cf. अनुकरणे चानितिपरम् P.I.4.62; अनुकरणं हि शिष्टशिष्टाप्रतिषिद्धेषु यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु, Śiva sūtra 2 Vārt 1; cf. also प्रकृतिवद् अनुकरणं भवति an imi- tative name is like its original Par. Śek. Pari. 36; also M.Bh. on VIII. 2.46; (2) imitative word, onoma- topoetic word; cf. एवं ह्याहुः कुक्कुटाः कुक्कुड् इति । नैवं त आहुः । अनुकरणमेतत्तेषाम् M. Bh. on I.3.48. cf. also दुन्दुभि: इति शब्दानुकरणम् Nir. IX. 12.

अनुकर्षण dragging (from the preced- ing rule) to the following rule tak- ing the previous rule or a part of it as understood in the following rule or rules in order; the same as अनुवृत्ति; cf. अनुकर्षणार्थश्चकारः Kāś. on II. 4.18, III.2.26, VII. 1.48: cf also the Paribhāṣā; चानुकृष्टं नोत्तरत्र -that which is attracted from a preced- ing rule by the particle च is not valid in the rule that follows; Par. Śek. Pari. 78.

अनुकृष्ट attracted from a previous rule as is frequently done in Pāṇi- ni's rules. See the word अनुकर्षण above.

अनुक्त not actually stated or expressed in a rule; cf. चकारोऽनुक्तसमुच्चयार्थ: Kāś. on II.4.18, III.2.26, VII. 1.48; also cf. Nyāsa on P.II.2.9

अनुक्रम right or regular order in a Vedic recital, called क्रम. e. g. वायव: स्थ.

अनुक्रमण enumeration (in the right order as.opposed to व्युत्क्रम ); e. g. अथ किमर्थमुत्तरत्र एवमादि अनुक्रमणं क्रियते M. Bh. on II.1.58; also on IV. 2.70; verbal forms of the root क्रम् with अनु occur in this sense very

frequently; e.g. यदित ऊर्ध्वं अनुक्रमिष्यामः; so also the p.p.p. अनुक्रान्तं occurs frequently in the same sense. अनुतन्त्र lit. that which follows Tantra i.e. Śāstra which means the original rules of a Śāstra; technical term for Vartika used by Bhartṛhari;cf. सूत्राणां सानुतन्त्राणां भाष्याणां च प्रणेतृभिः Vāk. Pad. I.23, where the word अनुतन्त्र is ex- plained as Vārtika by the com- mentator.

अनुत्तम other than उत्तम or the first person; cf. विभाषितं सोपसर्गमनुत्तमम् P. VII.1.53 and Kāśika thereon.

अनुत्पति non-production of an ele- ment of a word such as an affix or an augment or the like; cf. वावचने चानुत्पत्त्यर्थम् P.III.1.2 Vārt. 7, तत्रो- त्पत्तिर्वा प्रसङ्गो यथा तद्धिते P. III.1.94 Vārt. 2, also कृष्यादिषु चानुत्पत्तिः (णिचः) P.III.1.26, Vārt. 3.

अनुदात्त non-udatta, absence of the acute accent;one of the Bāhyapra- yatnas or external efforts to pro- duce sound. This sense possibly refers to a stage or a time when only one accent, the acute or उदात्त was recognized just as in English and other languages at present, This udatta was given to only one vowel in a single word (simple or compound) and all the other vowels were uttered accentless.i.e. अनुदात्त. Possibly with this idea.in view, the standard rule 'अनुदात्तं पदमे- कवर्जम्'* was laid down by Panini. P.VI.1.158. As, however, the syllable, just preceding the accent- ed ( उदात्त ) syllable, was uttered with a very low tone, it was call- ed अनुदात्ततर, while if the syllables succeeding the accented syllable showed a gradual fall in case they happened to be consecutive and more than two, the syllable suc- ceeding the उदात्त was given a mid-way tone, called स्वरितः cf.


उदात्तादनुदात्तस्य स्वरितः. Thus, in the utterance of Vedic hymns the practice of three tones उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित came in vogue and accordingly they are found defined in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works;cf. उच्चैरुदात्तः,नीचैरनुदात्तः समाहारः स्वरितः P.I.2.29-31, T.Pr.I.38-40, V.Pr.I.108-110, Anudātta is defined by the author of the Kāśi- kāvṛtti as यस्मिन्नुच्चार्यमाणे गात्राणामन्ववसर्गो नाम शिथिलीभवनं भवति, स्वरस्य मृदुता, कण्ठ- विवरस्य उरुता च स: अनुदात्तः cf. अन्ववसर्गो मार्दवमुरुता स्वस्येति नीचैःकराणि शब्दस्य M. Bh. on I.2.29,30. Cf. also उदात्तश्चानुदात्तश्च स्वरितश्च त्रयः स्वराः । अायाम- विश्रम्भोक्षपैस्त उच्यन्तेSक्षराश्रयाः ॥ R. Pr. III.1. The term anudātta is trans- lated by the word 'grave' as oppo- sed to acute' (udātta,) and 'circu- mflex' (svarita); (2) a term appli- ed to such roots as have their vowel अनुदात्त or grave, the chief characteristic of such roots being the non-admission of the augment इ before an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. ( See अनिट्, ).

अनुदात्ततर quite a low tone, comple- tely grave; generally applied to the tone of that grave or anudātta vowel which is immediately follow- ed by an acute ( उदात्त ) vowel. When the three Vedic accents were sub-divided into seven tones viz. उदात्त, उदात्ततर्, अनुदात्त, अनुदात्ततर, स्वरित, स्वरितस्थोदात्त and एकश्रुति corres- ponding to the seven musical notes, the अनुदात्ततर was the name given to the lowest of them all. अनुदात्ततर was termed सन्नतर also; cf. उदात्तस्वरित- परस्य सन्नतरः P.I.2.40; cf. also M, Bh. on I.2.33.

अनुदात्ता a term meaning 'having a grave accent,' used by ancient grammarians.Cf. किमियमेकश्रुतिरुदात्ता उत अनुदात्ता M. Bh.on I. 2.33.

अनुदात्तेत् lit. one whose mute signifi- catory letter is uttered with a grave accent: a term applied to a root characterized by an indicatory mute vowel accented grave, the chief feature of such a root being that it takes only the Ātmanepada affixes c. g. आस्ते, वस्ते, etc.; cf. अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् P. I.3.12; such a root, in forming a derivative word in the sense of habit, takes the affix युच् e. g. वर्त्तनः, वर्धन: etc. provided the root begins with a consonant; cf. अनुदात्तेतश्र हलादेः P. III.2.149.

अनुदात्तोपदेश (a root) pronounced ori- ginally i. c. pronounced in the Dhātupāṭha with a grave accent; see the word अनुदात्त above: cf. अनुदात्तोपदेशवनतितनोत्यादीनामनुनासिकलोपो झलि ङ्किति P. VI.4.37. See also the word अनिट् above.

अनुदेश (1) reference, mention, state- ment referring to a preceding ele- ment. cf. यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम् P.I. 3.10; cf. आसिद्धवचनात् सिद्धमिति चेद् उत्सर्ग- लक्षणानामनुदेशः M. Bh. I.1.57, Vārt. 3. (2) declaration, prescription : the same as अतिदेश. cf. स्थान्यादेशपृथक्त्वादेशे स्थानिवद् अनुदेशो गुरुवद् गुरुपुत्र इति यथा P. I.1.56 Vārt. 1; (3) a grammatical operation cf. यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम् ! समसंबन्धी विधिर्यथासंख्यं स्यात् Sid. Kau. on P.I. 8.10. See the word अनुद्देश in this sense cf. संख्यातानामनूद्देशो यथा- संख्यम् V, Pr.I.143.

अनुनाद a fore-sound : a preceding additional sound which is looked upon as a fault: e. g. ह्वयामि whom pronounced as अह्वयामि. This sound is uttered before an initial sonant consonant. It is also utter- ed before initial aspirates or visarga. cf. घोषवतामनुनादः पुरस्ताद् आदिस्थानां, क्रियते धारणं वा । सोष्मोष्माणामनुनादोप्यनादः R. Pr. XIV.18,19.


अनुनासिक (a letter) uttered through the nose and mouth both, as differ- ent from anusvāra which is uttered only through the nose. cf. मुखनासिका- वचनोनुनासिकःP.I.1.8, and M. Bh. thereon. The anunāsika or nasal letters are the fifth letters of the five classes ( i.e. ङ्, ञ्, ण्, न्, म् ) as also vowels अ, इ, उ and semivowels when so pronounced, as ordinarily they are uttered through the mouth only; ( e.g. अँ, आँ, etc. or य्यँ, व्वँ, ल्लँ etc. in सय्यँन्ता, सव्वँत्सरः, सँल्लीनः etc.) The अनुनासिक or nasalized vowels are named रङ्गवर्ण and they are said to be con- sisting of three mātras. cf. अष्टौ आद्यानवसानेsप्रगृह्यान् आचार्या आहुरनुना- सिकान् स्वरान् । तात्रिमात्रे शाकला दर्शयन्ति R. Pr. I.63.64; cf. also अप्रग्रहाः समानाक्षराणि अनुनासिकानि एकेषाम् T. Pr XV.6. Trivikrama, a commentator on the Kāt. Sūtras, explains अनुनासिक as अनु पश्चात् नासिकास्थानं उच्चारणं एषां इत्यनुनासिकाः । पूर्वं मुखस्थानमुच्चारणं पश्चा- न्नासिकास्थानमुच्चारणमित्यर्थः । अनुग्रहणात्केवल- नासिकास्थानोच्चारणस्य अनुस्वारस्य नेयं संज्ञा । and remarks further पूर्वाचार्यप्रसिद्धसंज्ञे- यमन्वर्था । Com. by Tr. on Kat. I 1.13. Vowels which are uttered nasalized by Pāṇini in his works viz. सूत्रपाठ, धातुपाठ, गणपाठ etc. are silent ones i. e. they are not actu- ally found in use. They are put by him only for the sake of a com- plete utterance, their nasalized nature being made out only by means of traditional convention. e. g. एध, स्पर्ध etc. cf. उपदेशेSजनुनासिक इत् P.I.3.2; cf. also प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः Kāś on I.3.2.

अनुन्यास a commentary on न्यास (काशि- काविवरणपञ्जिका by जिनेन्द्रबुद्धि). The work is believed to have been written by इन्दुमित्र. It is not available at pre-

sent except in the form of refer- ences to it which are numerous especially in Siradeva's Paribhā- ṣāvṛtti.

अनुपपत्ति discord, absence of validity, incorrect interpretation; cf.प्रथमानुपप- त्तिस्तु M.Bh on I.4.9.

अनुपपद्यमाना impossibility of being explained; cf. तत्र सिद्धायां अनुपपद्यमा- नायां इतरथा उपपादयिषेत्, Nir II.2.

अनुपपन्न impossible to be explained, not consistent , cf. अथाप्यनुपपन्नार्था भवन्ति । ओषधे त्रायस्वैनम् । Nir. I.15.

अनुपरिपाद्य (संहिता) the Pada text of the Vedic Saṁhitā.

अनुपसर्जन not subordinated in word- relation, principal member; cf. अनु- पसर्जनात् P. IV.I.14 and M.Bh. thereon; cf also Par. Śek Pari. 26.

अनुप्रदान an effort outside the mouth in the production of sound at the different vocal organs such as कण्ठ, तालु etc. which is looked upon as an external effort or bāhyaprayatna. अनुप्रदान is one of the three main factors in the produc- tion of sound which are ( 1 ) स्थान, ( 2 ) करण or आभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न and ( 3 ) अनुप्रदान or बाह्यप्रयत्न; cf. स्थाकरणप्रयत्नेभ्यो वर्णा जायन्ते Cān. The commentator on T. Pr. describes अनुप्रदान as the मूलकारण or उपादानकारण, the main cause in the production of articu- late sound cf. अनुप्रदीयते अनेन वर्णः इति अनुप्रदानम्: cf also अनुप्रदीयते इत्यनुप्रदानं प्रयत्न इत्यर्थः; Uvvaṭa on R. Pr. XIII. I. Generally two main varieties of बाह्यप्रयत्न are termed अनुप्रदान which are mentioned as (i) श्वासानुप्रदान (emission of breath) and नादानुप्रदान (resonance), the other varieties of it such as विवार, संवार, घोष, अघोष, अल्पप्राण, मह्मप्राण, उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित being called merely as बाह्यप्रयत्न.


अनुप्रयोग subsequent utterance; lit. post-position as in the case of the roots कृ, भू and अम् in the periphra- stic perfect forms; cf. आम्प्रत्ययवत् कृञोऽ नुप्रयोगस्य, P.I.3.63; यथाविध्यनुप्रयोगः पूर्वस्मिन् III.4.4.

अनुबन्ध a letter or letters added to a word before or after it, only to signify some specific purpose such as (a) the addition of an afix (e. g. क्त्रि, अथुच् अङ् etc.) or (b) the substitution of गुण, वृद्धि or संप्रसारण vowel or (c) sometimes their preven- tion. These anubandha letters are termed इत् (lit. going or disappear- ing) by Pāṇini (cf. उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् etc. I.3.2 to 9), and they do not form an essential part of the word to which they are attached, the word in usage being always found without the इत् letter. For technical purposes in grammar, however, such as आदित्व or अन्तत्व of affixes which are characterized by इत् letters, they are looked upon as essential factors, cf. अनेकान्ता अनुबन्धाः, एकान्ता:, etc, Par. Śek. Pari. 4 to 8. Although पाणिनि has invariably used the term इत् for अनुबन्ध letters in his Sūtras, Patañjali and other reputed writers on Pāṇini's grammar right on upto Nāgeśa of the 18th century have used the term अनुबन्ध of ancient grammarians in their writings in the place of इत्. The term अनुबन्ध was chosen for mute significatory letters by ancient grammarians probably on account of the ana- logy of the अनुबन्ध्य पशु, tied down at sacrifices to the post and subsequently slaughtered.

अनुभूतिस्वरूपाचार्य a writer of the twelfth century who wrote a work on grammar called सरस्वती-प्रक्रिया or सारस्वतप्रक्रिया, He has also written

धातुपाठ and आख्यातप्रक्रिया. The gram- mar is a short one and is studied in some parts of India.

अनुम् not allowing the addition of the augment नुम् (i.e. letter न् ) after the last vowel; The term is used, in connection with the present part. affix, by Pāṇini in his rule शतुरनुमो नद्यजादी VI.1.173.

अनुमान inference,suggestion, cf. अशक्या क्रिया पिण्डीभूता निदर्शयितुम् । सासामनुमानगम्या M. Bh. on I.3.1.

अनुलोम in the natural order (opp. to प्रतिलोम ), cf. तेऽन्वक्षरसंधयोनुलोमाः in R.Pr.II.8. अनुलोमसंधि is a term applied to Saṁdhis with a vowel first and a consonant afterwards.

अनुलोमसंधि combination according to the alphabetical order; a kind of euphonic alteration ( संधि ) where the vowel comes first. e.g- हव्यवाट् + अग्निः where ट् is changed to द्; एषः देवः= एष देवः cf. R. Pr. II. 8. (Sce अनुलोम ).

अनुवर्तन continuation or recurrence of a word from the preceding to the succeeding rule; the same as anuvṛtti; cf. अनुवर्तन्ते नाम विधयः । न चानुवर्तनादेव भवन्ति। किं तर्हि । यत्नाद्भवन्तीति M. Bh. on I.1.3.

अनुवर्त्य to be observed, to be obeyed; cf. न लक्षणेन पदकाराः अनुवर्त्याः । पदकारिर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् M.Bh. on III.1.109.

अनुवाद repetition of a rule already laid down or of a statement already made cf. प्रमाणान्तरावगतस्य अर्थस्य शब्देन संकीर्तनमात्रमनुवाद: Kāś. on II.4.3.

अनुविधि operation in conformity with what is found. The expression छन्दसि दृष्टानुविधिः is often found in the Mahābhāṣya: cf. M. Bh. on I.1.5, I.1.6, I.1.21, III.1.9, III.1.13, VI.1.6, VI.1.77, VI.1.79, VI. 4.128,VI.4.141, VIII.2.108.


अनुवृत्ति repetition or recurrence of a word from the previous to the sub- sequent rule or rules, which is necessary for the sake of the intend- ed interpretation. The word is of common use in books on Pāṇini's grammar. This recurrence is gene- rally continuous like the stream of a river ( गङ्गास्रोतोवत् ); sometimes however, when it is not required in an intermediate rule, although it proceeds further, it is named मण्डूकप्लुत्यानुवृत्ति. In rare cases it is taken backwards in a sūtra work from a subsequent rule to a pre- vious rule when it is called अपकर्ष.

अनुशासन traditional instruction; treat- - ment of a topic; e.g. अथ शब्दानुशासनम् M. Bh. I. 1.1 where the word is explained as अनुशिष्यन्ते संस्क्रियन्ते व्युत्पा- द्यन्ते अनेन इति अनुशासनम्.

अनुषङ्ग (I) lit. attaching, affixing: aug- ment, अनुषज्यते असौ अनुषङ्गः; (2) a term for the nasal letter attached to the following consonant which is the last, used by ancient grammarians; cf. अव्यात्पूर्वे मस्जेरनुषङ्गसंयेगादिलोपार्थम् cf. P.I.1.47 Vārt.2 and M.Bh. there- on; cf. थफान्तानां चानुषङ्गिणाम् Kat. IV. 1.13. The term अनुषङ्ग is defined in the kātantra grammar as व्यञ्जनान्नः अनुषङ्ग. The term is applied to the nasal consonant न् preceding the last letter of a noun base or a root base; penultimate nasal of a root or noun base: Kāt. II.1.12.

अनुसंहार independent mention, a second time, of a thing already mentioned,for another purpose; cf. 'अलोन्त्यस्य' इति स्थाने विज्ञातस्यानुसंहारः P.I.1.53 Vārt. 1.

अनुसंहितं according to the Saṁhitā text of the Vedas: cf.एतानि नोहं गच्छन्ति अध्रिगो अनुसंहितम् Bhartṛihari's Mahā- bhāṣyadīpikā p. 9; cf. also R. Pr. XI.31, also XV.33, where the

word is explained as संहिताक्रमेण by Uvaṭa.

अनुस्वार see above under अं

अनूक्त said afterwards, generally in imitation; cf. अनूक्तवान् अनूचानः । अनू- क्तमित्येवान्यत्र M.Bh. on III.2.109.

अनूक्ति statement with reference to what has been already said the same as anvādeśa.

अनूद्देश statement or mention imme- diately afterwards; the same as the word अनुदेश used by Pāṇini in I.3.10, cf. संख्यातानामनूद्देशो यथासंख्यम् । अनूद्देशः पश्चादुद्देशः Uvaṭa on V. Pr. I. 143.

अनेकशेष having no ekaśeṣa topic in it; a term applied to the Daiva Gram- mar which does not discuss the ekaśeṣa topic to which Pāṇini has devoted ten rules from I. 2.64 to 73.

अनेकस्वर having many vowels or syllables in it; the same as अनेकाच् of Pāṇini; cf. Hem. III. 4.46

अनेकाक्षर having many syllables in it; cf. अनेकाक्षरयोस्त्वसंयोगाद्यवौ Kāt. II.2.59.

अनेकाच् having many vowels (two or more) in it; opp. to एकाच् : a term frequently used in Pāṇini's gram- mar meaning the same as अनेकस्वर or अनेकाक्षर, which see above; cf. P. VI.3.42,VI.4.82

अनेकान्त (1) not forming an integral part, the same as अनवयव; cf. अने- कान्ताः अनवयवा इत्यर्थः Par. Śek. Pari 4. (2) absence of any definite view cf. अनेकान्तत्वाच्च । येषां चाप्यारभ्यते तेषामप्यने- कान्तः । .. मामहान उक्थपात्रम् । ममहान इति च । M. Bh. on VI.I.7

अनेकार्थ (l) possessed of a plural sense referring to many things. cf. अनेकार्थे युष्मदस्मदी M. Bh. on P.II. 2.98 also अनेकार्थाश्रयश्च पुनरेकशेषः P. I. 2.64 Vārt. 15; (2) possessed of


many senses, cf. अनेकार्था अपि धातवो भवन्ति M. Bh, on P.III.2.48; also cf. यान्यनेकार्थानि एकशब्दानि तान्यतोनु- क्रमिष्यामः Nir. IV.1.

अनेकाल् possessed of many ietters; lit. possessed of not one letter, cf अनेकाल् शित् सर्वस्य P. I.1.55.

अनेजन्त not ending in a diphthong: cf नानुबन्धकृतमनेजन्तत्व म् Par. Śek. Par.7

अनैकान्तिक undetermined, indefinite एतद्प्यनैकान्तिकं यदल्पप्राणस्य सर्वोच्चैस्तन्महा- प्राणस्य सर्वनीचै: M. Bh.on I.2.30, also M. Bh. on VI. 1.37; not invari- able, cf. अनैकान्तिकं ज्ञापकम् M. Bh. on VII.2.102, VIII.3.34

अनैमित्तिक not possessed of any defi- nite cause; अनैमित्तिको ह्यनुबन्धलेाप: M. Bh. on I. 1.20 also on I. 1.59 and I. 2.64.

अन्त final, phonetically last element remaining, of course, after the mute significatory letters have been dropped. cf. अनुत्तरलक्षणोन्तः M. Bh. on I. 1.21 Vārt, 6.

अन्तकरण lit. bringing about as the final; an affix (which is generally put at the end); ancient term for an affix: cf.एतेः कारितं च यकारादिं चान्त- करणम्। अस्तेः शुद्धं च सकारादिं च । Nir. I.13

अन्तःकार्य lit. interior operation; an operation inside a word in its formation-stage which naturally becomes antaraṅga as contrasted with an operation depending on two complete words after their formation which is looked upon as bahiraṅga.

अन्तःपादम् inside a word; explained as पदस्य मध्ये by उव्वटः cf. नुश्रान्तः पदेऽरेफे V.Pr.IV.2 cf. also अन्तःपदं विवृत्तयः R. Pr.II.13.

अन्तःपात insertion of a letter or pho- netic element such as the letter क्

between ङ् and a sibilant, or the letter ट् between ण् and a sibilant; cf. प्रत्यङ्क् स विश्वा, वज्रिञ् च् , छ्र्थिहि; cf. Pān. VIII.3.28, 29, 30, 31: cf. तेऽन्तःपाताः अकृतसंहितानाम् R. Pr.IV.20

अन्तःपादम् inside the foot of a verse explained as पादस्य मध्ये by Uvvaṭa; cf. प्रकृत्याऽन्तः पादमव्यपरे. P.VI.I.113.

अन्तःस्थ, अन्तःस्था f., also writen as अन्तस्थ, अन्तस्था f., semivowel; cf. अथान्तस्थाः । यिति रेिन लेिति वितिः; V. Pr. VIII.14-15: cf. चतस्रोन्तस्थाः ex- plained by उव्वट as स्पर्शोषमणामन्तः मध्ये तिष्ठन्तीति अन्तस्थाः R.Pr.I.9, also पराश्चतन्नान्तस्थाः T. Pr. I. 8. The ancient term appears to be अन्तस्थाः f. used in the Prātiśākhya works. The word अन्तःस्थानाम् occurs twice in the Mahābhāṣya from which it cannot be said whether the word there is अन्तःस्थ m. or अन्तःस्था f. The term अन्तस्थ or अन्तस्था is ex- plained by the commentators on Kātantra as स्वस्य स्वस्य स्थानस्य अन्ते तिष्ठन्तीति ।

अन्तर interval between two phonetic elements when they are uttered one after another; hiatus, pause; वर्णान्तरं परमाणु, R.T. 34; also विरामो वर्णयोर्मध्येप्यणुकालोप्यसंयुते Vyāsaśikṣā; (2) space between two phonetic ele- ments, e. g. स्वरान्तरे explained as स्वरयोरन्तरे (between two vowels) by Uvvaṭa cf. अन्तस्थान्तरोपलिङ्गी विभा- षितगुणः Nir X.17.

अन्तरङ्ग a highly technical term in Pāṇini's grammar applied in a variety of ways to rules which thereby can supersede other rules. The term is not used by Pāṇini himself. The Vārti- kakāra has used the term thrice ( Sec I. 4. 2 Vārt. 8, VI.1.106 Vart.10 and VIII.2.6 Vārt. I) evidently in the sense of imme-


diate', 'urgent', 'of earlier occur- rence' or the like. The word is usually explained as a Bahuvrīhi compound meaning 'अन्त: अङ्गानि निमित्तानि यस्य' (a rule or operation which has got the causes of its application within those of another rule or operation which consequ- ently is termed बहिरङ्ग). अन्तरङ्ग, in short, is a rule whose causes of operation occur earlier in the wording of the form, or in the pro- cess of formation. As an अन्तरङ्ग rule occurs to the mind earlier, as seen above, it is looked upon as stronger than any other rule, barr- ing of course अपवाद rules or excep- tions, if the other rule presents itself simultaneously. The Vārtika- kāra, hence, in giving preference to अन्तरङ्ग rules, uses generally the wording अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् which is paraphrased by अन्तरङ्गं बहिरङ्गाद् बलीयः which is looked upon as a pari- bhāṣā. Grammarians, succeeding the Vārtikakāra, not only looked upon the बहिरङ्ग operation as weaker than अन्तरङ्ग, but they looked upon it as invalid or invisible before the अन्तरङ्ग operation had taken place. They laid down the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे which has been thoroughly discussed by Nāgeśa in his Paribhāṣendusekhara. The अन्तरङ्गत्व is taken in a variety of ways by Grammarians : (l) having causes of application within or before those of another e. g. स्येनः from the root सिव् (सि + उ+ न) where the यण् substitute for इ is अन्तरङ्ग be- ing caused by उ as compared to guṇa for उ which is caused by न, (2) having causes of application occurring before those of another in the wording of the form, (3) having a smaller number of causes, (4) occurring earlier in the order

of several operations which take place in arriving at the complete form of a word, (5) not having संज्ञा (technical term) as a cause of its application, ( 6 ) not depending upon two words or padas, (7) de- pending upon a cause or causes of a general nature (सामान्यापेक्ष) as oppos- ed to one which depends on causes of a specific nature ( विशेषापेक्ष).

अन्तरङ्गपरिभाषा the phrase is used generally for the परिभाषा "असिद्धं बहि- रङ्गमन्तरङ्गे' described above. See the word अन्तरङ्ग. The परिभाषा has got a very wide field of application and is used several times in setting aside difficulties which present themselves in the formation of a word. Like many other paribhāṣās this paribhāṣā is not a paribhāṣā of universal application.

अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्व the strength which an antaraṅga rule or operation possesses by virtue of which it supersedes all other rules or ope- rations,excepting an apavāda rule, when or if they occur simultane- ously in the formation of a word.

अन्तरङ्गलक्षण characterized by the nature of an antaraṅga operation which gives that rule a special strength to set aside other rules occurring together with it.

अन्तरतम very close or very cognate being characterized (l) by the same place of utterance, or (2) by possessing the same sense, or (3) by possessing the same qualities, or (4) by possessing the same dimension ; cf स्थानेन्तरतमः P.I. I.50 and Kāś. thereon अान्तर्यं स्थानार्थगुणुप्रमाणतः स्थानतः दण्डाग्रम् , अर्थतः वतण्डी चासौ युवतिश्च वातण्ड्य- युवतिः । गुणतः पाकः, त्यागः, रागः । प्रमाणतः अमुष्मै अमूभ्याम् ॥

अन्तर्गण a group of words mentioned inside another group of words (गण);


cf. पुषादिदेवाद्यन्तर्गणो गृह्यते, न भ्वादिक्रया- द्यन्तर्गणः Kāś on III.1.55; also काण्वादिगर्गाद्यन्तर्गणः Kāś on IV.2.111.

अन्तर्भाव inclusion of an element (of sense) in what has been actually assigned. e.g. देवदत्तमुपरमति । उपरमय- तीति यावत् । अन्तर्भावितण्यर्थोत्र रमिः Kāś on P. I.3.84, अन्तर्भावितण्यर्थो युधिः सकर्मको भवति । राजयुध्वा Kāś on P.III. 2.95.

अन्तर्हित separated by a dissimilar element; cf. यूनि चान्तर्हित अप्राप्तिः P.IV. 1.93 Vārt. 5. व्यञ्जनान्तर्हितोपि उदात्तपरः अनुदात्तः स्वरितमापद्यते T. Pr.XIV.30; cf. also R. Pr. III.9.

अन्तवद्भाव supposed condition of be- ing at the end obtained by the single substitute(एकादेश) for the final of the preceding and the initial of the succeeding word. cf. अन्तादि- वच्च । योयमेकादेशः स पूर्वस्यान्तवत् परस्थादिवत् स्यात् । Sid. Kau. on अन्तादिवच्च P.VI. 1.84.

अन्तस्था f. also अन्तस्थः semi-vowel; see under अन्त:स्थ.

अन्तादिवद्भाव condition, attributed to a single substitute for the final of the preceding and initial of the succeeding word, of being looked upon either as the final of the preceding word or as the initial of the succeeding word but never as both (the final as well as the initial) at one and the same time; cf. उभयत आश्रये नान्तादिवत् Sīr. Pari 39 also M. Bh. on I.2.48.

अन्ताम् affix of the impera. 3rd pers. plur. Ātm., substituted for the original affix झ, e. g. एधन्ताम्.

अन्ति affix of the pres. 3rd pers. pl. Paras, substituted for the original affix झि, e. g. कुर्वन्ति, भवन्ति.

अन्तु affix of the impera. 3rd pers. pl. Paras. substituted for the original affix झि. e.g. भवन्तु, कुर्वन्तु

अन्ते affix of the pres. 3rd pers. pl. Ātm. substituted for the original affix झ, e g. एधन्ते वर्तन्ते.

अन्तोदात्त a word with its last vowel accented acute. Roots, crude : noun bases and compound words gene- rally have their last vowel accent- ed acute; cf. फिषः (प्रातिपदिकस्य ) अन्त उदात्तः स्यात् Phiṭ Sūtra 1-1; धातोः (P. VI.1.162} अन्त उदात्तः स्यात्; समासस्य ( P.VI.1.223) अन्त उदात्तः स्यात् ।

अन्त्य (1) final letter; अन्ते भवमन्त्यम् (2) final consonant of each of the five groups of consonants which is a nasal अन्त्योनुनासिकः R.T. 17.

अन्यतरतः optionally, lit. in another way; cf. वर्णसंख्ये अन्यतरतः V.P.V.15.

अन्यतरस्याम् optionally; lit. in another way. The term is very common in the rules of Pāṇini, where the terms वा and विभाषा are also used in the same sense.

अन्यपदार्थ another sense, sense differ- ent from what has been expressed by the wording given; cf. अनेकमन्य- पदार्थे P.II.2.24; also अन्यपदार्थप्रधानो बहुव्रीहिः M. Bh. on II.1.6.

अन्ययुक्त connected with the word अन्य; connected with another : e.g अन्यो गवां स्वामीति न ह्यत्र गावोन्ययुक्ताः । कस्तर्हि । स्वामी. M.Bh. on P.II.3.22.

अन्यसदृशाधिकरण an object which is different from what is mentioned, yet similar to it cf. नञिवयुक्तमन्यसदृशा धिकरणे तथा ह्यर्थगति; । अब्राह्मणमानयेत्युक्ते ब्राह्मणसदृश आनीयते । नासौ लोष्टमानीय कृती भवति । M. Bh. on P. III.1.12

अन्याय्य irregular; cf.सूर्यविश्रामा भूमिरि- त्येवमादिकं प्रयोगमन्याय्यमेव मन्यन्ते; Kāś. on P.VII.3.34.

अन्यार्थ (1) having another purpose or signification: cf. अन्यार्थं प्रकृतं अन्यार्थं भवति M. Bh. on l.1.23; (2) another sense which is different from what is expressed cf. अन्यार्थो बहुव्रीहिः Cān. II.2.46.


अन्योन्यसंश्रय reciprocally dependent and hence serving no purpose; same as इतरेतराश्रय which is looked upon as a fault. cf अन्योन्यसंश्रयं त्वेतत् । स्वीकृतः शब्दः शब्दकृतं च स्त्रीत्वं M.Bh. on IV.1.3.

अन्वक्षरसंधि a combination of letters according to the order of the letters in the Alphabet; a samdhi or euphonic combination of a vowel and a consonant, called अन्वक्षर-अनुलोमसंधि where a vowel precedes a consonant; and अन्व- क्षरप्रतिलोमसंधि where a consonant pre- cedes a vowel, the consonant in that case being changed into the third of its class; एष स्य स च स्वराश्च पूर्वे भवति व्यञ्जनमुत्तरं यदेभ्यः। तेन्वक्षरसेधयेानुलोमाः प्रतिलोमाश्च विपर्यये त एव ।। R Pr. II.8.9 e. g. एष देवः, स देवः and others are instances of अन्वक्षरानुलोमसंधि where विसर्ग after the vowel is dropped; while हलव्यवाड् अग्निः is an instance of अन्वक्षरप्रतिलोमसंधि where the conso- nant ट् precedes the vowel अ.

अन्वय (1) construing, construction: arrangement of words according to their mutual relationship based upon the sense conveyed by them, शब्दानां परस्परमर्थानुगमनम् । (2) continu- ance, continuation;cf. घृतघटतैलवट इति ; निषिक्ते घृते तैले वा अन्वयाद्विशेषणं भवति अयं घृतघटः, अयं तैलघट इति M. Bh. on P.II. 1.1.

अन्वर्थक given in accordance with the sense; generally applied to a tech- nical term which is found in ac- cordance with the sense conveyed by the constituent parts of it; e. g. सर्वनामसंज्ञा, cf. महत्याः संज्ञायाः करणे एतत् प्रयोजनमन्वर्थसंज्ञा यथा विज्ञायेत M. Bh. on P. I.1.23.

अन्वर्थसंज्ञा A technical term used in accordance with the sense of its constituent parts; e. g. सर्वनाम, संख्या, अव्यय उपसर्जन,कारक, कर्मप्रवचनीय, अव्ययी-

भाव, प्रत्यय, उपपद etc. All these terms are picked up from ancient gram- marians by Pāṇini: cf. तत्र महत्याः संज्ञाया एतत् प्रयोजनम् । अन्वर्थसंज्ञा यथा विज्ञायेत । संख्यायते अनया संख्येति । cf. M. Bh. on I.1.23; also cf. M.Bh.on I.1.27,I. 1.38,I.2.43, I.4.83, II.1,5, III. 1.1, III.1.92 etc.

अन्ववसर्ग relaxation or wide opening of the sound-producing organs as done for uttering a vowel of grave accent. cf. अन्ववसर्गः गात्राणां विस्तृतता Tait. Pr. XXII.10.

अन्वाकर्षक a word attracting a previ- ous word such as the word च, in the Sūtra texts.

अन्वाचय aggregation of a secondary element along with the primary one: यत्रैकस्य प्राधान्यमितरदप्रधाने तदनुरोधे- नान्वाचीयमानता अन्वाचयः Nyāsa on P.II 2.29. One of the four senses of च, e.g.भिक्षामट गां चानय; cf. प्लक्षश्चेत्युक्ते गम्यत एतत्सापेक्षोयं प्रयुज्यत इति |

अन्वादेश (1) lit. reference to the ante- rior word or expression: cf.अन्वादेशेा- न्त्यस्य (निःशब्दस्य in T.Pr.VII.3, अकारस्य in V-8) T. Pr. I.58: (2) reference again to what has been stated pre- viously: cf. इदमोन्वादेशेशनुदात्तस्तृतीयादौ अन्वादेशश्च कथितानुकथनमात्रम् P.II.4.32 and Vārt. 2 thereon; एकस्यैवाभिधेयस्य पूर्वं शब्देन प्रतिपादितस्य द्वितीयं प्रतिपादनमन्वा- देशः Kāś on the above.

अन्वादेशक a word capable of attract- ing a word or words from previous statements; cf चापीत्यन्वादेशकौ T Pr. KKII.5; same as अन्वाकर्षक.

अप् (I) kṛt affix अ, in the sense of verbal activity (भाव) or any verbal relation (कारक) excepting that of an agent, (कर्तृ) applied to roots ending in ऋ or उ and the roots ग्रह्,वृ,दृ etc. mentioned in P. III.3.58 and the following rules in preference to the usual affix घञ. e.g. करः, गरः, शरः, यवः, लवः, पवः, ग्रहः, स्वनः etc, cf. P.III,


3.57-87 ; (2) compound-ending अप् applied to Bahuvrīhi compounds in the feminine gender ending with a Pūraṇa affix as also to Bahuvrīhi compounds ending with लोमन् preceded by अन्त् or वहिर् e. g. कल्याणीपञ्चमा रात्रयः, अन्तर्लोमः,बहिर्लोमः पटः cf. P. V. 4.116, 117.

अपकर्ष (1)deterioration of the place or instrument of the production of sound resulting in the fault called निरस्त; cf. स्थानकरणयेारपकर्षेण निरस्तं नाम दोष उत्पद्यते, R. Pr. XIV.2; (2) draw- ing back a word or words from a succeeding rule of grammar to the preceding one; cf. "वक्ष्यति तस्यायं पुरस्तादपकर्षः, M. Bh. on II.2.8. (3) inferiority (in the case of qualities) न च द्रव्यस्य प्रकर्षापकर्षौ स्तः ।

अपत्य a descendent, male or female, from the son or daughter onwards upto any generation; cf तस्यापत्यम् P, IV.1.92.

अपभ्रंश degraded utterance of standard correct forms or words: corrupt form: e. g. गावी, गोणी and the like, of the word गो, cf. गौः इत्यस्य शब्दस्य गावी गोणी गोता गोपोतलिका इत्येवमादयः अपभ्रंशाः M. Bh. on I.l.l ; cf शब्दसंस्कारहीनो यो गौरिति प्रयुयुक्षिते । तमपभ्रंशमिच्छन्ति विशिष्टार्थनिवेशिनम् Vāk. Pad I.149: सर्वस्य हि अपभ्रंशस्य साधुरेव प्रकृतिः com. on Vāk. Pad I. 149.

अपवर्ग achievement; cf, फलप्राप्तौ सत्यां क्रियापरिसमाप्तिः अपवर्गः see Kāś. on अपवर्गे , तृतीया P.II.3.6.

अपवर्ण a letter which is phonetically badly or wrongly pronounced. cf. कुतीथादागतं दग्धमपवर्णं च भक्षितम् । न तस्य पाठे मोक्षोस्ति पापाहेरिव किल्बिषात् Pāṇ.Śik.50.

अपवाद a special rule which sets aside the general rule; a rule forming an exception to the gene- ral rule. e.g. आतोनुपसर्गे कः III.2.2 which is an exception of the general rule कर्मण्यण् III.2.1; cf. येन नाप्राप्तो

यो विधिरारभ्यते स तस्य बाधको भवति, तदपवा- दोयं येागो भवति; Pari. Śekh. Par 57; for details see Pari. Śekh. Pari. 57-65: cf न्यायैर्मिश्रानपवादान् प्रतीयात् । न्याया उत्सर्गाः महाविधयः । अपवादा अल्प- विषयाः विधय: । तानुत्सर्गेण मिश्रानेकीकृताञ् जानीयात् । अपवादविषयं मुक्त्वा उत्सर्गाः प्रवर्तन्ते इत्यर्थः । R. Pr. I. 23 and com. thereon ; (2) fault; cf. शास्त्रा- पवादात् प्रतिपत्तिभेदात् R. Pr. XIV. 30 on which उव्वट remarks शास्त्राणाम- पवादा दोषाः सन्ति पुनरुक्तता अविस्पष्टार्थता, कष्टशब्दार्थता...

अपवादन्याय the convention that a rule laying down an exception supersedes the general rule; cf. सिद्धं त्वपवादन्यायेन P. I.3.9 Vārt. 7

अपवादबलीयस्त्च the convention that a special rule is always stronger than the general rule.

अपवादविप्रतिषेध a conflict with a spe- cial rule, which the special rule supersedes the general rule: cf. 'अलोन्त्यस्य' इति उत्सर्गः । तस्य 'आदेः परस्य' 'अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य' इत्यपवादौ अपवादविप्रतिषेधात्तु सर्वादेशो भविष्यति । M. Bh. on I.1.54 Vārt. 1.

अपवृक्त that which has already happened or taken place; cf. न्याय्या त्वेषा भूतकालता । कुतः । आद्यपवर्गात् । आदि रत्रापवृक्तः । एष च नाम न्याय्यो भूतकालो यत्र किंचिदपवृक्तं दृश्यते M.Bh. on III.2.102

अपशब्द corrupt form of a correct word, called म्लेच्छ also; cf. म्लेच्छो ह वा एष यदपशब्दः M. Bh. on I. 1.1. अस्तु वापि तरस्तस्माद् नापशब्दो भविष्यति । वाचकश्चेत्प्रयोक्तव्यो वाचक्श्र्चेत्प्रयुज्यताम् ॥ M. Bh. on V.3.55.

अपाणिनीय not in conformity with the rules of Pāṇini's grammar; cf. सिध्यत्वेवमपाणिनीयं तु भवति M. Bh. on I. I.1.

अपादान detachment, separation, abla- tion technical term for अपादानकारक which is defined as ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम्


in P.I.4.24 and subsequent rules 25 to 3l and which is put in the ablative case; cf. अपादाने पञ्चमी P. II.3.28.

अपाय (1) point of departure, separa- tion; cf. ध्रुवमपायेपादानम् P.I.4.24; (2) disappearance; cf. संनियेागशिष्टानामन्यत- रापाये उभयोरप्यपायः । तद्यथा । देवदत्तयज्ञदत्ताभ्या- मिदं कर्म कर्तव्यम् । देवदत्तापाये यज्ञदत्तेपि न करोति M. Bh. on IV.1.36.

अपार्थक without any purpose or object, useless; cf. ततोनिष्टादर्शनादपार्थक- मेतत् Nyāsa on P.I.4.80.

अपि also in addition to; अपि is used sometimes to mean absolute of or ungualified by any condition; cf. अन्येभ्येपि दृश्यते । अपिशब्दः सर्वोपाधिव्यभि- चारार्थः । निरुपपदादपि भवति । धीवा पीवा । KS. on P. III. 2.75, III. 2.101, VII. 1.38; cf. अपिग्रहणे व्यभिचारार्थम् ) Durgasiṁha on Kāt. II.3.64.

अपित् not marked with the mute letter प्, A Sārvadhātuka affix not marked with mute प् is looked upon as marked with ड् and hence it prevents the guṇa or vṛddhi substitution for the preceding vowel or for the penultimate vowel if it be अ. e. g. कुरुतः तनुतः, कुर्वन्ति where no guṇa takes place for the vowel उ cf. सार्वधातुकमपित्. P.I.2.4.

अपूर्व (l) not existing before; cf. आगमश्च नाम अपूर्वः शब्दोपजनः M. Bh. on I.1-20, I.1.46; (2) not preceded by any letter or so, cf अपूर्वलक्षण अादिः M. Bh. on I.1.21: (3) a rule pres- cribing something not prescribed before; cf. तत्र अपूर्वो विधिरस्तु नियमोस्तु इति अपूर्व एव विधिर्भविष्यति न नियमः M.Bh. on I.4.3., III.1.46, III.2. 127, III.3.19.

अपृक्त lit. unmixed with any (letter); a technical term for an affix consist- ing of one phonetic element, i.e. of a single letter. cf. अपृक्त एकाल्प्रत्ययः P. I.2.41.

अपेक्षा relation of dependance; cf. अयुक्तैवं बहुनोपेक्षा M. Bh. on IV.2.92.

अपोद्धार disintegration of the consti- tuent elements of a word; analysis; अपोद्धार पृथक्करणम् com. on Vāk. Pad. II. 449: cf. अपोद्धारपदार्था ये ये चार्थाः स्थितलक्षणः Vāk. Pad.I.24.

अप्पयदीक्षित, अप्पदीक्षित A famous ver- satile writer of the sixteenth cen- tury A. D. (1530-1600 ), son of रङ्गराजाध्वरीन्द्र a Dravid Brāhmaṇa. He wrote more than 60 smaller or greater treatises mainly on Vedānta, Mimāṁsā, Dharma and Alaṁkāra śāstras; many of his works are yet in manuscript form. The Kaumudi-prakāśa and Tiṅan- taśeṣasaṁgraha are the two pro- minent grammatical works written by him. Paṇdit Jagannātha spoke very despisingly of him.

अप्रकृतिस्वरत्व non-retention of the ori- ginal word accents; cf. तत्र यस्य गतेर- प्रकृतिस्वरत्वं तस्मादन्तेादात्वं प्राप्नोति M. Bh. on VI.2.49. See the word प्रकृतिस्वरत्व.

अप्रातिपत्ति (l) impossibility to obtain the correct form; (2) absence or want of apprehension, cf शब्दानां चाप्रतिपत्तिः प्राप्नोति M. Bh. on I.1.1, I.1.44 Vārt. 8.

अप्रतिषेध useless prohibition; unneces- sary prohibition; cf. अनर्थकः प्रतिषेधः अप्रतिषेधः M. Bh. on I.1.6: I.1.20. I.1.22 etc.

अप्रत्यय (1)lit. absence of any affix: an affix such as क्विप् or क्विन् which wholly vanishes; cf. पिपठिषतेः अप्रत्ययः पिपठीः M.Bh. on I.1.6. कण्डूयतेरप्रत्यय: कण्डूः M.Bh. on I.1.58; (2) that which is not an affix. cf. अप्रत्ययस्यैताः संज्ञा मा भूवन् M. Bh. on I.1.61, I.1.69; (3) that which is not pre- ' scribed, अविधीयमान,अप्रत्याय्यमानः M.Bh. on I.1.69.

अप्रधान (1) non-principal, subordi- nate, secondary, cf. अप्रधानमुपसर्जन-


मिति, M. Bh. on I. 2.43; (2) non- essential, non-predominent, cf. सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने P. II. 2.19 and the instance पुत्रेण सहागतः पिता । Kāś. on II.2.19.

अप्रयुक्त not found in popular or cur- rent use, e.g. the words ऊष, तेर, चक्र etc. यद्यप्यप्रयुक्ता अवश्यं दीर्घसत्त्रवल्लक्षणेनानु- विधेयाः M. Bh. on I.1.1, also यथालक्षणमप्रयुक्ते M. Bh. on I.I.24

अप्रयेाग (1) non-employment of a word in spite of the meaning being available: cf. संभावनेलमिति चेत्सिद्धाप्रयोगे P.III.3.154; (2) non-employment cf. उक्तार्थानामप्रयोगः a standard dictum of grammar not allowing superflu- ous words which is given in M.Bh. on P.I.1.4 Vārt. 16 and stated in Cāndra and other grammars as a Paribhāṣā.

अप्रयोगिन् not-found in actual use among the people although men- tioned in the śāstra-texts; a mute indicatory letter or letters. cf. अप्रयोगी इत् Sāk. I.1.5 Hem I.1.37 Jain.I.2.3 and M.Bh. Pradīpa on III.8.31.

अप्रसङ्ग non-application of a rule of grammar or of a technical term; cf. अन्यत्र सहवचनात् समुदाये संज्ञाsप्रसङ्गः M. Bh. on P.I.1.1. Vārt. 11.

अप्रसिद्ध Not well-known: secondary (used in connection with sense) cf. एवं चाप्रसिद्धत्वं गौणलाक्षणिकत्वं चात्र गौणत्वम् Par. Śek Pari. 15

अप्रसिद्धि absence of clear sense or interpretation; cf इतरेतराश्रयत्वादप्रसिद्धि: M. Bh. on I.1.1. Vārt. 8, I.1.38 Vārt. 4.

अप्राप्तविकल्प same as अप्राप्तविभाषा one of the three kinds of optional appli- cation of a rule; cf. त्रिसंशयास्तु भवन्ति प्राप्ते अप्राप्ते उभयत्र चेति । M. Bh. on P. I. 1.44 Vārt. 20; optional appli- cation of a rule prescribing an operation; eg; ऊर्णोतेर्विभाषा अनुपसर्गाद्वा

I.3.43. हृक्रोरन्यतरस्याम् । अभिवादयति गुरुं माणवकेन पिता । अप्राप्तविकल्पत्वातृतीयैव Kāś. on I.1.53. विभाषा सपूर्वस्य । स्थूलपतिः स्थूलपत्नी । अप्राप्तविभाषेयमयरुसंयोगत्वात् ।

अप्राप्तविधान prescription of a new thing. cf. तत्राप्राप्तविधाने प्राप्तप्रतिषेधः M. Bh. on VI.4.17 Vārt. 2.

अप्राप्तविधि prescribing an operation which otherwise cannot be had. अग्रादिष्वप्राप्तविधेः समासप्रतिषेधः P.III. 4.24 Vārt 1.

अप्राप्तविभाषा see above अप्राप्तविकल्प.

अप्राप्ति ( i ) non-occurrence for non- realization of a grammatical operation or rule- अप्रतिषेधः M. Bh. on I.1.56 Vārt. 8; (2) pro- hibition of the occurrence of a rule or operation, cf. अप्राप्तेर्वा । अथवानन्तरा या प्राप्तिः सा प्रतिषिध्यते M. Bh. on I.I.43, I.1.63.

अप्लुत non-protracted vowel cf. अतो रोरप्लुतादप्लुप्ते P.VI.1.113.

अबाघक not coming in the way of rules otherwise applicable; the word is used in connection with निपातन i. e. constituted or announc- ed forms or specially formed words which are said to be अबाधक i. e. not coming in the way of forms which could be arrived at by application of the regular rules. Siradeva has laid down the Pari- bhāṣā अबाधकान्यपि निपातनानि भवन्ति defending the form पुरातन in spite of Pāṇini's specific mention of the word पुराण in the rule पुराणप्रोक्तेषुo IV. 3. 105.

अभक्त not-forming an integral part of another; quite independent (used in connection with aug- ments). cf. किं पुनरयं पूर्वान्त आहोस्वित् परादिराहोस्विद् अभक्ताः M. Bh. on I.1. 47, 1.1.51. एवं तर्ह्यभक्तः करिष्यते M. Bh on VI.1.71, VI.1.135, and VII.2.82.


अभयचन्द्र a Jain grammarian , who wrote प्रक्रियासंग्रह, based on the Śabdā- nuśāsana Vyākaraṇa of the Jain Śākatāyana.His possible date is the twelfth century A. D.

अभ्यतिलक a Jain writer of the thirteenth century who wrote a commentary on the Śabdāśā- sana Grammar of Hemacandra.

अभयनन्दिन् a reputed jain Gramma- rian of the eighth century who wrote an extensive gloss on the जैनेन्द्रव्याकरण. The gloss is known as जैनेन्द्रव्याकरणमहावृत्ति of which वृहज्जैने- न्द्रव्याकरण appears to be another name.

अभाव absence; absence of any following letter which is technically called avasāna. cf. विरामोऽवसानम् । वर्णानामभावोऽवसानसंज्ञः स्यात् S. K. on P. I.4.110.

अभाषितपुंस्क that which does not convey a masculine sense; a word which is not declined in the masculine gender; a word possess- ing only the feminine gender e.g- खट्वा, लता etc.cf. अभाषितपुंस्काच्च P. VII. 3.48.

अभिकृति a variety of long metres called अतिच्छन्दस्; it consists of 100 syllables. cf. अभिकृतिः -देवा अग्निः स्विष्टकृत् R. Pr. XVI.60.

अभिक्रम the first of the two utter- ances of a word which chara- cterise the krama method of recital; e. g in the krama recital of प्रण इन्दो etc. प्र णः । न इन्दो । the first recial प्र णः is called अभिक्रम, or प्रथम- वचन while न इन्दो is called द्वितीयवचनः cf. अभिक्रमे पूर्वविधानमाचरेत् पुनर्ध्रुवंस्तूत्तरकारितं क्रमे R. Pr. XI.21.

अभिघात depression or sinking of the voice as required for the utterance of a circumflex vowel.

अभिधान designation, denotation, ex- pression of sense by a word which is looked upon as the very nature of a word. The expression अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम् ( denotation of sense is only a natural characteristic of a word ) frequently occurs in the Mahābhāṣya; cf. M. Bh. on 1.2.64 Vārt 93, II.1.1, cf. नपुसकं यदूष्मान्तं तस्य बह्वभिधानजः ( R. Pr. XIII.7 ) where the word बह्वभिधान means बहुवचन.

अभिधेय object or thing denoted by a word; sense of a word; cf. अभि- धेयवल्लिङ्गवचनानि भवन्ति M. Bh. on II.2.29.

अभिनिधान lit. that which is placed near or before; the first of the doubled class consonants; a mute or sparṣa conso- nant arising from doubling and inserted before a mute; cf. अघो- षादूष्मणः परः प्रथमः अभिनिधानः स्पर्शपरात्तस्य सस्थानः ( T. Pr. XIV. 9. ) explain- ed by त्रिभाष्यरत्न as स्पर्शपरादघोषादूष्मणः परः प्रथम आगमस्तस्य स्पर्शस्य समानस्थानः अभिनिधानो भवति । अभिनिधीयते इत्यभि- निधानः आरोपणीयः इत्यर्थः । यथा यः क्कामयेत अश्मन्नूर्जम् । यः प्पाप्मना । The Ṛk. prātiśākhya explains the term अभिनिधान somewhat differently; cf. अभिनिधानं कृतसंहितानां स्पर्शन्ति:स्थानामपवाद्य रेफम् । संघारणं संवरणं श्रुतेश्च स्पर्शोदयानामपि चावसाने R. Pr. VI. 5, explained by उव्वट as स्पर्शपराणां स्पर्शानां रेफं वर्जयित्वा अन्तःस्थानां च वर्णानां कृतसंहितानां च सतां संधारणं वर्णश्रुतेश्च संवरणं भवति । तदेतद् अभि- निधानं नाम । यथा उष मा षड् द्वा द्वा । ऋ. सं ८।६८।१४ इह षड् इत्यत्र अभिनिधानम् ॥ अभिनिघान possibly according to उव्वट here means the first of the doubled letter which, although the second letter is attached to it, is separately uttered with a slight pause after it. अभिनिधान means, in short, something like 'suppression.'


The Ṛk. Tantra takes a still wider view and explains अभिनिधान as the first of a doubled consonant, cf ; अभिनिधानः । क्रमजं च पूर्वान्ततस्वरं भवति । R. T. 21.

अभिनिर्वृति development of an acti- vity; manifestation; cf. द्रव्येषु कर्म- चोदनायां द्वयोरेकस्याभनिर्वृत्तिर्भवति M. Bh. on VI.1.84.

अभिनिविष्ट that which has already entered on functioning or begun to function; cf. स्वभावत एतेषां शब्दानां एतेष्वर्थेषु अभिनिविष्टानां निमित्तत्वेन अन्वाख्यानं क्रियते M. Bh. on II.1.1. cf. पूर्वमपवादा अभिनिविशन्ते पश्चादुत्सर्गाः, M. Bh. on II.3.46; Pari. Śek. Pari. 62.

अभिनिष्टान Resonance (of a visarga utterance).

अभिनिहित used in connection with a सन्धि or euphonic combination in which the vowel अ, as a first or a second member, is absorbed into the other member. e. g. रथेभ्यः + अग्रे = रथेभ्योऽग्रे also दाशुषेऽग्रे, where अ of अग्रे is absorbed or merged in ओ of रथेभ्यः or ए of दाशुषे; cf. अथा- भिनिहितः संधिरेतैः प्राकृतवैकृतैः । एकीभवति पादादिरकारस्तेत्र संधिजाः; R. Pr. II. 13 to 25; cf.एङः पदान्तादति P.VI.1.109.

अभिनिहितस्वार name given to the circumflex vowel which is the resultant of the अभिनिहितसंधि.

अभिप्राय (1) अभिप्रायसंधि a kind of euphonic combination where the nasal letter न् is dropped and the preceding vowel ( अ ) is nasa- lised e. g, दधन्याँ यः । स्ववाँ यातु : (2) view, purpose, intention; cf. तद् व्यक्तमाचार्यस्याभिप्रायो गम्येत, इदं न भवतीति; M. Bh. on I.1.27; cf. also स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले P.1.3.72.

अभिविधि inclusive extension to a par- ticular limit; inclusive limit cf. आङ् मर्यादाभिविध्योः P.II.1.13, अङ् मर्यादाभिविध्योरिति वक्तव्यम् M. Bh. on I.4.89; (2) full or complete exten-

sion cf. अभिविधौ भाव इनुण् । अभिविधिर- भिव्याप्तिः । सांराविणं वर्तते Kāś on P. III. 3.44.

अभिव्यादान absorption of a vowel when two long vowels of the same kind come together e.g. ता आपः = तापः, अवसा आ = अवसा, the resultant vowel being pronounced specially long consisting of some more mātrā, which is evidently, a fault of pronuncia- tion. cf. आदानं आरम्भः; विपुलं विशालं वा आदानं व्यादानम् । अभिव्याप्तं अभिभूतं व्यादानं अभिव्यादानम् Uvvata on R. Pr. XIV. 27.

अभिव्याहार expression; cf. यदेव समाने पादे समानाहभिव्याहारं भवति तज्जानि भवति । हिरण्य- रूपः स हिरण्यसंदृक् Nir X.16.

अभिसारिणी name of a metre in which two feet have ten syllables and the other two have twelve sy- llables; cf. वैराजजागतैः पादैर्यो वाचेत्य- भिसारिणी R. Pr. XIV. 43.

अभिस्वरित provided with a svarita or circumflex accent.

अभिहित expressed (used in connection with the sense of a word) एतेनैवाभिहितं सूत्रेण M. Bh. on I.2.64 , 1.3.1 ; ex- pressed actually by a word or part of a word, same as कथित M. Bh. on I.4.51.

अभूततद्भाव being what it was not before, cf. च्विविधौ अभूततद्भाग्रहणम् P. V.4.50 Vārt. I.

अभेदक not bringing about a differ- ence; not making different; non- discriminant; cf. गुणाः अभेदकाः Par. Śek. Pari. 109 cf. ननु च भो अभेदका अपि च गुणा दृश्यन्ते M. Bh on I.1.1.

अभेदसंसर्ग a connection of unity, as noticed between the nominative case affix of the subject and the ending ति of a verb, which pro- duces the sense.

अभेदान्वय relation of non-difference as stated by the vaiyākaraṇas


between an adjective and the substantive qualified by it. e, g. नीलमुत्पलम् is explained as नीलाभिन्न- मुत्पलम्.

अभ्यन्तर interior; contained in, held in; cf. अभ्यन्तरश्च समुदाये अवयवः । तद्यथा वृक्षः प्रचलसहावयवैः प्रचलति M. Bh. on I.1.56.

अभ्यंकर ( BHASKARASHASTRI Abhyankar 1785-1870 A. D. ) an eminent scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who prepared a num- ber of Sanskrit scholars in Gram- mar at Sātārā. He has also written a gloss on the Paribhā- ṣenduśekhara and another one on the Laghu-Śabdenduśekhara. (VASUDEVA SHASTRI Abhya- kar 863-1942 A. D.) a stalwart Sanskrit Pandit, who, besides writing several learned commen- taries on books in several Sans- krit Shastras, has written a com- mentary named 'Tattvādarśa' on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and another named 'Guḍhārthaprakāśa' on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara. (KASHINATH VASUDEVA Abhyankar, 1890-) a student of Sanskrit Grammar who has written महाभाष्यप्रस्तावना-खण्ड, and जैनेन्द्रपरिभाषावृत्ति and compiled the परिभाषासंग्रह and the present Dic- tionary of Sanskrit Grammar.

अभ्यम् substitute for dat. and abl. pl. affix भ्यस् after the words युष्मद् and अस्मद् ; cf भसोsभ्यम् P. VII.1.30.

अभ्यस्त repeated, redoubled word or wording or part of a word. The term अभ्यस्त is applied to the whole doubled expression in Pāṇini's grammar, cf. उभे अभ्यस्तम् P. VI.1.6; (2) the six roots with जक्ष् placed at the head viz. जक्ष् , जागृ, दरिद्रा , चकास्, शास्, दीधी and वेवी which in fact are reduplicated forms of घस् , गृ, द्रा, कास् , शस् , धी and वी.

अभ्यावृत्ति inclination towards an action; tendency to do an act; cf. संख्यायाः क्रियाभ्यावृत्तिगणनं कृत्वसुच् । P. V. 4.17 अभिमुखी प्रवृत्तिरभ्यावृत्तिः (M. Bh. on V.4.19) is the explanation in the Mahābhāṣya,while पौनः पुन्यमभ्या- वृत्तिः (Kāś. on V.4.17) is the one given in Kāśikā

अभ्यास lit, doubling or reduplica- tion technically the word refers to the first portion of the redupli- cation, which is called the redu- plicative syllable as opposed to the second part which is called the reduplicated syllable; cf. पूर्वोभ्यासः P. VI.1.4. (2) Repetition, the sccond part which is repeated; cf. दोऽभ्यासे(RT.165) explained as दकारः अभ्यासे लुप्यते । पटत्पटेति । द्रसद्रसेति ; (3) repeated action; cf. अभ्यासः पुनः पुनः करणमावृत्तिः Kāś. on P.1-3, 1.

अभ्याहत omission of any sound; a fault of utterance. अम् (1)a technical brief term in Panini's grammar including vowels, semi- vowels, the letter ह् and nasals; (2) a significant term for the accusative case showing change or substitution or modification: cf. अं विकारस्य T. Pr. I.28 explained as अमिति शब्दे विकार- स्याख्या भवति । अमिति द्वितीय विभक्तेरुपलक्षणम् । (3) augment अ applied to the penultimate vowel of सृज् & दृश् (P. VI.1.58, 59 and VII.1.99) (4) sub- stitute tor Ist pers. sing. affix मिप्, by P.III.4.101 (5) Acc. sing. case affix अम् .

अमर called अमरसिंह an ancient grammarian mentioned in the कविकल्पद्रुम by बोपदेव. He is believed to have written some works on grammar such as षट्कार- कलक्षण his famous existing work, however, being the Amarakoṣa or Nāmaliṅgānuśāsana.


अमरचन्द्र a Jain grammarian who is believed to be the writer of स्यादिशब्दसमुच्चय, परिमल etc.

अमु tad. affix अम् applied in Vedic Literature to किम्, words ending in ए, indeclinables and the affixes तर and तम: e. g. प्रतरं नयामः प्रतरं वस्यः cf. अमु च च्छन्दसि P. V. 4. 12.

अमृतभारती a grammarian who is believed to have written सुबोधिका, a gloss on the सारस्वतव्याकरण.

अमृतस्मृति called also अमृतस्तुति, a com- mentary on the प्रक्रियाकौमुदी of रामचन्द्रशेष.

अमोघवर्ष A Jain grammarian of the ninth century who wrote the gloss known as अमोघावृत्ति on the Śabdānuśāsana of Śākaṭā- yana; the वृत्ति is quoted by माधव in his धातुवृत्ति.

अमोघा also अमोघावृत्ति, a gloss on the grammar of Sākaṭāyana. See अमोघ- वर्ष above.

अम्बाकर्त्री a commentary on Nāgeśa's Paribhāsenduśekhara named so, as it commences with the words अम्बा कर्त्री etc.

अम्बूकृत utterance (of words) accom- panied by water drops coming out of the mouth; a fault of utterance or pronunciation; मुखात् विप्रुषो निर्गमनम् . It is explained diffe- rently in the Rk. Prātiśākhya; cf. ओष्ठाभ्यां नद्धं अम्बूकृतम्म्वृ (R. Pr. XIV.2.) held tight between the lips which of course, is a fault of pronunciation; cf.ग्रस्तं निरस्तमविलम्बितं निर्हतं अम्बूकृतं ध्मात मथो विकम्पितम्. MBh. I. 1. पस्पशाह्निक.

अय् (l) substitute for the causal sign णि before अाम्, अन्त, अालु etc. by P, VI.4.55 (2) substitute for ए before a vowel by P.VI.1.78.

अयङ् the substitute अय् for the final ई of the root शी by P. VII.4.22.

अयच् tad. affix अय substituted op- tionally for तय after द्वि and त्रि by P. V.2.43. e.g. द्वयम् द्वितयम्; त्रयम् त्रितयम्.

अयाच्,अयाट् substitutes for inst. sing affix टा in Vedic literature e. g. स्वप्नया, नावया.

अयावन non-mixture of words where the previous word is in no way the cause of (any charge in) the next word. अयावनं अमिश्रयम् Uv. on R. Pr. XI. 12 e. g, अग्निमीळे where the क्रमपाठ is अग्निं ईळे ।

अयुज् a term applied to the odd feet of a stanza; cf. युग्मावष्टाक्षरौ पादवयुजौ द्वादशाक्षरौ । ना सतोबृहती नाम R. Pr. XVI. 39.

अयोगवाह the letters or phonetic ele- ments अनुस्वार,विसर्ग,जिह्वामूलीय, उपध्मानीय and यम called so,as they are always uttered only in combination with another phonetic element or letter such as अ or the like, and never independently; cf. अकारादिना वर्णसमा- म्नायेन संहिताः सन्तः ये वहन्ति आत्मलाभं ते अयेागवाहाः Uvvaṭa on Vāj.Pr.VIII.18. These अयोगवाह letters possess the characteristics of both, the vowels as well as consonants;cf.अयोगवाहानामट्सु उपदेशः कर्तव्यः णत्वं प्रयोजनम् । शर्षु जष्भावत्वे प्रयोजनम् । M. Bh. on शिवसूत्र हयवरट्.

अर् a technical term for Ārdhadhā- tuka affixes in the Mugdhabodha grammar.

अरक्तसन्धि a word, the coalescence of which is not nasalized, as the word आ in मन्द्रमा वरेण्यम् as contrast- cd with अभ्र आं अपः cf. R. Pr. XI.18.

अरङ् a Visarga which is not rhotaciz- ed; the term अरिफित is used in the same sense.

अरिफित not rhotacized: not turned into the letter र; cf. विसर्जनीयोsरि्फितो दीर्घपूर्वः स्वरोदयः आकारम् , R. Pr II. 9.


अरीहणादि a group of words given in P. IV.2.80 which get the taddhita affix घुञ् ( अक ) added to them as a cāturarthika affix e. g. अारीहणकम्, द्रौघणकम् etc.see Kāśikā on P.IV.2.80.

अर्क the strong blowing of air from the mouth at the time of the utte- rance of the surd consonants; cf Vāj. Śikṣā. 280.

अर्थ (I) lit.signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: cf. प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः R. Pr. XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an indepen- dent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; cf. अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; cf. also अर्थः पदम् V. Pr. III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थो- नेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (preposi- tions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Al- though Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conju- gational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or ele- ments of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practi- cally nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to

prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, pre- sents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य i.e. a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be call- ed अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no case- affix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārti- kakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and ab- sence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and inde- clinables on the other hand, Bhar- tṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not direct- ly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are


attached; cf. also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetori- cians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or conven- tion which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; cf. 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.

अर्थगति comprehension of sense; cf. अर्थगत्यर्थः शब्दप्रयोगः अर्थे संप्रत्याययिष्या- मीति शब्दः प्रयुज्यते M. Bh. on P. I. 1.44, III.1.7 etc.

अर्थग्रहण use of the word 'अर्थ'; cf. अर्थग्रहणं करोति तज्ज्ञापयत्याचार्यः M. Bh. on I.1.11.

अर्थनिर्देश mention or specification of sense. cf. अवश्यमुत्तरार्थमर्थनिर्देशः कर्तव्यः M. Bh. IV.1.92.

अर्थवद्ग्रहणपरिभाषा a well known maxim or Paribha of gramma- rians fully stated as अर्थवद्ग्रहणे नानर्थ- कस्य ग्रहणम्, deduced from the phrase अर्थवद्ग्रहणात् frequently used by the Vārttikakāra. The Paribhāṣā lays down that 'when a combination of letters employed in Grammar, is possessed of a sense, it has to be taken as possessed of sense and not such an one as is devoid of sense.'

अर्थाभिधान conveyance or expression of sense, cf. अर्थाभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम् P. I.2.64 Vārt. 38. It is only a nature of words that they convey their sense.

अर्धक a fault in the utterance of a vowel of the kind of abridgment of a long utterance. अर्धह्रस्वम् ex- plained as ह्रस्वस्यार्धम्-half the utter- ance of the short vowel; cf. तस्यादित उदात्तमर्धह्रस्वम् P. I.2.32. cf. also तस्यादिरुच्चैस्तरामुदात्तादनन्तरं यावदर्द्धे ह्रस्वस्य Tai. Pr. I.44.

अर्धजरतीय a queer combination of half the character of one and half of another, which is looked upon as a fault; cf. न चेदानीमर्धजरतीयं लभ्यं वृद्धिर्मे भविष्यति स्वरो नेति । तद्यथा । अर्धं जरत्याः कामयते अर्धं नेति; M.Bh. on IV. 1.78; cf. also अर्ध जरत्याः पाकाय अर्धं च प्रसवाय ।

अर्धमात्रा half of a mātra or 'mora'., cf. अर्धमात्रालाघवेन पुत्रोत्सवं मन्यन्ते वैयाकरणाः Par. Śekh. Pari. 122, signifying that not a single element of utter- ance in Pāṇini's grammar is superfluous. In other words, the wording of the Sūtras of Pāṇini is the briefest possible, not being capable of reduction by even half a mora.

अर्धमात्रिक taking for its utterance the time measured by the utterance of half a mātrā or mora; a conso- nant, as it requires for its utte- rance that time which is measured by half a mātrā (mātrā being the time required for the utterance of short अ); cf. R. Pr. I.16, T. Pr.I.37, V. Pr. I.59.

अर्धर्चादि a group of words given in P.II.4.31 which are declined in both the masculine and the neu- ter genders; c.g. अर्धर्चः,अर्धर्चमू, यूथः, यूथम्; गृहः गृहम्, etc.; cf अर्धर्चाः पुंसिं च P.II.4.31.

अर्धविसर्ग a term used for the Jihvā- mūliya and Upadhmāniya into which a visarga is changed when followed by the letters क्, ख, and the letters प्, फ् respectively.


अर्धह्रस्वोदात्त the acute (उदात्त) accent which becomes specially उदात्त or उदात्ततर when the vowel, which posseses it, forms the first half of a स्वरित vowel.

अर्शआदि a class of words which take the taddhita affix अच्(अ) in the sense of the affix मतुप् i. e.in the sense of possession; cf अर्शति अस्य विद्यन्ते अर्शसः । उरस:। आकृतिगणश्चा- यम् यत्राभिन्नरूपेण शब्देन तद्वतोभिधानं तत् सर्वमिह द्रष्टव्यम् Kāś. on P. V.2.127.

अल् a प्रत्याहार or a short term signifying any letter in the alphabet of Pāṇini which consists of 9 vowels, 4 semi- vowels, 25 class-consonants, and 4 sibilants.

अलक्षण that which is not a proper लक्षण i. e. Sūtra; a Sūtra which does not teach definitely; a Sūtra which cannot be properly applied being ambiguous in sense. cf व्याख्यानतो विशेषप्रतिपत्तिर्नहि संदह्यादलक्षणम् Par. Śek. Pari. I.

अलाक्षणिक (1) not used in a secondary sense; (2) not accomplished by the regular application of a grammar rule: cf.निपातनैः सह निर्देशादत्रापि किंचिदला- क्षणिकं कार्यमस्ति Kāś. on III.2.59.

अलिङ्ग (1) not possessed of a definite gender; cf. अलिङ्गमसंख्यमव्ययसंज्ञं भवति M. Bh. on I.1.38; II.4.82;(2)अलिङे ह्युष्म- दस्मदी (Sid. Kau. on P.VII.2.90)

अलिङ्गवचन not possessed of a definite gender and number; a term gene- rally used in connection with अव्ययs or indeclinables.

अलुक् absence of elision or omi- ssion.

अलुक्समास a compound in which the case-affixes are not drop- ped. The Aluk compounds are treated by Pāṇini in VI.3.I to VI.3.24.

अलोन्त्यविधि an operation, which, on the strength of its being enjoined by means of the genitive case, applies to the last letter of the wording put in the genitive; cf. नानर्थकेलोन्त्यविधिरनभ्यासविकारे M. Bh. on I.1.65, cf. अलोन्त्यस्य । षष्ठीनिर्दिष्टोन्त्यस्या- देशः स्यात् S.K. on P. I.1.52.

अलोप absence of clision of an affix etc. cf. सुपः अलोपः भवति वाक्ये । राज्ञः पुरुष इति । M. Bh. on II.1.1.

अलौकिकविग्रह the dissolution of a compound not in the usual popu- lar manner. e. g. राजपुरुष: dissolved as राजन् ङस् पुरुष सु, as contrasted with the लौकिकविग्रह viz. राज्ञः पुरुष: । see also अधिहरि dissolved as हरि ङि in the अलौकिकविग्रह.

अल्प्रग्रहण (l) the word अल् actually used in Pāṇini's rule e. g. अपृक्त एकाल् प्रत्ययः P.I.2.41.(2) the wording as अल् or wording by mention of a single letter e.g. अचि श्रुधातुभ्रुवांय्वो P, VI.4.77.

अल्पतर feebler effort required in the production of sound or in the utterance of a letter cf. तैरोव्यञ्जनपाद- वृत्तयोरल्पतरः (प्रयत्नः) Tait. Pr.XX.12.

अल्पप्रयोग not of frequent occurence in the spoken language or literature the term is used in connection with such words as are not fre- quently used; cf. सन्त्यल्पप्रयोगाः कृतोप्यैक- पदिकाः । व्रंततिर्दम्नाः जाटय आट्णारो जागरूको द्विर्धिहोमीति Nir I.14.

अल्पप्राण (1) non-aspirate letters let- ters requiring little breath from the mouth for their utterance as oppo- sed to mahāprāṇa; (2) non-aspira- tion; one of the external articulate efforts characterizing the utterance of non-aspirate letters.

अल्पाच्तर having a smaller number of vowels in it; such a word is gene- rally placed first in a Dvandva compound; cf अल्पाच्तरम्, P.II.2.34.


अल्पाच्तरे पूर्वं भवति प्लक्षन्यग्रोधौ अपाच्तर is the same as अल्पाच्क used in the प्रक्रियाकौमुदी or अल्पस्वरतर in Kātantra (Kāt, II.5.12).

अल्पापेक्ष am operation requiring a smaller number of causes, which merely on that account cannot be looked upon as अन्तरङ्ग. The anta- raṅga operation has its causes occurring earlier than those of another operation which is termed बहिरङ्ग cf. बहिरङगान्तरङश्ङ्गशब्दाभ्यां बह्वपेक्षत्वाल्पा- पेक्षत्वयोः शब्दमर्यादयाsलाभाच्च । तथा सति असिद्धं बह्वपेक्षमल्पापेक्ष इत्येव वदेत् ॥ Par.Śek. Pari. 50.

अल्लोप elision or omission of a single phonetic element or letter; cf. अल्लोपोsनः P. VI.4.134.

अल्विधि an operation prescribed with reference to one single letter; cf. स्थानिवदादेशोs नल्विधौ P.I.1.56.

अवकाश occasion; possibility of appli- cation; cf. इको गुणवृद्धी इत्यस्यावकाशः। चयनं चायकः लवनं लावकः इति । इहोभयं प्राप्नोति | मेद्यति । मार्ष्टीति । M. Bh. on I.1.3. Vārt. 6.

अवग्रह (1) separation of a compound word into its component elements as shown in the Pada-Pāṭha of the Vedic Saṁhitās. In the Pada- pāṭha, individual words are shown separately if they are combined by Saṁdhi rules or by the formation of a compound in the Saṁhitā- pāṭha; e.g. पुरोहितम् in the Saṁhitā- pāṭha is read as पुरःsहितम्. In writ- ing, there is observed the practice of placing the sign (ऽ) between the two parts, about which nothing can be said as to when and how it originated. The Atharva- Prātiśākhya defines अवग्रह as the separation of two padas joined in Saṁhitā. (A. Pr. II.3.25; II.4.5). In the recital of the pada-pāṭha, when the word-elements are utter-

ed separately, there is a momen- tary pause measuring one matra or the time required for the utter- ance of a short vowel. (See for de- tails Vāj. Prāt. Adhāya 5). (2) The word अवग्रह is also used in the sense of the first out of the two words or members that are compounded to- gether. See Kāśikā on P.VIII.4.26; cf. also तस्य ( इङ्ग्यस्य ) पूर्वपदमवग्रहः यथा देवायत इति देव-यत. Tai. Pr. I. 49. The term अवग्रह is explained in the Mahābhāṣya as 'separation, or splitting up of a compound word into its constitutent parts; cf. छन्दस्यानङोवग्रहो दृश्येत पितामह इति ।(M. Bh. on IV.2.36); also cf. यद्येवमवग्रहः प्राप्नोति । न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् । यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् (M. Bh. on III.1.109) where the Bhāṣyakāra has definite- ly stated that the writers of the Padapāṭha have to split up a word according to the rules of Grammar. (3) In recent times, however, the word अवग्रह is used in the sense of the sign (ऽ) showing the coale- scence of अ (short or long) with the preceding अ (short or long ) or with the preceding ए or ओ e.g. शिवोऽ र्च्यः, अत्राऽऽगच्छ. (4) The word is also used in the sense of a pause, or an interval of time when the consti- tuent elements of a compound word are shown separately; cf. समासेवग्रहो ह्रस्वसमकालः (V. Pr. V.1). (5) The word is also used in the sense of the absence of Sandhi when the Sandhi is admissible.

अवग्रहविराम the interval or pause after the utterance of the first member of a compound word when the members are uttered separately. This interval is equal to two moras according to Tait. Pr. while, it is equal to one mora according to the other Prātiśākhyas.


अवङ् substitute अव् for the final ओ of the word गो; cf. अवङ् स्फोटायनस्य, P. VI.1.123,124.

अवचन something which need not be specifically prescribed or stated, being already available or valid; cf तृतीयासमासे अर्थग्रहणमनर्थकं अर्थगतिर्हि अवचनात् P. II.1.30 V.1.

अवचूरि a short gloss or commentary on a standard work.

अवच्छेद exact limitation: cf. उपदेशत्वा- वच्छेदेने एकाजित्यर्थाच्च, Par.Śek. 120.3.

अवधारण restriction; limitation; cf. अवधारणमियत्तापरिच्छेदः । यावदमत्रं ब्राह्मणाना- मन्त्रयतस्व Kāś. on P.II.1.8.

अवधि limit,which is either exclusive or inclusive of the particular rule or word which characterizes it: cf. सर्वश्च हल् तं तमवधिं प्रति अन्त्यो भवति M. Bh. on I.3.3.

अवधिमत् object of limit; cf. दूरे चेदव- धिमान् अवधेर्भवति Kāś. on P.V.3.37.

अवयव member or portion, as oppo- sed to the total or collection (समुदाय) which is called अवयविन्; cf. अवयवप्रसिद्धेः समुदायप्रसिद्धिर्बलीयसी Par.Śek. Pari. 98. The conventional sense is more powerful than the deriva- tive sense.

अवयवषष्ठी the genitive case signify- ing or showing a part: cf. वक्ष्यत्यादे- शप्रत्यययोरित्यवयवषष्ठी M.Bh. on I. 1.21.

अवर्ण the letter अ; the first letter of the Sanskrit alphabet, comprising all its varieties caused by grades, ( ह्रस्व, दीर्घ, प्लुत) or accents of nasa- lization. The word वर्ण is used in the neuter gender in the Mahā- bhāṣya; cf. सर्वमुखस्थानमवर्णम् M. Bh. I.1.9, मा कदाचिदवर्णं भूत् M.Bh. I.1.48 Vārt. 1; cf also M. Bh. on I.1.50 Vārt. 18 and I.1.51 Vārt. 2: cf. also ह्रस्वमवर्णं प्रयोगे संवृतम् Sīradeva Pari. 17. 6

अवशंगम name of a Samdhi when a class consonant, followed by any consonant is not changed, but retained as it is; cf. स्पर्शाः पूर्वे व्यञ्जनान्युत्त- राणि अास्थापितानां अवशंगमं तत् R.Pr.IV. l; eg. अारैक् पन्थाम् R.V. I.113.16, वषट् ते (R.V.VII.99.7) अजानन् पुत्रः (R. V. X.85.14).

अवशिष्टलिङ्ग (v.1. अविशिष्टलिङ्ग) a term occurring in the liṅgānuśāsana meaning 'possessed of such genders as have not been mentioned already either singly or by combination' i.e. possessed of all genders.Under अवशिष्टलिङ्ग are mentioned indeclin- ables, numerals ending in ष् or न् , adjectives, words ending with kṛtya affixes i.e. potential passive participles, pronouns, words ending with the affix अन in the sense of an instrument or a location and the words कति and युष्मद् (See पाणिनीय-लिङ्गानुशासन Sūtras 182-188).

अवश्यम् necessarily; the expression अवश्यं चैतदेवं विज्ञेयम् is very frequently used in the Mahābhāṣya when the same statement is to be empha- sized.

अवसान pause, cessation, termination; cf. विरामोऽवसानम् । वर्णानामभावः अवसान- संज्ञः स्यात् S. K. on P.1.4.110.

अवस्था stage, condition; stage in the formation of a word; e. g. उप- देशावस्था, लावस्था, etc.

अवस्थित of a uniform nature; cf. सिद्धं त्ववस्थिता वर्णाः, वक्तुश्चिराचिरवचनाद् वृत्तयो विशिष्यन्ते, M. Bh. I.1.70 V. 5.

अवाक्षर deficient in one or more syllables. The word is mostly used in connection with a Vedic Mantra.

अवाग्योगविद् one who is not conver- sant with the proper use of lang- uage: cf. अथ योऽवाग्योगविद् विज्ञानं तस्य शरणम्; M. Bh. 1.1.1.

अविघातार्थ meant for not preventing the application (of a particular


term) to others where it should apply. The word is frequently used in the Kāśikā; cf अजाद्यतष्टाप् । टकारः सामान्यग्रहणाविघातार्थः । Kāś. on P. IV.I.4, also see Kāś. on III.1. 133; III.2,67,73 IV.1.78.

अविचालिन् immutable. The term is used frequently in the Mahābhā- ṣya, in connection with letters of the alphabet which are consi- dered 'nitya' by Grammarians; cf. नित्येषु च शब्देषु कूटस्थैरविचालिभिर्वर्णैर्भ- वितव्यमनपायोपजानविकारिभिः M. Bh. I. 1. Āhn 2: cf also नित्यपर्यायवाची सिद्ध- शब्दः । यत्कूटस्थेष्वविचालिषु भावेषु वर्तते M. Bh. on I.1.1.

अविधि non-application, non-pres- cription (अविधान); cf. अङ्गवृत्ते पुनर्वृत्तौ अविधिर्निष्ठितस्य M. Bh. on VII.I.30; Par. Śek. Pari. 92.

अविभक्तिक without the application of a case termination.The term is used frequently in connection with such words as are found used by Pāṇini without any case-affix in his Sūtras; sometimes, such usage is explained by commenta- tors as an archaic usage; cf. अवि- भक्तिको निर्देशः । कृप उः रः लः । M. Bh. I 1. Āhn. 2; also M. Bh. on I.1.3 ; III.1.36, VII.1.3 etc.

अविभागपक्ष a view of grammarians according to which there are words which are looked upon as not susceptible to derivation. The terms अखण्डपक्ष and अव्युत्पन्नपक्ष are also used in the same sense.

अविरविकन्याय a maxim mentioned by Patañjali in connection with the word आविक where the taddhita affix ठक् (इक), although prescribed after the word अवि in the sense of 'flesh of sheep' (अवेः मांसम्), is actu- ally put always after the base अविक and never after अवि. The maxim

shows the actual application of an affix to something allied to, or similar to the base, and not to the actual base as is sometimes found in popular use cf. द्वयोः शब्दयोः समानार्थ- योरेकेन विग्रहोऽपरस्मादुत्पत्तिर्भविष्यति अविर- विकन्यायेन । तद्यथा अवेर्मांसमिति विगृह्य अविक- शब्दादुत्पत्तिर्भवति । M. Bh. on IV.1.88; cf. also M. Bh. on IV.1.89; IV.2.60; IV.3.131,V.1.7,28; VI.2.11.

अविलम्बित name of a fault in pro- nouncing a word where there is the absence of a proper connection of the breath with the place of utter- ance; 'अविलम्बितः वर्णान्तरासंभिन्नः' Pra- dīpa on M.Bh I.1.1. There is the word अवलम्बित which is also used in the same sense; cf. ग्रस्तं निरस्तमव- लम्बितं निर्हतम् ० M. Bh on I.1.1.

अविवक्षा non-intention: connivance; cf. सतोऽप्यविवक्षा भवति । अलोभिका एडका । अनुदरा कन्या । also cf. प्रसिद्धेरविवक्षातः कर्मणोऽकर्मिका क्रिया.

अविवक्षित (1) not taken technically into consideration, not meant: cf. अविवक्षिते कर्मणि षष्ठी भवति M.Bh on II.3. 52; (2) unnecessary; superfluous; the word is especially used in connection with a word in a Sūtra which could as well be read with- out that word. The word अतन्त्रं is sometimes used similarly.

अविशेष absence of specification; cf. गामादाग्रहणेष्वविशेषः M.Bh.I.1.20 Vārt 1; Par. Śek. Pari. 106.

अविशेषित not specified, mentioned without any specific attribute; cf. एवमपि प्रयत्नः अविशेषितः भवति M.Bh. on I.1.9; cf. also Kātan. VI.1.63.

अवृत्ति absence of, or prohibition of, a vṛtti or composite expression; mon- formation of a composite express- ion; cf. समानाधिकरणानां सर्वत्रावृत्तिरयोगादेकेन M.Bh. on III.1. 8.


अवृद्ध lit.not beginning with the vowel अा, ऐ or औ; a word which has got no अा or ऐ, or औ as its first vowel, as for example ग्लुचुक, अहिचुम्बक etc. इरावती, नर्मदा यमुना etc; cf. प्राचामवृद्धात् फिन् बहुलम् P.IV.1.160. also अवृद्धाभ्यो नदीमानुषीभ्यस्तन्नामिकाभ्यः P.IV. 1.113.

अव्यक्त (1) indistinct; inarticulate; cf. अव्यक्तानुकरणस्यात इतौ P. VI.1.98 also P.V.4.57; अव्यक्तं अपरिस्फुटवर्णम् Kāś. on P. VI.1.98; (2) a fault of pronunciation cf. नातिव्यक्तं न चाव्यक्त- मेवं वर्णानुदीरयेत् ।

अव्यपवृक्त unseparated, undivided, inseparable, mixed; cf. नाव्यपवृक्तस्य अवयवे तद्विधिः यथा द्रव्येषु M. Bh. on Siva-sutra 4.V.9 whereon Kai- yaṭa remarks व्यपवृक्तं भेदः । अव्यपवृक्तं अभिन्नबुद्धिविषयमेकत्वालम्बनज्ञानग्राह्यं समुदा- यरूपम् ।

अव्यय indeclinable, lit. invariant, not undergoing a change. Pāṇini has used the word as a technical term and includes in it all such words as स्वर्, अन्तर् , प्रातर् etc, or composite expressions like अव्ययीभावसमास, or such taddhitānta words as do not take all case affixes as also kṛdanta words ending in म् or ए, ऐ, ओ, औ. He gives such words in a long list of Sutras P. I.1.37 to 41; cf. सदृशं त्रिषु लिङ्गेषु सर्वासु च विभ- क्तिषु । वचनेषु च सर्वेषु यन्न व्येति तदव्ययम् Kāś. on P.I.1.37.

अव्ययसंग्रह name of a treatise ond- eclinable words attributed to Sāka- ṭāyana.

अव्ययार्थनिरूपण a work on the mean- ings of indeclinable words written in the sixteenth century A. D. by Viṭṭhala Śeṣa, grandson of Rama- candra Śeṣa the author of the Pra- kriyā Kaumudi.

अव्ययीभाव name of a compound so called on account of the words for-

ming the compound, being similar to indeclinables: e. g. निर्मक्षिकम् , अधिहरि, यथामति, यावज्जीवम् etc.; cf. अन- व्ययं अव्ययं भवतीत्यव्ययीभावः M. Bh. on II.I.5. The peculiarity of the avyayībhāva compound is that the first member of the compound plays the role of the principal word; cf. पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानोऽव्ययीभावः M. Bh. on II.1.6.

अव्यवधान absence of intervention between two things by something dissimilar; close sequence cf. अतज्जातीयकं हि लोके व्यवधायकं भवति M. Bh. on I.1.7. Vārt. 8; cf also येन नाव्यवधानं तन ब्यवहितेपि वचनप्रामाण्यात् M. Bh. on VII.3.44, VII.3.54, VII.4.l, VII.4.93. The term अव्यवाय is used in the same sense.

अव्यवस्था absence of proper disposal; absence of a proper method regard- ing the application of a rule: cf. पुनर्ऋच्छिभावः पुनराडिति चक्रकमव्यवस्था प्राप्नोति M. Bh. on I.3.60 V. 5.

अव्याप्ति insufficient extension, as opposed to अतिव्याप्ति or over applica- tion; cf.सर्वौपाधिव्यभिचारार्थम् । अव्याप्त्यति- व्याप्त्यसंभवादिदोषपरिहारार्थम् Padamañjarī on II.1.32.

अव्याप्य an intransitive root; a techni- cal term in the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa (C. Vy. I.4.70 ) as also in Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana; cf. अव्याप्यस्य मुचेर्मोग् वा । मुचेरकर्मकस्य सकारादौ सनि परे मोक् इत्ययमादेशो वा स्यात् । न चास्य द्विः । मोक्षति मुमुक्षति चैत्र: । मोक्षते मुमुक्षते वा वत्सः स्वयमेव Hem. IV.1.19.

अव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष the view held generally by grammarians that all words are not necessarily susceptible to ana- lysis or derivation, an alternative view opposed to the view of the etymologists or Nairuktas that every word is derivable; cf. पाणिनेस्त्वव्युत्पत्ति- पक्ष एवेति शब्देन्दुशेखरे निरूपितम् Pari. Śekh. Pari. 22; वाचक उपादान: स्वरूप- वानिति अव्युत्पत्तिपक्षे Vyāḍi's Saṁgraha.


अव्युत्पन्न underived, unanalysable; cf. उणादयोऽव्युत्पन्नानि प्रा तिपदिकानि M. Bh. I. 1.61 Vārt. 4: Par. Śek. Pari. 22.

अव्युत्पन्नपक्ष same as अव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष. See above the word अव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष.

अश् (1) Pratyāhāra or a brief term standing for all vowels, semi- vowels, and the fifth, fourth and third of the class-consonants; all letters excepting the surds and sibi- lants; (2) substitute अ for the word इदम् before affixes of cases beginn- ing with the instrumental, and for एतद् before the tad. affixes त्र and तस्; see P.II.4.32 and 33; (3) substitute अ for the gen. sing. case-affix ङस् after the words युष्मद् and अस्मद्; see P.VII.1.27.

अशक्ति incapacity to pronounce words correctly; cf. अशक्त्या कयाचिद् ब्राह्मण्या ऋतक इति प्रयोक्तव्ये लृतक इति प्रयुक्तम् M.Bh. on Śiva-sūtra 2.

अशिष्य unnecessary to be prcscribed or laid down.; cf.तदशिष्यं संज्ञाप्रमाणत्वात् P. I.2.53; also लिङ्गं अशिष्यं लोकाश्रयत्वा- ल्लिङ्गस्य M.Bh. on II.1.36.

अश्मादि a class of words headed by the word अश्मन् to which the taddh- ita affix र is applied in the four senses specified in P.IV.2.67 to 70; e.g. अश्मरः, ऊषरम् , नगरम् , पामरः गह्वरम् etc. cf. P.IV.2.80.

अश्वघासादि compounds like अश्वघास which cannot be strictly correct as चतुथींसमास, but can be षष्ठीसमास if the word तदर्थ in the rule चतुर्थी तदर्थार्थ- बलिहितसुखरक्षितैः be understood in the sense of 'meant for' a particular thing which is to be formed out of it: cf. विकृतिः प्रकृत्येति चेदश्वघासादीनामुपसं- ख्यानम् M.Bh. on II.1.36.

अश्वपत्यादि a class of words headed by अश्वपति to which the taddhita affix अण् (अ) is added in the senses mentioned in rules before the rule तेन दीव्यति० P.IV.4.2, which are

technically called the Prāgdīvya- tiya senses. e g. अश्वपतम्, गाणपतम्. गार्हपतम् etc.

अश्वत्थनारायण a commentator who wrote a gloss on Pāṇini's Aṣṭā- dhyāyī in the Tamil language.

अश्वादि (1) a class of words headed by the word अश्व to which the affix फञ्(अायन) is added in the sense of गोत्र (grandchildren etc.); e.g.आश्वायनः जातायनः, औत्सायनः etc.; cf. P.IV.1. 110; (2) a class of words headed by the word अश्व to which the taddhita affix यत् is added in the sense of a cause of the type of a meeting or an accidental circum- stance; e.g. आश्विकम् अाश्मिकम् cf. P. V.1.39.

अष्टक another name for the famous work of Pāṇini popularly called the Aṣṭādhyāyī; cf. अष्टावध्यायाः परि- माणमस्य सूत्रस्य अष्टकं पाणिनीयम् । दशकं वैया- घ्रपदीयम् । त्रिंकं काशकृत्स्नम् । Kāś on P.IV. 1.58; (2) students of Pāṇini's grammar, e. g. अष्टकाः पाणिनीयाः; cf. सूत्राच्च कोपधात् । Kāś. on P.IV. 2. 65.

अष्टम a term used by ancient gram- marians for the vocative case.

अष्टमङ्गला name of a commentary on the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa by Rām- akiśoracakravartin.

अष्टाध्यायी name popularly given to the Sūtrapāṭha of Pāṇini consisting of eight books (adhyāyas) containing in all 3981 Sūtras,as found in the tra- ditional recital, current at the time of the authors of the Kāśika. Out of these 398l Sūtras, seven are found given as Vārtikas in the Mahābhā- ṣya and two are found in Gaṇap- āṭha.The author of the Mahābhāṣya has commented upon only 1228 of these 3981 sūtras. Originally there were a very few differences of read- ings also, as observed by Patañjali ( see Mbh on I.4.1 ); but the text


was fixed by Patañjali which, with a few additions made by the auth- ors of the Kāśika,as observed above, has traditionally come down to the present day. The Aṣṭādhyāyī is believed to be one of the six Ved- āṅga works which are committed to memory by the reciters of Ṛgveda. The text of the Aṣṭādhyāyī is recited without accents. The word अष्टाध्यायी was current in Patañjali's time; cf. शिष्टज्ञानार्था अष्टाध्यायी M. Bh. on VI. 3.109.

अष्टाक्षरा a metre having eight sylla- bles in a foot;cf.गायत्री सा चतुर्विंशत्यक्षरा । अष्टाक्षरास्त्रयः पादाः चत्वारो वा षडक्षराः R. Pr.XVI.9.

अष्टि name of a metre of four feet consisting of 64 syllables in all, 12 syllables in the odd feet and 20 in the even feet; e. g. त्रिकद्रुकेषु महिषः etc. R.V. II.22.1.

अस् (1) case affix of the nominative and accusative plural and the ab- lative and genitive singular (जस् , शस्, ङसि and ङस् ) (2) taddhita affix अस् ( असि ) added to पूर्व, अधर and अवर, by P.V.3.39: (3) compound- ending अस् ( असिच् ) applied to the words प्रजा and मेधा standing at the end of a Bahuvrīhi compound (P.V.4.122): (4) Uṇādi affix अस् prescribed by the rule सर्वधातुभ्योऽसुन् and subsequent rules (628-678) to form words such as मनस्,सरस् etc.(5) ending syllable अस्, with or with- out sense, of words in connection with which special operations are given in grammar; cf. P.VI.4.14; cf. also अनिनस्मन्ग्रहणान्यर्थवता चानर्थकेन च तदन्तविधिं प्रयोजयन्ति Par.Śek. Pari. 16.

अस affix अस mentioned in the Niru- kta in the word अवस ( अव् + अस ) cf. असो नामकरणः । तस्मान्नावगृह्णन्ति NirI.17.

असंख्य not possessing any notion of number; the word is used in con-

nection with avyayas or indeclina- bles; यथैव हि अलिङ्गमव्ययमेवमसंख्यमपि M. Bh. on II.4.82.

असंज्ञक a term used for the Cāndra Grammar,as no saṁjñas or techni- cal terms are used therein; cf.चान्द्रं चासंज्ञकं स्मृतम्.

असंज्ञा not used as a technical term or name of a thing; cf. पूर्वपरावरदक्षिणोत्त- रापराधराणि व्यवस्थायामसंज्ञायाम् P.1.1.34.

असंनिकर्ष (।) separatedness as in the case of two distinct words;(2) absence of co-alescence preven- ting the sandhi; cf R.T. 68,70.

असंनिधान the same as असंनिकर्ष; see above; e. g. भरा इन्द्र; तमु अभिप्रगायत.

असंप्रत्यय failure to understand the sense; cf. इतरथा ह्यसंप्रत्ययोऽकृत्रिमत्वाद्यथा लोके M. Bh. on I.1.23 Vārt. 3.

असंभव Impossibility of occurrence (used in connection with an operation); cf नावश्यं द्विकार्ययोग एव विप्रतिषेधः । किं तर्हि । असंभवेपि । M. Bh. I.1.12 Vārt. 3; (2) impossibi- lity of a statement, mention, act etc. cf. असंभवः खल्वपि अर्थादेशनस्य M. Bh. on II.1.1.

असंयोग absence of the conjunction of consonants; cf. असंयोगाल्लिट् कित् P.I.2.5.

असंहिता absence of juxta-position, absence of connectedness; cf. यदि तावत्संहितया निर्देशः क्रियते भ्वादय इति भवितव्यम् । अथासंहितया भू अादय इति भविंतव्यम् M. Bh. on I.3.1.

असत्त्व(l) absence of सत्त्व or entity; (2) other than a substance i. e. property, attribute, etc. cf. प्रादयः असत्त्ववचना निपातसंज्ञा भवन्ति M. Bh. I. 4.59; cf. also सोऽसत्त्वप्रकृतिर्गणः M. Bh. on IV.1.44. cf. also चादयोऽ सत्त्वे P.I.4.57.

असमर्थ (1) syntactically not con- nected, e. g. राज्ञः and पुरुषः in the sentence भार्या राज्ञः पुरुषो देवदत्तस्य (2)


unable to enter into a compound word, the term is used in con- nection with a word which can- not be compounded with another word, although related in sense to it, and connected with it by apposition or by a suitable case affix, the reason being that it is connected more closely with an- other word: cf. सापेक्षमसमर्थं भवति M. Bh. II.1.1.; e.g. the words कष्टं and श्रितः in the sentence महत् कष्टं श्रितः.

असमर्थसमास a compound of two words, which ordinarily is in- admissible, one of the two words being more closely connected with a third word, but which takes place on the authority of usage, there being no obstacle in the way of understanding the sense to be conveyed; e. g. देवदत्तस्य गुरुकुलम् । देवदत्तस्य दासभार्या । असूर्यंपश्यानि मुखानि, अश्राद्धभोजी ब्राह्मणः M. Bh. on II.1.1.

असमस्त not compounded, not en- tered into a compound with an- other word; cf. समासे असमस्तस्य Hem. II.3.13.

असमास ( 1) absence of a compound. उपसर्गादसमासेपि णोपदेशस्य P. VIII.4.14; (2) an expression conveying the sense of a compound word al- though standing in the form of separate words: चार्थे द्वन्द्ववचने असमासेपि वार्थसंप्रत्ययादनिष्टं प्राप्नोति । अहरहर्नयमानो गामश्वं पुरुषं पशुम् M. Bh. on II.2.29.

असरूप not having the same out- ward form or appearance; e. g. the affixes अण्, अच्, ण, अट्, ञ्, and the like which are, in fact, सरूप as they have the same outward form viz. the affix अ. अण् and यत् are असरूप; cf. वाऽसरूपोऽस्त्रियाम् P.III. 1.94.

असर्वविभक्ति not admitting all case- affixes to be attached to it; cf. तद्धितश्चासर्वविभक्ति: P.I.1.38: यस्मान्न सर्वविभक्तेरुत्पत्तिः सोसर्वविभक्तिः । ततः यतः तत्र यत्र । Kāś. on I.1.38.

असामर्थ्य absence of a syntactical con- nection cf दध्ना पटुः । घृतेन पटुः । असामर्थ्यादत्र समासो न भविष्यति । कथम- सामर्थ्यम् । सापेक्षमसमर्थं भवतीति । न हि दध्नः पटुना सामर्थ्यम् । केन तर्हि । भुजिना । दध्ना भुङ्क्ते पटुरिति । M. Bh. on II.1.30.

असारूप्य dissimilarity in apparent form (although the real wording in existence might be the same) e. g. टाप्, डाप् , चाप्; cf. नानुबन्धकृतमसारूप्यम् । Par. Śek. Pari. 8.

असि (I) Uṇādi affix अस्; (2) tad. affix अस्. See above the word अस्.

असिच् samāsa-ending affix अस्. See above the word अस्.

असिद्ध invalid; of suspended validity for the time being: not functioning for the time being. The term is frequently used in Pāṇini's system of grammar in connection with rules or operations which are prevented, or held in suspense, in connection with their application in the process of the formation of a word. The term (असिद्ध) is also used in connection with rules that have applied or operations that have taken place, which are, in certain cases, made invalid or invisible as far as their effect is concerned and other rules are applied or other operations are allowed to take place, which ordinarily have been prevented by those rules which are made invalid had they not been inva- lidated. Pāṇini has laid down this invalidity on three different occasions (1) invalidity by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. which makes a rule or operation in the


second, third and fourth quarters of the eighth chapter of the Aṣṭādhyāyī invalid when any pre- ceding rule is to be applied, (2) invalidity by the rule असिद्धवदत्राभात् which enjoins mutual invalidity in the case of operations prescrib- ed in the Ābhīya section begin- ning with the rule असिद्धवत्राभात् (VI. 4.22.) and going on upto the end of the Pāda (VI.4.175), (3) invali- dity of the single substitute for two letters, that has already taken place, when ष् is to be substituted for स्, or the letter त् is to be prefixed, cf. षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः (VI. 1.86). Although Pāṇini laid down the general rule that a subsequent rule or operation, in case of conflict, supersedes the preceding rule, in many cases it became necessary for him to set, that rule aside, which he did by means of the stratagem of inva- lidity given above. Subsequent grammarians found out a number of additional cases where it be- came necessary to supersede the subseguent rule which they did by laying down a dictum of in- validity similar to that of Pāṇini. The author of the Vārttikas, hence, laid down the doctrine that rules which are nitya or antaraṅga or apavāda, are strong- er than, and hence supersede, the anitya, bahiraṅga and utsarga rules respectively. Later gram marians have laid down in general, the invalidity of the bahiraṅga rule when the antaraṅga rule occurs along with it or subsequent to it. For details see Vol. 7 of Vvyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya(D. E. Society's edition) pages 217-220. See also Pari. Śek. Pari. 50.

असिद्धत्व invalidity of a rule or ope- ration on account of the various considerations sketched above. See असिद्ध.

असिद्धपरिभाषा the same as Antaraṅga Paribhāṣā or the doctrine of the invalidity of the bahiraṅga ope- ration. See the word असिद्ध above. For details see the Paribhāṣā 'asiddham , bahiraṅgam anta- raṅge' Par. Śek. Pari. 50 and the discussion thereon. Some gram- marians have given the name असिद्धपरिभाषा to the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे as contrasted with अन्तरङ्गं बहुिरङ्कगाद् वलीयः which they have named as बहिरङ्गपरिभाषा.

असुक् the augment अस् seen in Vedic Literature added to the nom. pl. case-affix जस् following a noun- base ending in अ; e.g, जनासः, देवासः etc. cf आज्जसेरसुक् P. VII.1.50,51.

असुड् substitute अस् for the last letter of the word पुंस् before the सर्वनाम- स्थान affixes i. e. before the first five case affixes,e.g. पुमान् पुमांसौ etc.; cf. पुंसोsसुङ् P.VII.1.89

असुन् Uṅādi affix अस् ( असुन् ) by सर्व- धातुभ्योSसुन् वक्तव्यः Uṅ. Sū.628; cf. न वेत्तीति नवेदाः। वेतिरसुन्प्रत्ययान्तः Kāś. on P.VI.3.75.

असे kṛt affix in the sense of the infini- tive (तुमर्थे) in Vedic Literature,e.g- जीवसे; cf. तुमर्थे सेसेनसेo P.III.4.9

अस्ताति tad. affix अस्तात् in the sense of the base itself, but called विभक्ति, prescribed after words in the sense of 'direction', e. g. पुरस्तात्, अधस्तात् etc. cf. दिक्शब्देभ्यः सप्तमीपञ्चमीप्रथमाभ्येा दिग्देशकालेषु अस्तातिः P. V.3.27.

अस्थ अ, अा and अा३. This term is used in Ṛk Tantra cf. अस्थनामिनी सन्ध्यम् R.T.94, अस्थ possibly means 'belonging to अ i. e. all the three grades ह्रस्व, दीर्घ and प्लुत of अ'.


अस्पष्ट less in contact with the vocal organ than the semi-vowels; the term occurs in Hemacandra's Grammar (Hem. I.3.25) and is explained by the commentator as 'ईषत्स्पृष्टतरौ प्रत्यासत्तेर्यकारवकारौ. अस्पष्ट stands for the letters य and व which are substituted for the vowels ए ऐ and ओ औ when followed by a vowel; cf, also Śāk I.I.154.

अस्पृष्ट not in contact with any vocal organ; the term is used in connec- tion with the effort required for the utterance of vowels, अनुस्वार and sibilants when no specific contact with a vocal organ is necessary: cf. स्वरानुस्वारेाष्मणामस्पृष्टं करणं स्थितम् R. Pr. XIII. 3.

अस्मद् first person; the term is used in the sense of the first person in the grammars of Hemacandra and Śākaṭāyana. cf. त्रीणि त्रीण्यन्ययुष्मदस्मदि (Hem. III.3.17);

अस्वपदविग्रह a term used for those compounds, the dissolution of which cannot be shown by the members of the compound: e. g. सुमुखी; cf. भवति वै कश्चिदस्वपदविग्रहोपि बहु- व्रीहिः । तद्यथा । शोभनं मुखमस्याः सुमुखीति । M.Bh. on V.4.5.

अस्वयंदृष्ट A term used for the per- fect tense; cf. कृ चकारमस्वयंदृष्टे (R.T. 19l).

अस्व not homogeneous: asavarṇa. cf. इवर्णादेः अस्वे स्वरे यवरलम् Hem. I.2.21, also अस्वे Śāk.I.1.73.

अस्वरक untoned; a word without an accent, as different from a word which has an accent,but whi- ch is not uttered with that accent: cf अक्रियमाणे ह्युपदेशिवद्भावे...अान्तर्यत अांदेशा अस्वरकाणामस्वरकाः स्युः M.Bh. on VII. 1.2, VII. 1. 89.

(1) the long form of the vowel अ called दीर्घ,consisting of two mātrās, in contrast with (l) the short अ which consists of one mātrā and the protracted आ३ which consists of three mātrās; (2) substitute अा of two mātrās when prescribed by the word दीर्घ or वृद्धि for the short vowel अ; (3) upasarga अा (अाङ्) in the sense of limit e.g. अा कडारादेका संज्ञा (P.I.4.1.) आकुमारं यशः पाणिनेः K. on II.1.13. आ उदकान्तात् (M. Bh. on I.1.14.) (4) indeclin- able आ in the sense of remem- brance e. g. आ एवं नु मन्यसे; cf. ईषदर्थे क्रियायोगे मर्यादाभिविधौ च यः । एतमातं ङितं विद्याद्वाक्यस्मरणयोरङित् M. Bh. on I.1.14; (5) augment अा ( अाक् ) as seen in चराचर, वदावद etc. cf. M. Bh. VI.1.12 Vārt. 6; (6) augment अा(आट्) prefixed to roots in the tenses लुङ्, लङ् and लृङ् (7) substi- tute अा prescribed for the last letter of pronouns before the tad. affixes दृक्,दृश, दृक्ष and वत्, as in तादृक्दृ, तादृश etc.; (8) feminine affix आ (टाप्, डाप् or चाप् ) added to nouns end- ing in अा; (9) substitute आ ( आ or अात्, or डा or आल् ) for case affixes in Vedic literature उभा यन्तारौ, नाभा पृथिव्याः etc.

आँ indeclinable आ pronounccd nasa- lized, e. g. अभ्र आँ अपः M. Bh. I.3.2.

आक् see above the word आ sense(5).

आकम् the substitute आकम् for साम् of the gen. pl. after the words युष्मद् and अस्मद् e. g. युष्माकं, अस्माकम् cf. P.VII.1.33.

आकर्षक ( a word ) attracting ano- ther word stated previously in the context e. g. the word च in the rules of Pāṇini.


आकर्षादि a class of words headed by the word आकर्ष to which the tadd- hita affix कन् (क) is applied in the sense of clever or expert; e. g. आकर्षकः, त्सरुकः, शकुनिकः etc.; cf. P. अाकर्षादिभ्यः कन् P.V.2.64.

आकाङ्क्ष (or साकाङ्क्ष also) expectant of another word in the context, e. g. कूज and व्याहर in अङ्ग कूज३, अङ्ग व्याहर३ इदानीं ज्ञास्यसि जाल्म Kāś. on अङ्गयुक्तं तिङाकाङ्क्षम् (P.VIII.2.96).

आकाङ्क्षा expectancy with regard to sense-completion, generally in compounds such as साकाङ्क्ष, निराकाङ्क्ष etc. cf. अस्त्यस्मिन्नाकाङ्क्षा इत्यतः साकाङ्क्षम् M. Bh. on III.2.114.

आकाङ्क्ष्य a word for which there is expectancy of another word for the completion of sense.

आकार the letter आ; cf. आकारस्य विवृतोप- देश अाकारग्रहणार्थः । M. Bh. I.1 Āhn. 2.

आकिनिच् tad. aff. अाकिन् affixed to the word एक in the sense of 'single,' 'alone'; cf. एकादाकिनिच्चासहाये P.V.3.52.

आकुस्मीय a group of 43 roots of the चुरादि class of roots beginning with the root चित् and ending with कुस्म् which are Ātmanepadin only.

आकृति lit. form; individual thing; cf. एकस्या अाकृतेश्चरितः प्रयोगो द्वितीयस्यास्तृतीय- स्याश्च न भवति M.Bh on III.1.40 Vārt.6. The word is derived as आक्रियते सा आकृतिः and explained as संस्थानम्; cf. आक्रियते व्यज्यते अनया इति आकृतिः संस्थानमुच्यते Nyāsa on IV.1.63; (2) general form which, in a way, is equivalent to the generic notion or genus; cf. आकृत्युपदेशात्सिद्धम् । अवर्णा- कृतिरुपदिष्टा सर्वमवर्णकुलं ग्रहीष्यति M. Bh.

  1. I.1 Āhn. 1; (3) notion of genus;

cf also यत्तर्हि तद् भिन्नेष्वभिन्नं छिनेष्वच्छिन्नं सामान्यभूतं स शब्दः । नेत्याह । अाकृतिर्नाम सा. M. Bh. I.1.Āhn.1; (4) a metre consisting of 88 letters; cf. R. Prāt. XVI.56,57.

अाकृतिगण a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same opera- tion; cf. श्रेण्यादयः कृतादिभिः । श्रेण्यादयः पठ्यन्ते कृतादिराकृतिगणः M. Bh. on II.1.59. Haradatta defines the word as प्रयोगदर्शनेन आकृतिग्राह्यो गणः अाकृतिगण:। अत्र अादिशब्दः प्रकारे । अाकृति- गणेपि उदाहरणरूपेण कतिपयान् पठति कृत मत इत्यादि Padamañjarī on II.I.59 ; cf. Pradīpa of Kaiyaṭa also on II.1. 59.Some of the gaṇas mentioned by Pāṇini are ākṛtigaṇas, e.g. अर्श- आदिगण, मूलविभुजादिगण, स्नात्व्यादिगण, शिवादिगण, पचादिगण, and others.

आक्षरसमाम्नायिक directly or expressly mentioned in the fourteen Pratyā- hāra Sūtras of Pāṇini; a letter actually mentioned by Pāṇini in his alphabet 'अइउण्', 'ऋलृक्' etc.

आक्षिप्त (l) taken as understood, being required to complete the sense; cf. क्विबपि अाक्षिप्तो भवति M. Bh. on III.2. 178;(2) a term used for the circum- flex accent or स्वरित as it is uttered by a zig-zag motion of the organ in the mouth caused by the air producing sound; cf. आक्षेपो नाम तिर्यग्गमनं गात्राणां वायुनिमित्तं तेन य उच्यते स स्वरितः Uvaṭa on R. Pr. III. 1.

आक्षेप a zig-zag motion of the organs caused by the air; see आक्षिप्त above.

आख्या designation, conventional name; cf. देवदत्तो मुण्ड्यपि जट्यपि त्यामा- ख्यां न जहाति M. Bh. on I.1.1; cf. also स्वमज्ञातिघनाख्यायाम् P.I.1.35; cf. also वर्णः कारोत्तरो वर्णाख्या Tai. Prāt. I. 16.


अाख्यात verbal form, verb; cf. भावप्रधानमाख्यातं सत्त्वप्रधानानि नामानि Nir. I.1; चत्वारि पदजातानि नामाख्यातोपसर्गनि- पाताश्च M. Bh. I.1. Āhnika 1 ; also A.Prāt. XII. 5, अाकार अाख्याते पदादिश्च M. Bh. I.2.37 Vārt. 2, आख्यातमाख्यातेन क्रियासातत्ये Sid. Kau. on II.1.72, क्रियावाचकमाख्यातं V. Pr. V.1; cf. भारद्वाजकमाख्यातं भार्गवं नाम भाष्यते । भारद्वाजेन दृष्टत्वादाख्यातं भारद्वाज- गोत्रम् V. Prāt. VIII. 52; cf. also Athar. Prāt.I.I.12, 18; 1.3.3,6; II.2.5 where ākhyāta means ver- bal form. The word also meant in ancient days the root also,as differ- entiated from a verb or a verbal form as is shown by the lines तन्नाम येनाभिदधाति सत्त्वं, तदाख्यातं येन भावं स धातुः R.Pr.XII.5 where 'आख्यात' and 'धातु' are used as synonyms As the root form such as कृ, भृ etc. as dis- tinct from the verbal form, is never found in actual use, it is immater- ial whether the word means root or verb.In the passages quoted above from the Nirukta and the Mahā- bhāṣya referring to the four kinds of words, the word ākhyāta could be taken to mean root (धातु) or verb (क्रियापद). The ākhyāta or verb is chiefly concerned with the process of being and bccoming while nouns (नामानि) have sattva or essence, or static element as their meaning. Verbs and nouns are concerned not merely with the acti- vities and things in this world but with every process and entity; cf. पूर्वापूरीभूतं भावमाख्यातेनाचष्टे Nir.I.;अस्ति- भवतिविद्यतीनामर्थः सत्ता । अनेककालस्थायि- नीति कालगतपौर्वापर्येण क्रमवतीति तस्याः क्रिया- त्वम् । Laghumañjūṣā. When a kṛt. affix is added to a root, the static element predominates and hence a word ending with a kṛt. affix in the sense of bhāva or verbal acti- vity is treated as a noun and regu-

larly declined;cf.कृदभिहितो भावे द्रव्यवद् भवति M.Bh. on II.2.19 and III. 1.67, where the words गति, व्रज्या, पाक and others are given as instances. Regarding indeclinable words end- ing with kṛt. affixes such as कर्तुं, कृत्वा, and others, the modern gram- marians hold that in their case the verbal activity is not shadowed by the static element and hence they can be,in a way, looked upon as ākhyātas; cf. अव्ययकृतो भावे Vaiyā- karaṇabhūṣaṇa.

अख्यातप्रक्रिया a work dealing with verbs, written by Anubhūtisvarūpā- cārya on the Sārasvata Vyākaraṇa.

अाख्यातविवेक a work dealing with verbs and their activity by Kṛṣṇa- Shāstrī Āraḍe a great Naiyāyika of the 18th century.

अाख्यातव्याकरण a treatise on verbs discussing verbal forms by Vaṅga- Sena.

अागन्तुक lit. adventitious, an addi- tional wording generally at the end of roots to show distinctly their form e.g. वदि, एधि, सर्ति etc.; cf. इन्धिभवतिभ्यां च P I.2.6: cf. also भावलक्षणे स्थेण्कृञ्वदिचरिहृतभिजनि- भ्यस्तोमुन्, P.III.4.16, सृपिवृदो. कसुन् P. III.4.17 and a number of other sūtras where इ or तिं is added to the root cf. इक्श्तिपौ धातुनिर्देशे, वर्णा- त्कारः, रादिफः P.III.3.108 Vārt. 2.3. 4, where such appendages to be added to the roots or letters are given. The word अागन्तु is an old word used in the Nirukta, but the term आगन्तुक appears to be used for the first time for such forms by Haradatta; cf. ह्वरोरिति ह्वृ कौटिल्ये, आगन्तुकेकारे गुणेन निर्देशः Padamañjarī on VII.2.31. In the traditional oral explanations the second part of a reduplicated word is termed अागन्तुक which is placed second


i. e. after the original by vir- tue of the convention आगन्तू- नामन्ते निवेशः, although in fact, it is said to possess the sense of the root in contrast with the first which is called abhyāsa.A nice distinction can, however be drawn between the four kinds of adventi- tious wordings found in grammar viz.आगन्तु, इत्, अभ्यास and आगम which can be briefly stated as follows; The former two do not form a regular part of the word and are not found in the actual use of the word; besides, they do not possess any sense, while the latter two are found in actual use and they are possessed of sense. Again the agantu word is simply used for facility of understanding exactly and correctly the previous word which is really wanted; the इत् wording, besides serving this pur- pose, is of use in causing some grammatical operations. अभ्यास, is the first part of the wording which is wholly repeated and it possesses no sense by itself, while, āgama which is added to the word either at the beginning or at the end or inserted in the middle, forms a part of the word and possesses the sense of the word.

आगम augment, accrement, a word element which is added to the primitive or basic word during the process of the formation of a com- plete word or pada. The āgama is an adventitious word element and hence differs from ādeśa, the substitute which wholly takes the place of the original or ( आदेशिन् ). Out of the several āgamas men- tioned by Pāṇini, those that are marked with mute ट् are prefixed, those, marked with क्, are affixed, while those, marked with म्, are

placed immediately after the last vowel of the word. The aug- ments become a part and parcel of the word to which they are added, and the characteristics of which they possess;cf.यदागमास्तद्गुणी- भूतास्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यन्ते, also आगमानां आगमि- धर्मिवैशिष्ट्यम् Par. Śek. Pari.11. Those grammarians, who hold the view that words are unproduced and eternal, explain the addition of an augment as only the substitution of a word with an augment in the place of a word without an aug- ment; cf. आदेशास्तर्हिमे भविष्यन्ति अनाग- मकानां सागमकाः M. Bh. on I.1.20; I.1.46. The term āgama is defined as अन्यत्र विद्यमानस्तु यो वर्णः श्रुयतेधिकः । आगम्यमानतुल्यत्वात्स आगम इति स्मृतः Com. on Tait. Prāt.I. 23.

अागमिन् a base to which an augment is added; cf. एवमपि पञ्च अागमास्त्रय आगमिनः M.Bh.I.1. Āhnika 2.

आगर्वीय a class of roots forming a subdivision of the Curādigaṇa or the tenth conjugation beginning with पद् and ending with गर्व् which are only ātmanepadin; e.g. पदयते, मृगयते, अर्थयते, गर्वयते.

आगस्त्य name of an ancient writer of Vedic grammar and Prātiśākhya works; cf. R. Pr.I.2.

अाग्रायण an ancient scholar of Nirukta quoted by Yāska cf. अक्षि अष्टेः । अनक्तेरिति आग्रायणः Nir. I.9.

अाङ् the preposition आ. See the word आ above.

अाङ्ग an operation prescribed in the section, called aṅgādhikāra, in the the Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini, made up of five Pādas consisting of the fourth quarter of the 6th adhyāya and all the four quarters of the seventh adhyāya. आङ्गात् पूर्वं विकरणा एषितव्याः M. Bh on I.3.60 Vārt.


5; cf. also वार्णादाङ्गं बलीयो भवति Par. Śek. Pari 55: also M. Bh. on III.2.3.

आच् tad. affix आ applied to the word दक्षिणा and उत्तरा; cf.P.V. 3.36, 38. e. g. दक्षिणा वसति, उत्तरा रमणीयम् Kāś on V.3.36, 38.

आचार (1) customary usage of putting or employing words in rules; cf. आचार्याचारात्संज्ञासिद्धिः, P.I,1.1, Vārt. 4. (2) behaviour;cf. उपमानादाचारे P.III. 1.10; cf also निवासत आचारतश्च M.Bh. on VI.3.109.

आचारक्विप् denom. affix क्विप् applied to any prātipadika or noun in the sense of behaviour: cf. सर्वप्रातिपदिकेभ्य आचारे क्विब् वक्तव्यः अश्वति गर्दभति इत्येवमर्थम् M. Bh. on III.1.11; cf. हलन्तेभ्य आचाराक्विबभावाच्च Par. Śek. on Pari.52.

आचार्य preceptor, teacher; a designa- tion usually given to Pāṇini by Patañjali in the Mahābhāṣya; cf. the usual expression तज्ज्ञापयति आचार्यः as also अाचार्यप्रवृत्तिर्ज्ञापयति; also cf. नेदानीमाचार्याः सूत्राणि कृत्वा निवर्तयन्ति; cf. also the popular definition of अाचार्य given as 'निशम्य यद्गिरं प्राज्ञा अविचार्यैव तत्क्षणम् । संभावयन्ति शिरसा तमाचार्यं प्रचक्षते ।"

आचार्यदेशीय a partisan of the precep- tor Pāṇini or the Sūtrakāra who is looked upon as having approx- mately the same authority as the Sūtrakāra; cf. अाचार्यदेशीय अाह- न वक्तव्य इति l Kaiyaṭa on I.4.105, Vārt. 2.

आचार्यसंपद् necessary qualification to teach the Veda with all its pāṭhas having the necessary knowledge of accents, matrās and the like. cf. पदक्रमविभागज्ञो वर्णक्रमविचक्षणः स्वरमात्राविशे- षज्ञो गच्छेदाचार्यसंपदम् R. Prāt.I.8.

आचितादि a class of words headed by the word अाचित which do not have their final vowel accented acute

by P. VI.2.146 when they are preceded by the prepositions प्र, परा etc. although they are used as proper nouns. e.g. आचितम्,निरुक्तम्, प्रश्लिष्टम्; cf. Kāśikā on P. VI.2.146.

अाट् (1) augment अा prefixed to roots beginning with a vowel in the imperfect, aorist and conditional, which is always accented (उदात्त); cf. P.VI.4.72; (2) augment अा prefixed to the imperative first person terminations, e.g. करवाणि, करवै etc.; cf. P.III.4.92: (3) aug- ment अा to be prefixed to case- affixes which are डित् after nouns called nadī: e.g. कुमार्यं; cf P.VII. 3.112.

अाटच् tad.affix (आट) in the sense of possession added to the word वाच्; e.g. वाचाटः cf. P.V.2.125.

अात् (1) long अा as different from short or protracted अ prescribed by the wofd वृद्धि or दीर्घ in the case of अ, or by the word अात् when substitu- ted for another vowel, as for exam- ple in the rule आदेच उपदेशेऽशिति and the following: cf. P.VI.1.45, 57; (2) substitute for the ablative affix ङस् after words ending in अ; cf. P. VII.1.12; (3) substitute अात् for a case affix in Vedic Literature, e.g. न ताद् ब्राह्मणाद् निन्दामि Kāś. on VII. 1.39.

आताम् Ātmanepada third person dual ending, technically substituted for लकार by P.III.4.78

अाति tad. affix अात् applied to उत्तर, अधर and दक्षिण by P.V.3.34.

आतिदेशिक applied by extension or transfer of epithet as opposed to औपदेशिक. See the word अतिदेश; the term is often used in connection with rules or operations which do not apply or occur by the direct expression of the grammarian; cf. यदि आतिदेशिकेन कित्वेन औपदेशिकं कित्वं


बाध्येत. M. Bh. on I.2.1.; cf. also अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् Par.Śek. Pari. 93.6.

आतिशायिक a tad-affix in the sense of excellence; a term applied to the affixes तम and इष्ठ as also तर and ईयस् prescribed by Pāṇini by the rules अतिशायने तमबिष्ठनौ and द्विवचन- विभज्योपपदे तरबीयसुनौ cf. P.V.3.55, 57. This superlative affix is seen doub- ly applied sometimes in Vedic Lit. eg.श्रेष्ठतमाय कर्मणे Yaj. Saṁ. I.1; cf. also तदन्ताच्च स्वार्थे छन्दसि दर्शनं श्रेष्ठतमायेति P.V.3.55 Vārt.3.

आतिशायिकान्त a word ending with an atisāyika affix; cf. अातिदायिकान्तात्स्वार्थे छन्दसि आतिशायिको दृश्यते M. Bh. on V. 3.55.

आत्त्व the substitution of long अा prescribed by the term अात् as in आदेच उपदेशेऽशिति and the following cf. P. VI.1.45 etc.

आत्मन् agent or Kaṛtr as in the terms अात्मनेपद or अात्मनेभाषा, cf. सुप आत्मनः क्यच् III. 1.8.

आत्मनेपद a technical term for the affixes called तड् (त, आताम् etc.) and the affix अान ( शानच् , चानश्, कानच् ), called so possibly because, the fruit of the activity is such as generally goes to the agent (आत्मने) when these affixes are used. Con- trast this term (Ātmanepada) with the term Parasmaipada when the fruit is meant for another. For an explanation of the terms see P. VI.3.7 and 8.

अात्मनेपदिन् a root which always takes the Ātmanepada affixes. (See above).

अात्मनेभाष a technical term used for such roots as speak for the agent himself; the term अात्मनेभाष means the same as the term अात्मनेपदिन्. The term अात्मनेभाष is not mention- ed by Pāṇini; but the writer of the Vārtikas explains it, cf. आत्मने-

भाषपरस्मैभाषयोरुपसंख्यानम् P. VI.3.7 and 8 Vārt. 1; cf. also आत्मनेपदिनश्च धातवो वैयाकरणैरात्मनेभाषशब्देन व्यवह्रियन्ते,Kaiyaṭa on VI.3.7.The term is found in the Atharva-Prātiśākhya. III. 4.7. It cannot be said whether the term came in use after Pāṇini or, although earlier, it belonged to some school other than that of Pāṇini or, Pāṇini put into use the terms Ātmane- pada and Parasmaipada for the affixes as the ancient terms Ātman- ebhāṣa and Parasmaibhāṣa were in use for the roots.

अात्व the substitution of अा; e.g. तादृक्, भवादृक्, अन्यादृक् cf. आ सर्वनाम्नः P.VI.3. 90.

आत्वत् possessed of the vowel आ; containing the vowel आ; e.g पाकः, दायः etc. cf. कर्षात्वतो घञोन्त उदात्तः P.VI. 1.159.

आदादिक belonging to the second con- jugation or class of roots which begins with the root अद्; cf. दैवादि- कस्यैव ग्रहणं भविष्यति नादादिकस्य Pur.Pari. 67.

अादि (1) commencement, initial: cf. अपूर्वलक्षण आदिः M.Bh. on I.1.21, (2) of the kind of, similar; एवंप्रक्रारः.

आदिकर्मन् commencement of an action; cf. आदिभूतः क्रियाक्षणः अदिकर्म Kāś. on आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च । P.III.4.71.

आदित् possessed of the mute indica- tory letter अा signifying the non- application of the augment इ (इट् ) to the past-pass. part. term क्त. e. g. क्ष्विण्ण from the root ञिक्ष्विदाः simi- larly खिन्न, भिन्न etc. cf. आदितश्र P.VII. 2.16.

आदिवृद्धि the Vṛddhi substitute pres- cribed for the first vowel of a word to which a tad-affix, marked with the mute letter ञ्,ण्, or क् is added; e.g. औपगव, दाक्षि etc.; cf. तद्धितेष्वचामादेः P.VII.2.117, 118.


आदिष्ट (1) prescribed for substitution; specified for an operation : cf. सिद्धे तु आदिष्टस्य युड्वचनात् M.Bh. on VI.1. 155; cf. also M. Bh. on VI. 1.I58 Vārt. 3; M. Bh. on IV.3.28 Vār. 5; cf. also आदिष्टाच्चैवाचः पूर्वः M. Bh. on I.1.57; (2) indicated or stated; अादिष्टा इमे वर्णाः.

आदेश (1) substitute as opposed to sthānin, the original. In Pāṇini's grammar there is a very general maxim, possessed of a number of exceptions, no doubt, that 'the substitute behaves like the origi- nal' (स्थानिवदादेशः अनल्विधौ P.I.1.56.); the application of this maxim is called स्थानिवद्भाव; for purposes of this स्थानिवद्भाव the elision (लोप) of a phonetic element is looked upon as a sort of substitute;cf. उपधालेपस्य स्थानिवत्त्वात् Kāś. on P.I.1.58. Gram- marians many times look upon a complete word or a word-base as a substitute for another one, alth- ough only a letter or a syllable in the word is changed into another, as also when a letter or syllable is added to or dropped in a word; cf. पचतु, पचन्तु ... इमेप्यादेशाः । कथम् । अादिश्यते यः स आदेशः । इमे चाप्यादिश्यन्ते । M. Bh. on I.1.56; cf also सर्वे सर्व- पदादेशा दाक्षीपुत्रस्य पाणिनेः M.Bh. on P. I.1.20; cf. also अनागमकानां सागमका आदेशाः M. Bh. on I.1.20: (2) indi- cation, assignment; cf. योयं स्वरादेशः अन्तोदात्तं, वधेराद्युदात्तत्वं, स्वः स्वरितमिति अादेशः R.Pr.I.30-32; cf. also अादेशः उपदेशः com. on Tai.-Prāt. II.20: cf. also अनादेशे अविकारः V.Pr.IV.131, where Uvvaṭa remarks यत्र उदात्तादीनां स्वराणां सन्धौ आदेशो न क्रियते तत्र अविकारः प्रत्येतव्यः । cf. also एकारो विभक्त्यादेशः छन्दसि A.Pr. II.1.2, where ए is pres- cribed as a substitute for a case- affix and त्ये and अस्मे are cited as examples where the acute acent is also prescribed for the substitute ए.

आदेशिन् that for which a substitute is prescribed; the original, sthā- nin: cf. आदेशिानामादेशाः cf. also M. Bh. On P.I.1.56.

आद्य (1) premier; cf. इदमाद्यं पदस्थानं (व्याकरणनामकं ) सिद्धिसोपानपर्वणाम् Vāk. Pad. I.16; (2) preceding as oppo- sed to succeeding (उत्तर); cf. सहाद्यै- र्व्यञ्जनैः V.Pr.I.100 (3) original; cf. आद्यप्रकृतिः परमप्रकृतिः (original base) Bhāṣā Vṛtti. IV.1.93; (4) first, preceding, आद्ये योगे न व्यवाये तिङः स्यु; M.Bh. on III.1-91.

आद्यन्तवत्त्व अाद्यन्तवद्भाव, consideration of a single or solitary letter as the initial or the final one according to requirements for opcrations prescribed for the initial or for the final. Both these notions --the initial and the final-are relative notions, and because they require the presence of an additional letter or letters for the sake of being called initial or final it becomes necessary to prescribe आद्यन्तवद्भाव in the case of a single letter; cf.अाद्यन्त- वदेकस्मिन् । आदौ इव अन्त इव एकस्मिन्नपि कार्यं भवति । यथा कर्तव्यमित्यत्र प्रत्ययाद्युदात्तत्वं भवति एवमौपगवमित्यत्रापि यथा स्यात् । Kāś. on P.I.1.21 ; cf. also अाद्यन्तवच्च । अपृक्तस्य आदिवदन्तवच्च कार्यं भवति । T. Pr. I.55. This अाद्यन्तवद्भाव of Pāṇini is, in fact, a specific application of the general maxim known as vyapadeśivadbhāva by virtue of which "an operation which affects something on account of some special designation, which for certain reasons attaches to the letter, affects likewise that which stands alone;" cf. Pari.Śek. Pari. 30.

आद्युदात्त a word beginning with an acute-accent i.e. which has got the first vowel accented acute: words in the vocative case and words


formed with an affix marked with a mute ञ् or न् are ādyudātta; cf.P. VI.1.197, 198: for illustrations in detail see P.VI.1.189-216.

आद्युदात्तनिपातन specific mention of a word with the accent udātta or acute on the first syllable; cf. आद्युदात्तनिपातनं करिष्यते M.Bh. on I.1. 56, VI.1.12.

आधार receptacle or abode of an action;cf.अाध्रियन्ते अस्मिन् क्रियाः इत्याधारः Kāś. on P.I.4.45 also M. Bh. on III.3.121; the Prakriyā Kaumudī mentions four kinds of ādhāras: cf. औपश्लेषिकः सामीपिको विषयो व्याप्त इत्याघारश्च- तुर्धा Prak. Kau. on II.3.36.

अाधाराधेयभाव a non-differential rela- tion (अभेदसंसर्ग) between the perso- nal endings तिप् , तस् etc. and the noun in the nominative case which is the subject of the verbal activity;relation of a thing and its substratum: cf. निपातातिरिक्तनामार्थ- धात्वर्थयोर्भेदान्वयस्य अव्युत्पन्नत्वात्.

आधिक्य superfluity, superiority, notion of surplus; cf यदत्राधिक्यं वाक्यार्थः सः M. Bh. on II.3.46, II.3. 50.

आधृषीय a sub-division of roots belon- ging to the चुरादिगण or tenth conju- gation beginning with युज् and end- ing with धृष् which take the Vika- raṇa णिच् optionally i.e. which are also conjugated like roots of the first conjugation; e.g. यीजयति,योजयते, योजति;साहयति-ते, सहति.

आधेय a thing placed in another or depending upon another, as oppo- sed to ādhāra or the container; cf. आधेयश्चाक्रियाजश्च सोसत्त्वप्रकृतिर्गुणः M. Bh. on P.IV.1.44.

आन (1) kṛt affix (शानच् or चानश्) substi- tuted for the lakāra लट् and appli- ed to ātmanepadi roots forming the present participle; (2) kṛt. affix कानच् applied to ātmanepadi roots

in the sense of past time forming the perfect participle cf. लिटः कानज्वा P.III.2.106.

अानङ् substitute आन् in the place of the last letter (ऋ) of the first member of dvandva compounds of words meaning deities or of words show- ing blood-relationship which end with the vowel ऋ; e.g. होतापोतारौ, मातापितरो cf. P.VI.3.25, 26.

आनन्तर्य (1) close proximity; absence of any intermediary element generally of the same nature: अनन्तरस्य भावः आनन्तर्यम्; cf. नाजानन्तर्ये वहिष्ट्वप्रक्लृप्तिः M. Bh. I.4.2. Vārt. 21: Par. Śek. Pari. 51. This close proxi- mity of one letter or syllable or so, with another, is actually i.e.phone- tically required and generally so found out also, but sometimes such proximity is theoretically not existing as the letter required for proximity is technically not present there by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्. In such cases, a technical absence is not looked upon as a fault. cf. कचिच्च संनिपातकृतमानन्तर्ये शास्त्रकृतमनानन्तर्ये यथा ष्टुत्वे, क्वचिच्च नैव संनिपातकृतं नापि शास्त्रकृतं यथा जश्त्वे । यत्र कुतश्चिदेवानन्तर्यं तदाश्रयिष्यामः M. Bh. on VIII.3.13. (2) close connection by mention together at a common place etc.;cf. सर्वाद्यानन्तर्यं कार्यार्थम् M. Bh. on I.1.27.

अानन्ददत्त name of a Buddhist grammarian,the author of the work named Cāndra-vyākaraṇa Paddhati.

आनर्थक्य absence of any utility; superfluity; absence of any object or purpose; cf. स्थानिवद्वचनानर्थक्यं शास्त्रा- सिद्धत्वात् । M. Bh. on P.VI.1.86 Vārt. 5 cf. also P.VI.1.158 Vārt. 4; VI.1.161 Vārt. 1, VI.1.166 Vārt. 1, VI.1.167 Vārt. 3.

अानि imp. 1st per.sing affix नि with the augment अा prefixed, which


has got its न् changed into ण् by P. VIII.4.16.

आनुक् the augment आन्, added to the words इन्द्र, वरुण, भव and others before the fem. affix ई; e.g. इन्द्राणी, वरुणानी cf. इन्द्रवरुणभवशर्वरुद्र...आनुक् P. IV.1.49.

आनुनासिक्य nasalization; utterance through the nose, an additional property possessed by vowels and the fifth letters of the 5 classes (ङ्, ञ्, ण् ,न्, म्) cf. आनुनासिक्यं तेषामधिको गुणः M.Bh. on I.1.9.

आनुपूर्वी serial order, successive order of grammatical operations or the rules prescribing them as they occur; cf. अानुपूर्व्या सिद्धमेतत् M.Bh. on V.3.5; cf. also ययैव चानुपूर्व्या अर्थानां प्रादुर्भावस्तयैव शब्दानामपि । तद्वत् कार्यैरपि भवितव्यम् M.Bh. on. P.I.1.57.

आनुपूर्व्य successive order, as prescri- bed by tradition or by the writer; cf. ऋतुनक्षत्राणामानुपूर्व्येण समानाक्षराणां पूर्वनि- पातः । शिशिरवसन्तौ उदगयनस्थौ । कृत्तिका- रोहिण्यः । M.Bh. II.2.34 Vārt.3;also वर्णानामानुपूर्व्येण ब्राह्मणक्षत्रियविट्शूद्राः M.Bh. on II.2.34 Vārt. 6: cf. पदानुपूर्व्येण प्रश्लिष्टान् संधीन् कुर्यात् । इन्द्र अा इहि । आदौ इन्द्र आ इत्येतयोः; न तु अा इहि इत्येतयाः R. Pr. II.2; cf. also आनुपूर्व्यात् सिद्धम् Sīra. Pari. 6.

आनुपूर्व्यसंहिता the saṁhitā-pāṭha or recital of the running Vedic text in accordance with the constituent words;e.g. शुनः शेपं चित् निदितम् or नरा शंसं वा पूषणम्, as opposed to the अनानुपूर्व्यसंहिता which is actually found in the traditional recital e.g. शुनश्चिच्छेपं निदितम् Ṛk saṁh. V 2.7 or नरा वा शंसं पूषणम् Ṛk saṁh. X.64.3. See R. Prāt. II 43.

आनुमानिक obtained or made out by inference such as Paribhāṣā rules as opposed to Śrauta rules such as the Sūtras of Pāṇini; cf. आनुमानिकं स्थानित्वमवयवयो; Kāś. on VI.1.85;

also cf. आनुमानिकस्थान्यादेशभावकल्पनेपि श्रौतस्थान्यादेशभावस्य न त्यागः Par. Śek. on Pari. 11; cf. also किं च पूर्वत्रेत्यस्य प्रत्यक्षत्वेन अानुमानिक्या अस्या बाध एवोचितः Pari. Śek. on Pari. 50.

अान्तरतम्य closest affinity; cf. अष्टन्- जनादिपथिमथ्यात्वेषु आन्तरतम्यादनुनासिकप्रसङ्गः M.Bh. on VII.2.84, as also अान्तर- तम्याच्च सिद्धम् M. Bh. on VII.1. 96 Vārt. 6.

अान्तर्य proximity; close affinity ; close relationship. There are four kinds of such proximity as far as words in grammar are concerned; Re: the organs of speech (स्थानतः)as in दण्डा- ग्रम्, regarding the meaning(अर्थतः)as in वातण्ड्ययुवतिः, regarding the quality (गुण) as in पाकः रागः, and regarding the prosodial value (प्रमाण) as in अमुष्मै, अमूभ्याम्; cf. अनेकविधं अान्तर्यं स्थानार्थगुणप्रमाणकृतम् Par. Śek. Pari.13. cf. also Kāś. on I.1.50.

अान्पद् word ending with अान् which has the consonant dropped and the preceding आ nasalized; e. g. सर्गा इव सृजतम् Ṛk.Saṁ. VIII. 35. 20, महा इन्द्रः Ṛk Saṁ VI.19.1; cf. दीर्घादटि समानपादे, अातोऽटि नित्यम् P. VIII.3.9, VIII.3.3; cf. also हन्त देवो इति चैता अान्-पदाः पदवृत्तयः R.Pr.IV.26,27.

आप् (l) common term for the fem. endings टाप्, डाप् and चाप् given by Pāṇini in Adhy. IV, Pāda 1; cf. अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II.4.82. P.IV.1.1.; P.VI.1.68; cf. also P.VI.3.63. P.VII.3.44; P.VII.3.106, 116; P.VII.4.15. etc.; (2) a brief term for case-affixes beginn- ing with the inst. sing and ending with the loc. pl. cf. अनाप्यकः P. VII.2.112.

अापत्ति (1) production; resulting of something into another; change; cf दन्त्यस्य मूर्धन्यापत्तिः नतिः मूर्धन्यापत्तिः मूर्ध- न्यभावः V. Prāt. I. 42 and Uvaṭa's com. thereon; cf also यमापत्तिं


explained as यमभावं R. Pr. VI. 9. (2) modification; cf. अापद्यते श्वासतां नादतां वा R.Pr.XIII.1.; (3) con- tingency, undesired result.

आपत्य patronymic affix such as अण् and others. The term अापत्य, which is the same as the usual term अपत्य in तस्यापत्यम् P.IV.I, is found sometimes used in the Vārttikas and in the Mahābhāṣya; cf. आयत्याज्जीवद्वंश्यात्स्वार्थे द्वितीयो युवसंज्ञ: P.IV.1.163 Vārt 6.

आपदेव son of अनन्तदेव, the author of Sphoṭanirūpaṇa (17th cent. A.D.).

आपिशल (1) a work of अापिशलि, possi- bly his grammar; cf. आपिशलमधीते M. Bh. on IV.1.14; (2) a student of Āpiśali's grammar: आपिशलमधीते आपिशला ब्राह्मणी M. Bh. on IV.1.14: अापिशलपाणिनीयव्याडीयगौतमीयाः M. Bh. on VI. 2.36.; cf. तथा चापिशलाः पाणिनीयाः पठन्ति-आगमोनुपघातेन विकार- श्चोपमर्दनात् । आदेशस्तु प्रसङ्गेन लोपः सर्वापकर्षनात्.

आपिशलि an ancient grammarian mentioned by Pāṇini and his commentators like Patañjali, Hela- rāja and others; cf. वा सुप्यापिशलेः P. IV.3.98; तथा चापिशलेर्विधिः M. Bh. on IV.2.45.

आपुक् augment आप् added to the words सत्य, अर्थ and वेद before the affix णिच्; cf. M. Bh. on III.1.25 and Vārt. l and 2 thereon; e.g. सत्यापयति, अर्थापयति, वदापयति.

आपुट् augment ( आप् ) suggested in the place of आपुक् by Patañjali to be prefixed to the affix णिच् cf. M Bh on III.1.25.

अाप्य to be obtained by an activity: (the same as vyāpya). The term is used in connection with the object of a verb which is to be obtained by the verbal activity. The word अाप्य is found used in the sense of Karman or object in 8

the grammars of Jainendra, Śāka- ṭāyana, Cāndra and Hemacandra; cf. Cāndra II I. 43; Jainendra I. 2.119; Śāk.IV.3.120: Hem. III.3.31. Hence, the term साप्य is used for a transitive root in these grammars.

आबन्त ending with the fem. affix अा ( टाप्, डाप् or चाप् ); cf. वाबन्तः P. II.4.30 Vārt. 3.

अबाध (1) similarity of one phone- tic element, for instance, in the case of ऐ with आ resulting from Saṁdhi: e. g. प्रजाया अरातिं निर्ऋत्या अकः where प्रजाया and निर्ऋत्या stand for प्रजायै and निर्ऋत्यै cf. एकारान्तानि अाकारबाधे Āth. Pr. II.1.4; (2) Simi- larity of accent of words in the Saṁhitāpāṭha and Padapāṭha; (3) followed by cf. A. Pr. II.1.14; (4) distress; cf. आबाधे च, P. VIII.1.10.

आभाच्छास्त्र a rule given in the sec- tion called आभीयप्रकरण extending from P.VI.4.22 to VI.4.175, wherein one rule or operation is looked upon as invalid to another ; cf. असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22 and M. Bh. thereon; cf. also यावता अनिदितां हलः इत्यपि आभाच्छास्त्रम् Vyāḍi Pari. 38.

आभीक्ष्ण्य repetition of an action; cf. पौनःपुन्यं आभीक्ष्ण्यम् Kāś. on III.4.22; cf. M. Bh. III.4.24: VIII.1.4; VIII.1.12.

अाभीयकार्य an operation prescribed by a rule in the section called अाभीय- प्रक्ररण. See अाभाच्छास्त्र above.

आभीयप्रकरण a section of Pāṇini's grammar from VI.4.-2 to VI. 4.129, called अाभीय, as it extends to the rule भस्य VI.4.129, in- cluding it but as the governing rule भस्य is valid in every rule upto the end of the Pāda, the


आभीयप्रकरण also extends upto the end of the Pāda.See अाभाच्छास्त्र above.

आभीयासिद्धत्व invalidity or supposed invisibility of one rule with respect to another, in the section called अाभीयप्रकरण. See अाभाच्छास्त्र above.

अाभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न internal effort made in producing a sound, as con- trasted with the external One called बाह्यप्रयत्न. There are four kinds of internal efforts described in the Kāsikāvrtti.; cf. चत्वार आभ्य- न्तरप्रयत्नाः सवर्णसंज्ञायामाश्रीयन्ते - स्पृष्टता, ईषत्स्पृष्टता, संवृतता, विवृतता चेति । Kās. on P. 1.1.9. See also यत्नो द्विधा । आभ्यन्तरो बाह्यश्च etc. Si. Kau. on I.1.9.

अभ्यास changes prescribed in con- nection with the अभ्यास or redu- plicative syllable; cf. अभ्यासविकार अाभ्यासः M. Bh. on III.1.6.

आम् (1) augment आ prescribed in connection with the words चतुर् and अनडुह् before the case-affixes called सर्वनामस्थान; cf. चतुरनडुहोराम् उदात्तः P.VII.1.98; (2) the affix आम् added before लिट् or a perfect termination by rules कास्प्रत्ययादाम् अमन्त्रे लिटि and the following (P. III 1.35-39), as for instance, in कासांचक्रे, ऊहांचक्रे, दयांचक्रे, जागरांचकार, विभयांचकार etc.; (3) geni. pl. case- affix आम् as in दृषदाम्, शरदाम्, with न् prefixed in रामाणाम् etc., and with स् prefixed in सर्र्वेषाम् etc.; (4) loc. sing. case-affix अाम् substituted for इ (ङि); cf. ङेराम् नद्याम्नीभ्यः P.VI.4.116.

आमन्त्रण (1) calling out from a dis- tance;(2) an invitation which may or may not be accepted; cf. विधि- निमन्त्रणामन्त्रणाधीष्टसंप्रश्नप्रार्थनेषु लिङ् P.III. 3.161 whereon M. Bh. remarks अथ निमन्त्रणामन्त्रणयोः को विशेषः । अथ संनिहितेन

निमन्त्रणं भवति असंनिहितेन अामन्त्रणम् । नैषोस्ति विशेषः । असंनिहितेनापि निमन्त्रणं भवति संनि- हितेनापि चामन्त्रणम् । एवं तर्हि यन्नियोगतः कर्तव्यं तन्निमन्त्रणम् । अामन्त्रणे कामचारः । M. Bh. on P.III.3.161.

अामन्त्रित (1) a word in the vocative sing. cf. सामन्त्रितम् P.II.3.48: a tech. term in Pāṇini's grammar, the peculiar features of which are पराङ्गवद्भाव (cf. P.II.1.2), अविद्यमानवद्भाव (cf. P.VIII.1.72), द्वित्व (cf. P.VIII. 1.8), अद्युदात्तत्व (cf. P.VI.1.198), सर्वानुदात्तत्व(cf. P.VIII.1.19), splitt- ing of ए into अा and इ, e.g. अग्रे into अग्ना ३ इ (cf. P.VIII.2.107 Vārt. 3); (2) Vocative case, cf. ओकार अामन्त्रितजः प्रगृह्यः Ṛk. Prāt. I.28; Vāj. Pr. III.139: II.17: II.24 VI.1.

अामन्त्रितकारक a word connected with the verbal activity possessed by अामन्त्रित e.g. कुण्डेन in कुण्डेनाटन्; cf. अामन्त्रिते या धातुवाच्या क्रिया तस्याः कारकम् Kaiyaṭa on P.II.1.2.

अामन्त्र्य a word in the vocative case; lit. a word possessed of the sense of invocation; cf. अामन्त्र्यमाणेर्थं वर्तमानः शब्द अामन्त्र्यः Śāk. I.3.88; cf. also अमन्त्रयते यत्तदामन्त्र्यम् com. on Hem. II.1.25.

अामिनच् tad. affix अामिन् in the sense of possession, applied to the word स्व; cf. स्वामिन्नैश्वर्ये P.V.2.126.

आमिश्र completely mixed; cf. आमिश्र- स्यायमादेश उच्यते स नैव पूर्वग्रहणेन गृह्यते, नापि परग्रहणेन । तद्यथा । क्षीरोदकं सम्पृक्ते आमिश्रत्वा- नैव क्षीरग्रहणेन गृह्येते नाप्युदकग्रहणेन M. Bh. on VI.1.85; similarly अामिश्रत्व, आमिश्रीभूत etc.

अामु tad. affix (अाम्) added to the affixes घ i.e. तर and तम which are placed after indeclinables; e.g. किंतराम्, पचतितराम् etc. cf. P.V.4.11.

आम्रेडित ( 1 ) iterative: a repeated word, defined as द्विरुक्तं पदम् cf. द्विरुक्तमात्रेडितं पदम् e.g. यज्ञायज्ञा


वो अग्नये Vāj. Prāt. I. 146; (2). the second or latter portion, of a repeated word according to Pāṇini; c. तस्य (द्विरुक्तस्य) परमाम्रेडितम् P. VIII.1.2. The Āmreḍita word gets the grave accent and has its last vowel protracted when it implies censure; cf. P.VIII.1.3 and VIII. 2.95.Haradatta has tried to explain how the term आम्रेडित means the first member; cf. ननु अाम्रेडितशब्दे । निघण्टुषु प्रसिद्धः अाम्रेडितं द्विस्त्रिरुक्तमिति । सत्यमर्थे प्रसिद्धः इह तु शब्दे परिभाष्यते । महा- संज्ञाकरणं पूर्वाचार्यानुरोधेन Padamañj. on VIII.1.2.

आम्रेडितसमास an iterative com- pound: cf. आम्रेडितसमासे तु । A. Prāt. III.1.5.

आय् the substitute अाय् for ऐ before a vowel; e.g. चायकः for चै+अकः cf. एचेायवायावः P.VI.1.78.

आय (I) the affix आय applied to the roots गुप्, धूप् and others ending with which they are looked upon as roots; cf. P. III.1.28: P.III.1. 32. The affix is applied optionally when an ārdhadhātuka affix is to follow, e.g. गोपायिता, गोप्ता; cf. P.III. 1.31; (2) augment; cf. असतो वर्णस्य उपजनः R. Prāt. XIV. 1 Uvaṭa.

अायाम tension of the limbs or organs producing sound, which is noticed in the utterance of a vowel which is accented acute ( उदात्त ) अायामो गात्राणां दैघ्र्यमाकर्षणं वा; com. on Tait. Prāt. XXII. 9; cf. ऊर्ध्वगमनं गात्राणाम् वायुनिमित्तं Uv.on R. Prāt. III.1; cf. also ऊर्ध्वगमनं शरीरस्य com. on Vāj. Prāt I.31; cf. also आयामो दारुण्यमणुता रवत्येत्युच्चैःकराणि शाब्दस्य M.Bh. on P. I.2.29.

अाय्य kṛt. affix अाय्य before which णि (causal इ) is changed into अय्;cf., अय् अामन्ताल्वाय्येत्विष्णुषु P.VI.4.55. e.g. स्पृहयाय्य.

अार substitute अार for ऋ in the words पितृ and मातृ; e.g. पितरामातरा; cf. P. VI.3.33.

अारक् tad.affix (आर) applied to the word गोधा in the sense of off spring according to the Northern Grammarians;e.g. गौधारः, (op- tional forms गौधेय and गौधेर acc. to others); cf. P.IV.1.129, 130.

आरकन् tad. affix applied to the words शृङ्ग and वृन्द, e.g. शृङ्गारकः, वृन्दारकः;cf P. शृङ्गवृन्दाभ्यामारकन्, P.V. 2.122 Vārt. 3.

आरडे KRISHNASHASTRI a re- puted Naiyāyika of Banaras of the nineteenth century, who wrote, besides many treatises on Nyāya, a short gloss on the Sutras of Pāṇini, called Pāṇini-sūtra-vṛtti.

अारि tad. affix applied to the word पूर्वतर when the whole word refers to a year, e.g.परारि in the last year; cf. B.V.3.22 Vārt. 2.

आरु kṛt. affix applied to the roots शृ and वन्द् in the sense of habituated etc. e.g. शरारुः, वन्दारुः, cf P. III. 2.173.

अारोप attribution or imputation of properties which leada to the secondary sense of a word; cf. अप्रसिद्धश्च संज्ञादिरपि तद्गुणारोपादेव बुध्यते Par. Sek. on Pari. 15.

अारोपर्णीय same as अभिनिधान: see above अाभनिधान.

अार्थ resultant from sense; made up of sense; अर्थस्य अयम् अार्थ; cf तदा- दितदन्तत्वमार्थसमाजग्रस्तम् Par. Śek. on Pari.37.

आर्थसमाज combination of the mean- ings (of the base and affix); see the word अार्थ above.

'आर्धधातुक a term used in contrast to the term सार्वधातुक for such ver- bal and kṛt affixes, as are not personal endings of verbs nor


marked with the mute letter श् cf. तिङ्शित् सार्वधातुकम् । आर्धधातुकं शेषः। P.III.4.113 and 114. The personal endings of verbs in the perfect tense and the benedic- tive mood are termed ārdhadhā- tuka, cf. P. III. 4.115, 116; while both the terms are promiscuously found utilised in the Vedic Litera- ture; cf. P. III. 4. 117. The main utility of the ārdhadhātuka term is the augment इ ( इट् ) to be prefixed to the ārdhadhātuka affixes. The term आर्धधातुका was in use in works of the old Vaiyā- karaṇas; cf. अथवा आर्धधातुकासु इति वक्ष्यामि कासु आर्धधातुकासु । उक्तिषु युक्तिषु रूढिषु प्रतीतिषु श्रुतिषु संज्ञासु M.Bh. on II. 4.35. It cannot be said how the term ārdhadhātuka originat- ed. Probably such affixes or pra- tyayas, like the kṛt affixes gene- rally, as could be placed after cer- tain roots only were called ārdha- dhātuka, as contrasted with the verbal and the present participle affixes which were termed sārva- dhātuka on account of their being found in use after every root.

आर्धधातुका old term for आर्धधातुक; see आर्धधातुक.

आर्धधातुकाधिकार the topic or section in Pāṇini's grammar where ope- rations, caused by the presence of an ārdhadhātuka affix ahead, are enumerated, beginning with the rule आर्धधातुके VI.4.46 and ending with न ल्यपि VI.4.69, Such opera- tions are summed up in the stanza अतो लोपो चलोपश्च णिलोपश्च प्रयोजनम् । आल्लोप इत्वमेत्वं च चिण्वद्भावश्च सीयुटि; M. Bh. as also Kāś, on VI.4.46.

आर्ष derived from the holy sages; founded on sacred tradition, such as the Vedāṅgas;cf. कृत्स्नं च वेदाड्गमनि-

न्द्यमार्षम् R. Prāt. XIV 30. The word is explained as स्वयंपाठ by the com. on Vāj Prāt. IX.2I, and as Vaidika saṁdhi on X.l3. Patañjali has looked upon the pada-pāṭha or Pada-text of the Saṁhitās of the Vedas, as anārṣa, as contrasted with the Saṁhitā text which is ārṣa; cf. आर्ष्याम् in the sense संहितायाम् R. Prāt. II.27; cf. also पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् M.Bh. on III.1.109.

आर्हीय tad-affixes ठक्, ठञ् etc. as also the senses in which the affixes are applied, given in the section of Pāṇinis grammar P.V.1.19-71.

आल् case affix in Vedic literature e.g. वनन्ता यजेत Kāś. on VII.1.39.

आलच् tad-affix (आल्) applied to the word वाच् in the sense of 'talkative' e.g. वाचालः; cf. P.V.2.124.

अालु tad. affix in the sense 'तन्न xxयते' e.g. शीतालुः, उष्णालुः P.V.2.122.

आलुच् kṛt. affix (आलु) applied to the roots स्पृह् गृह् पत् etc. e.g. स्पृहयालुः. गृहयालुः, निद्रालुः etc. cf. P.III.2.158.

अावचन incomplete pronunciation, cf. ईषद् वचनम् M.Bh. on I.1.8.

आवत् tad-affix applied to the word सम, cf. समाxद् वसति M. Bh. on V.4.30.

आवश्यक necessary notion or thing; cf ओरावश्यके । आवश्यंभाव आवश्यकम् Kāś. on III.1.125, III.3.170.

आविष्टालिङ्ग having a fixed gen- der as opposed to अनाविष्टलिङ्ग- possessed of all genders; cf. अविश्- लिङ्गा जातिः । यल्लिङ्गमुपादाय प्रवर्तते न तल्लिङ्गे जहाति M. Bh. on I.2.52 e.g. the word प्रमाण in प्रमाणं वेदाः.

अावृत्ति repetition, e.g. पदावृत्तिः; see com. on Vāj. Prāt. IV.21; cf. also आवृत्तितः सप्तदशत्वं भवति M. Bh. I.1. Āhn. 2.

आशिस् the benedictive mood, cf. किदाशिषि P.III.4.104, called regularly as आशीर्लिङ्.


आशुबोध (1) name of a work on grammar written by Tārānātha called Tarka-vācaspatī, a reput- ed Sanskrit scholar of Bengal of the 19th century A.D. who compiled the great Sanskrit Dictionary named वाचस्पत्यकेाश and wrote commentaries on many Sanskrit Shastraic and classical works. The grammar called अाशुबोध is very useful for beginners; (2) name of an elementary grammar in aphorisms written by रामकिंकर- सरस्वती, which is based on the Mugdhabodha of Bopadeva.

आश्रय (1) relation of dependence; cf. अाश्रयात्सिद्धत्वं भविष्यति M. Bh. I.1.12 Vārt. 4; (2) substratum, place of residence; cf. गुणवचनानां शब्दानामाश्रयतो लिङ्गवचनानि भवन्ति । शुद्धं वस्त्रम् । शुक्ला शाटी । शुक्लः कम्बलः । M. Bh. II.2.29.

आश्वलायनप्रातिशाख्य an authoritative Prātiśākhya work attributed to Śaunaka the teacher of Āśvalāyana, belonging prominently to the Sak- ala and the Bāṣkala Śakhās of the Ṛgveda. it is widely known by the name Ṛk-Prātiśākhya. It is a metrical composition divided into . 18 chapters called Paṭalas, giving special directions for the proper pronunciation, recitation and pre- servation of the Ṛksaṁhita by lay- ing down general rules on accents and euphonic combinations and mentioning phonetic and metrical peculiarities. It has got a masterly commentary written by Uvvaṭa.

आसन्न nearest, most proximate: cf. विकारी यथासन्नम् V.Pr.I.142: cf. also the sūtra आसन्नः Śāk.I.1.7, explain- ed as स्थानगुणप्रमाणादिभिर्यथास्वमासन्नः cf. also अासन्नः Hem. VII.4.120.

अासत्ति close proximity of a word with another; cf. णौ इत्यस्य आसत्तिवशात्

कृतं एव संबन्धः । Pari. Bhaskar Pari. 97.

अास्तारपङ्कति a variety of पङ्कक्ति metre of 40 letters with 8 letters in the first and second quarters or pādas and 12 letters in the third and fourth quarters cf. अास्तारपङ्कक्तिरा- दितः R.Pr.XVI.40. For instances of आस्तारपङ्क्ति see Ṛgveda sūkta 2l, Mandala X.

अास्थापित (l) placed after, following, which follow: cf. आस्थथितानामनन्तरो- व्रतानाम् Uvvaṭa on R. Pr. IV.1. (2) properly placed at the end e.g. सिष्यद् इति सिष्यदे.

आस्य (1) place of articulation, the mouth, cf. अत्यन्त्यनेन वर्णान् इति अास्यम् M. Bh. on I.1.9; (2) found in the place of articulation; e g. the effort made for the utter- ance of words cf.आस्ये भवमास्यम् M. Bh. on I.1.9, also स्पृष्टादिप्रयत्नपञ्चक- मास्यम् Laghuvṛtti on Śāk. I.1.6.

आस्वदीय a sub-division of the चुरादि (Xth conj.) roots, beginning with the root ग्रस् and ending with the root स्वद्, which take the Vikaraṇa णिच् i.e. which are conjugated like roots of the tenth conjugation, only if they are transitive in sense.

अाहञ् tad-affix (आह) in the general Śaiṣika senses, e.g. belonging to, produced in, etc., added to the word उत्तर, e.g. औत्तराह cf. उत्तरादाहञ् वक्तव्यः।; M.Bh. on IV.2.104.

आहि tad-affix added to the word दक्षिण in the general sense of direc- tion but when distance is specially meant; e.g. दक्षिणाहि वसति, दक्षिणाहि रमणीयम्. See Kāś. on आहि च दूरे P. V.3.37.

अहिक name of Pāṇini. cf.पााणनिश्चाहिको दाक्षीपुत्रः.

आहिताग्न्यादि a class of compound words headed by the word आहिताग्नि


in which the past pass. part. is optionally placed first. e.g.आहिताग्निः अग्नयाहितः; जातपुत्रः पुत्रजातः The class आहिताम्न्यादि is stated to be आकृतिगण, cf. Kāś.on P.II.2.37.

(1) the vowel इ, representing all its eighteen forms viz. short, long protracted, acute, grave, circum- flex, pure and nasalised; e.g. इ in यस्येति च P.VI.4.128;(2) Uṅādi affix ई(3)tad-affix इच्(इ)applied to Bahu- vrihi compounds in the sense of ex- change of action or as seen in words like द्विदण्डि e.g. केशाकेशि, दण्डादण्डि, द्विमुसलि etc. cf. इच् कर्मव्यतिहारे P.V.4. 127,also V.4.128; (4) kṛt. affix कि (इ) cf. उपसर्गे घोः किः P.III.3.92; (5) augment इट् (इ); see इट् (6) con- jugational affix इट् of the 1st pers. sing. Ātm.

इक् (1) short wording (प्रत्याहार) for the vowels इ, उ, ऋ and लृ; cf. इको यणचि P.VI.1.77; एच इग्घ्रस्वादेशे P.I.1.48; इको गुणवृद्धी P.I.1.3 इग्यणः संप्रसारणम् P. I.1.45, इकोऽसवर्णे शाकल्यस्य ह्रस्वश्च P.VI. 1.127, इको ह्रस्वोऽङ्यो गालवस्य P.VI.3. 61; (2) kṛt. affix इक्(इ) applied to the root form to cite a root e. g. वदि, जनि etc. cf. इक्श्तिपौ धातुनिर्देशे P. III.3.108 Vārt. 2; (3) kṛt. affix इक् applied to the roots कृञ् and others in the sense of verbal activity e.g. कृषिः, किरिः, गिरिः cf. इक् कृष्यादिभ्यः P.III.3.108 Vārt.8.

इक्परिभाषा the Paribhāṣa rule इको गुणवृद्धी P.I.1.3; cf. गुणश्रुत्या इक्परिभाषो- पस्थानात् इक एव स्थाने गुणे यथा स्यात् Sīra- deva. Pari.93.

इक (1) substitute for the affix ठ given as ठक्, ठञ् or ञिठ् by Pāṇini; cf. ठस्येकः P.VII.3.50; (2) taddhita affix इकक्, इकन् षिकन् mentioned in . the Vārtikas on P.IV.2.60; (3) kṛt.

affix इक applied to खन् e.g. आखानिकः cf. इको वक्तव्यः P.III.3.125 Vārt. 3.

इकक् the same affix as ठक् mention- ed by the वार्तिककार in the Vārtikas on P.IV.2.60.

इकन् tad. affix इक applied to com- pound words with पद as the latter member e.g. पूर्वपदिक cf. इकन्पदोत्तर- पदात् P.IV.2.60 Vārt.

इकबक kṛt. affix applied to खन् e.g. अाखनिकबकः cf इकबको वक्तव्यः P. III. 3.125 Vārt. 4.

इकार the letter इ with all its 18 varieties (इ +कार).

इक्पदोपस्थिति the presence of the word इक् (vowels इ, उ, ऋ and लृ) in a rule, where the operations गुण and वृद्धि are prescribed by putting the words गुण and वृद्धि; e.g. सिचि वृद्धिः परस्मैपदेषु P.VII.2.1; cf. इको गुणवृद्वी P.I.1.3.

इग्लक्षणवृद्धि the substitution of the vowel called वृद्वि i.e. the vowel आ, ए or औ prescribed specifically for the vowels called इक् i.e. इ, उ, ऋ and लृ, e.g. तस्मादिग्लक्षणा वृद्विः P.1.1.3. Vārt. 11; cf.also इग्लक्षणवृद्धिप्रतिषेधस्तावत् Sīradeva Pari. 2.

इङ्ग the same as इङ्ग्य. See below. The word इङ्ग is used for इङ्ग्य in the Atharva Prātiśākhya cf. नीहारााददिष्वनि- ङगेयूत्तरपदे दीर्घं इघ्नेषु च A.Pr. III. 3.12.

इङ्ग्य a separable word as opposed to अनिङ्ग्य; part of a compound word which is separated or may be separated from the remaining part when the word is split up into its constituent parts. Generally the word is applied to the first part of a compound word when it is split up in the recital of the padapāṭha. The 'iṅgya' word is shown by a pause or avagraha after it which is shown in writing by the sign (ऽ): cf. इङ्गयेत विभागेन चाल्यते इति इङ्गयम् । इङ्गयमिति विभागपदस्य संशा com. on Tait.


Prāt. 1.48. सावग्रहं पदमिङ्गयम् Com.on T.Pr. I.48.

इच् (l) short wording or pratyāhāra for vowels except अ. cf. इजोदश्च गुरुमतोSनृच्छः P.III.1.36; cf also VI. I.104, VI.3.68. VIII.4.31,32; (2) Samāsānta affix इ after Bahuvrīhi compounds showing a mutual ex- change of actions. e.g. केशाकेशि, दण्डादण्डि cf. इच् कर्मव्यतिहारे P.V.4. 127 also 128.

इञ् (l) kṛt. affix (इ), in the sense of verbal activity applied to any root, the word so formed being used in the fem. gender and in connection with narration or in interrogation; e.g. कां त्वं कारिमकार्षीः । सर्वौ कारिमकार्षम् । cf. Pāṇini III.3.110: (2) kṛt. affix in the sense of verbal activity applied to the roots वप् and others e.g. वापिः, वासि: etc. cf. P.III.3.108 Vārt. 7;(3) tad-affix इ in the sense of offspring applied to a noun ending in अ; e.g, दाक्षि: cf. P.IV.1. 95-7, 153.

इद् (l) augment इ prefixed,in general in the case of all roots barr- ing a few roots ending in vowels except ऊ and ऋ and roots शक्, पच्, etc., to such affixes of non-conjuga- tional tenses and moods as begin with any consonant except ह् and य्; cf. आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः P.VII.2.35 to 78 and its exceptions P.VII.2.8 to 34; (2) personal ending of the third person sing. Ātm.

ण् (l) short wording or pratyāhāra for all vowels except अ and the consonants ह् ,य् ,व् , र्, ल् cf. इणः षः P.VIII.3.39,also P.VIII.3.57,78 (2) kṛt. affix इ applied to roots such as अज् अत् etc. in the sense of verbal activity.e.g आजिः,अतिः, आदि; cf.इणजादिभ्यः P. III.3,108, Vārt.6.

इत् (1) a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not

seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, Hem.1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any defini- tion of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; (cf. उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । etc. P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, cf.P.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhā- tupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronun- ciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; cf. प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणि- नीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes


after them, if it be uttered as anu- dātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; cf. P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signi- fies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; cf. P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; cf.P.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the aug- ment इ before the past part.affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclu- sion of cognate letters; cf.P.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; cf. P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional appli- cation of the augment इट्;cf.P.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, cf.VII.4.2: लृ sig- nifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the pre- vention of vrddhi in the Aorist,cf. P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substi- tution of न् for त् of the past part. cf. P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, cf.P, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: cf.P.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, cf. P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, cf. P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, cf. P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, cf. P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; cf. P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. cf. P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel;cf.P.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the plac- ing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed;cf.P.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application

to the word at the beginning: cf.P I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the fem. affix ई (ङीप्) cf.P.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; cf. P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, cf.P.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, cf. VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied cf. P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, cf. P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent cf. अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् cf. P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an aug- ment its addition after the final vowel.cf.P.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि,cf. P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel cf. P.VI.1.217,ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; cf.P.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व cf. P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the fem. affix ई ( ङीप् ) cf.P.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a gram- matical operation e.g. सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 etc. (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: cf. शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34.

इतच् tad., affix इत in the sense of 'found or produced in', which is afixed to words तारका,पुष्प, मुकुल and


others; e.g. तारकित, मुकुलित, सुखित, दुःखित etc.; cf. तदस्य संजातं तारकादिभ्य इतच् P.V.2.36.

इतरेतर possessed of interdepende- nce; depending upon each other; cf. इतरेतरं कार्यमसद्वत् Candra Pari. 5 }. Grammatical operations are of no avail if the rules stating them are mutually depending on each other. The word इतरेतर has the sense of इतरेतराश्रय here.

इतरेतरयोग mutual relationship with each other. Out of the four senses of the indeclinable च viz. समुच्चय, अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार, the Dvandva compound is formed of words connected in the last two ways and not in the first two ways. The instances of द्वन्द्व in the sense of इतरेतरयोग are धवख- दिरपलाशाः, प्लक्षन्यग्रोधौ etc; cf. Kāś.on P. II.2.29 cf. also प्लक्षश्च न्यग्रोधश्चेत्युक्ते गम्यत एतत्प्लक्षोपि न्यग्रोधसहायो न्यग्रोधोपि प्लक्षसहाय इति M.Bh. on II.2.29; cf. also इतरेतरयोगः स यदा उद्रिक्तावयवभेदो भवति Sīradeva Pari. 16.

इतरेतराश्रय depending upon each other; cf. इतरेतराश्रयाणि च कार्याणि न प्रकल्पन्ते । तद्यथा । नौर्नावि बद्धा नेतरे- तरत्राणाय भवति । M. Bh. on I.1.1. See इतरेतर above.

इत्कार्य a grammatical operation caus- ed by इत् i. e. by a mute letter which is purely indicatory; cf. एवं तर्हि इत्कार्याभावादत्र इत्संज्ञा न भविष्यति M. Bh. I.3.2. See इत् above.

इत्व the substitution of short इ by स्याघ्वोरिच्च P.I.2.17, शास इदङ्हलोः P. VI.4.3, etc.

इत्थंभूतलक्षण characterization; indi- cation by a mark: e. g. जटाभि- स्तापसः cf. इत्थंभूतलक्षणे च ( तृतीया ) P. II.3.21.

इत्नु kṛt affix mentioned by Pāṇini in VI.4.55 as causing the substitution 9

of अय् for णि before it; e. g गदयित्नुः, स्तनयित्नुः M.Bh. on VI.4.55.

इत्र kṛt affix, added to the roots ऋ, लू, धू etc. in the sense of instru- ment cf. अर्तिलूधूसूखनसहचर इत्रः P.III. 2.184-6. e. g. अरित्रम् , लवित्रम् खनित्रम् etc. The words ending in इत्र have got the acute accent on the last syllable; cf. P.VI.2.144.

इत्संज्ञक a letter which is termed इत्; See इत् above.

इथुक् augment इथ् , e. g. यावतिथः, ताव- तिथः cf. वतोरिथुक् P. V.2.53.

इदित् possessed of the mute indicatory letter इ; e. g the roots नदि, विदि and the like, in whose case the augment नुम् ( न् ) is affixed to the last vowel; cf इदितो नुम् धातोः P. VII.1.58.

इन् ( 1 ) kṛt affix इ applied to the roots कृ, हृ, ग्रह, and भृ when they are preceded by certain words like स्तम्ब etc. in certain senses; e. g. स्तम्बकरिः, फलेग्रहिः, अात्मंभरिः; cf. P.III. 2.24-7;(2) kṛt affix इन् (णिनि) pres- cribed by P.III.3.170 e. g. अवश्यं- कारी, शतंदायी

इन ( l ) substitute for the inst. case ending in अा (टा) after bases ending in अ ; cf. टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः P.VII.1. 12; (2) tad.aff इन affixed to पूर्व e. g. पथिभिः पूर्विणैः cf. P. IV. 4. 133.

इनङ् substitute इन् for the last vowel of the words कल्याणी, सुभगा, दुर्भगा and others before the affix ढ i. e. एय prescribed after these words in the sense of offspring e. g. काल्यााणिनेयः, सौभागिनेयः, कौलटिनेयः etc. cf.कल्याण्यादीना- मिनङ् P. IV.I.126, 127.

इनच् tad. affix इन in the sense of poss- ession applied to the word नि which is changed into चिक, e.g. चिकिनः cf. इनच् पिटच् चिकचि च P.V.2.33.

इनि ( 1 ) kṛt affix इन् applied to the roots क्री with धि, जु with प्र, and the


roots जि, दृ, क्षि and others, e. g. सोमविक्रयी, प्रजवी, जयी etc. cf. P.III 2.93 and III.2.156-157: (2) tad. affix इन् affixed to the word पाण्डुकम्बल in the sense of 'covered with' ( cf. P, IV.2.11), in the sense of collec- tion to the word खल e.g. खलिनी cf. P.IV.2.51, to the word अनुब्राह्मण in sense 'student of' e.g. अनुब्राह्मणी cf. P.IV.2.62, to the words कर्मन्द and कृशाश्च cf. P.IV.3.lll, to the word चूर्ण cf. P.IV.4.23 and to the word श्राद्ध cf. P.V.2.85 and साक्षात् cf. P. V. 2. 91 in specified senses and in the general sense of posse- ssion to words ending in अ, cf P. V.2.115-117 and to certain other words cf. P.V.2.128-37.

इनुण् kṛt affix इन्. by P. III.3.44 followed invariably by the tad. affix अण् by P.V.4,15, e.g, सांरा- विणम् , सांकूटिनम्.

इन्दिरापति author of 'परीक्षा' a com- mentary on the Paribhāṣendu- Śekhara of Nāgeśabhaṭṭa.

इन्दुमित्र author of अनुन्यास, a com- mentary on Nyāsa, the well-known commentary on the Kāśikavṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi. Many quotations from the Anunyāsa are found in the Paribhāṣāvṛtti of Sīradeva. The word इन्दु is often used for इन्दुमित्र; cf. एतस्मिन् वाक्ये इन्दुमैत्रेययोः शाश्वतिको विरोध: Sīra. Pari. 36.

इन्दुप्रकाश author of a commentary on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara.

इन्द्र name of a great grammarian who is believed to have written an ex- haustive treatise on grammar before Pāṇini; cf. the famous verse of Bopadeva at the commence- ment of his Dhātupāṭha इन्द्रश्चन्द्र: काशकृत्स्नापिशली शाकटायनः । पाणिन्यमरजैनेन्द्रा जयन्त्यष्टादिशाब्दिका: ॥ No work of Indra is available at present. He is nowhere quoted by

Pāṇini. Many quotations believ- ed to have been taken from his work are found scattered in gram- mar works, from which it appears that there was an ancient system prevalent in the eastern part of India at the time of Pāṇini which could be named ऐन्द्रव्याकरणपद्धति, to which Pāṇini possibly refers by the word प्राचाम्. From references,it appears that the grammar was of the type of प्रक्रिया, discussing vari- ous topics of grammar such as alphabet, coalescence, declension, context, compounds, derivatives from nouns and roots, conjuga- tion, and changes in the base. The treatment was later on follow- ed by Śākaṭāyana and writers of the Kātantra school.For details see Mahābhāṣya ed. by D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII pages 124-127.

इन्द्रदत्त author of the ' Gūḍhaphakki- kāprakāśa', a gloss on the difficult passages in the Mahābhāṣya.

इप् a technical term for द्वितीया (accu- sative case ) in the Jainendra grammar; cf. कर्मणीप् Jain. 1.4.2.

ईप् a technical term in the Jainen- dra Vyākaraṇa for सप्तमी (the loca- tive case).

इफ tad. affix applied to र ( letter र् ) in the sense of the consonant र्; e. g. रेफः; cf. रादिफः P.III.3.108 Vārt. 4.

इम् augment इ added to the base तृणह, after the last vowel, e. g. तृणोढि; cf. तृणह इम् P.VII.3.92.

इमन् or इमनिच् tad. affix इमन् applied to the words पृथु, मृदु, महत्, लघु, गुरु, words showing colour and words such as दृढ, परिवृढ, भृश, शीत, उष्ण etc. in the sense of 'quality' or 'attri- bute': cf Pāṇ. V. 1.122, 123. For changes in the base before the affix इमन् see P. VI.4.154-163.


इमप् kṛt. affix इम applied to words showing भाव or verbal activity; e.g. पाकिमम्, त्यागिमम्;cf. भावप्रत्ययान्तादि- मब्वक्तव्यः Kāś. on P.IV.4.20.

इय tad affix ( घन् ) in the sense of 'pity'; e. g. देवियः, यज्ञियः; cf. P.IV. 2.79.

इयङ् substitute for the last इ before a vowel generally in the case of monosyllabic roots end- ing in इ and the word स्त्री; e.g. चिक्षियुः, नियौ नियः, स्त्रियौ स्त्रियः; cf. अचि क्षुधातुभ्रुवां य्वोरियङुवङौ P.VI. 4.77-80.

इया case-ending for inst. sing. in Vedic Literature; e. g. उर्विया, दार्विया; cf. P.VII.1.39. and Vārt.1 there on.

इर् mute indicatory ending of roots, signifying the application of the aorist sign अ(अङ्) optionally;e g. अभिदत् or अभैत्सीत् from the root भिद् (भिदिर् in Dhātupāṭha); cf. also अच्छिदत्,अच्छैत्सीत् from छिद्(छिदिर्); cf. P.III.1.57.

इरच् tad. affix ( इर ) in the sense of possession applied in Vedic Lite- rature to रथ e.g. रथिरः; cf. P.V. 2.109 Vārt.3.

इरन tad. affix ( इर ) in the sense of possession applied in Vedic Lite- rature; to मेघा e.g. cf. P. मेधिरः V.2.109 Vārt. 3.

इरित् a root ending with mute indi- catary ending इर्. See इर्.

इरे ( इरेच् ) substitute for the perfect 3rd pers. pl. Ātm. affix झ; e.g. चक्रिरे, ऊचिरे etc.; cf. P.III.4.81.

इल tad. affix applied to the words काश, अश्वत्थ, पलाश and others in the four senses prescribed in P.IV. 2.67-70; e.g. काशिलः, अश्वत्थिल:, पलाशिलः cf.P.IV.2.80.

इलच् (I) tad. affix इल (इलच्) in the sense of pity; e. g. देवियः, यज्ञिलः cf.

P.IV.2.79. The tad.affix घन् is also affixed in the same sense. See ईय. (2) tad. affix इल (इलच्) in the sense of possession, prescribed after the words फेन, लोमन् कपि, सिकता, शर्करा, तुन्द, उदर, घट, यव etc.; e.g. फेनिल, लोमिल, कपिल, सिकतिल तुन्दिल etc. cf. P.V.2.99, 100, 105, 117.

इश् substitute for इदम् before an affix called 'vibhakti': e. g. इह; cf: P.V.3.3.

इष्ट a word frequently used in the Vārttikas and the Mahābh- āṣya and other treatises in the senses of (1) a desired object, (2) a desired purpose, (3) a desired statement, (4) a desired form i.e. the correct form : cf. इष्टान्वाख्यानं खल्वपि भवति: M. Bh.I.1. Āhn. 1. योगविभागादिष्टसिद्धिः Pari.Śek. Pari. 114.

इष्टतन्त्रव्याकरण a short treatise on grammar ascribed to Jayadeva.

इष्टादि a class of words headed by the word इष्ट to which the taddhita affix इन् ( इनि ) is added in the sense of अनेन i. e. 'by him' i. e. by the agent of the activity de- noted by the past pass. participles इष्ट and others; cf. इष्टी, यज्ञे, पूर्ती श्राद्धे etc. Kāś, on P.V.2.88.

इष्टि a word generally used in the statements made in the Mahā bhāṣya, similar to those of the Sūtrakāra and the Vārttikakāras, which are 'desired ones' with a view to arrive at the correct forms of words; cf. प्राप्तिज्ञो देवानां- प्रियो न त्विाष्टिज्ञः, इष्यत एतद् रूपमिति M. Bh. on II. 4.56.

इष्ठ the superlative tad. affix इष्ठन् in the sense of अतिशायन or अतिशय ( excellence ). The commentators, however, say that the taddhita affixes तम and इष्ठ,like all the tadd- hita affixes showing case-relations,


are applied without any specific sense of themselves, the affixes showing the sense of the base itself ( स्वार्थे ); e. g गुरुतमः, गरिष्ठः; पटुतमः, पठिष्ठः; पचतितमाम्, कर्तृतमः, करिष्ठः etc.; cf. P.V.3.55-64 The affixes ईयस् and इष्ठ are applied only to such subst- antives which denote quality; cf. P.V.3.58.

इष्ठन् the same as इष्ठ. See इष्ठ.

इष्ठवद्भाव possession of the same pro- perties for causing grammatical operations as the tad. affix इष्ठन् possesses, as for instance, the elision of the syllable beginning with the last vowel ( टिलोप ), substitution of the masc. base for the fem. base (पुंवद्भाव) etc., before the denom affix णिच्; e.g. एतयति in the sense of एनीं आचष्टे; similarly प्रथयति, पटयति, दवयति, cf. M.Bh. on. P.VI.4. 155 Vārt, 1.

इष्णु kṛt affix इष्णुच् applied,in the sense of 'possessed of habitual behavi- our action, or splendid accomp- lishment,' to the roots अलंकृ, निराकृ, प्रजन् , उत्पत् etc. e.g अलंकरिष्णुः,उत्पतिष्णुः, सहिष्णुः,चरिष्णुः etc.;cf.P.III.2.136-138.

इष्यै kṛt affix in Vedic Literature in the sense of the infinitive, e. g. रेहिष्यै, अव्यथिष्यै; cf P.III.4.10.

इस् ( l ) substitute इस् for the vowel of the roots, मी, मा, दा, धा, रभ्, पत् etc. before the desiderative affix सन्; e.g. मित्सति, दित्सति, अारिप्सते etc. cf.P. VII.4.54; (2) uṅādi affix इस् e.g. सर्पिस्.

इस्नुच् alternative affix mentioned in the Mahābhāṣya in the place of इष्णुच्; cf M. Bh.on III. 2.57. See इष्णुच् .

the long vowel ई which is techni- cally included in the vowel

इ in Pāṇini's alphabet being the long tone of that vowel; (2) substitute ई for the vowel अा of the roots घ्रा and ध्मा before the frequentative sign यङ् as for ex- ample in जेघ्रीयते, देध्मीयते, cf. P.VII. 4.31; (3) substitute ई for the vowel अ before the affixes च्वि and क्यच् as, for instance, in शुक्लीभवति, पुत्रीयति etc.; cf.P.VII.4.32, 33; (4) substitute ई for the vowel अा at the end of reduplicated bases as also for the vowel आ of bases ending in the conjugational sign ना, e.g. मिमीध्वे, लुनीतः etc.; cf P.VI. 4.113; (5) substitute ई for the loc. case affix इ ( ङि ) in Vedic Literature, e.g. सरसी for सरसि in दृतिं न शुश्कं सरसी शयानम्,: cf. Kāś. on P. VII.1.39: (6) tad. affix ई in the sense of possession in Vedic Litera- ture as for instance in रथीः,सुमङ्गलीः, cf. Kāś on. P.V.2.109: (7) the fem. affix ई ( ङीप् , ङीञ् or ङीन् ); cf. P.IV.1.58, 15-39, IV.1.40-65, IV.1.13.

ईक tad. affix ईकक added to शक्ति and यष्टि e.g. शाक्तकिः fem. शाक्तीकी; याष्टीकः; cf. P.IV.4.59; (2) tad. affix ईक added to कर्क and लोहित in the sense of comparison, e. g. कार्कीकः, लौहितीकः ( स्फटिकः ), cf. Kāś. on P.V. 3.110; (3) tad. affix ईकक् added to बहिस्, e.g. बाहीकः cf. बहिषष्टिलोपो यश्च, ईकक्च P.IV.1.85. Vārt. 4-5; (4) tad affix इकङ् in Vedic Literature added to बहिस् e.g. बाहीकः cf. Kāś.on P. IV. 1.85,Vārt.6; (5) tad. affix ईकन् added to खारी e.g. द्विखारिकम्; cf. P. V. 1.33.

ईट् augment ई prefixed to a Sārvad- hātuka (strong) affix beginning with a consonant after the roots ब्रू, रु, स्तु, and others e.g. अब्रवीत्, रोरवीति, स्तवीति, अकार्षीत्, अवादीत् etc.; cf. P. VII. 3.93-98.


ईत् long vowel ई as different from इ or ई३ prescribed as a substitute; cf. P.VI.3.27, VI.3.97.

ईदित् (a root) possessed of long ई as a mute indicatory ending meant for prohibiting the addition of the augment इ to the past part. ter- minations त and तवत् ; e.g. लग्नः, दीप्तः etc.; cf. P VII.2.14.

ईप्सित a desired object, which, in con- nection with transitive roots, gets the designation कर्म,when the agent has a keen desire for it; cf. कर्तुरी- प्सिततमं कर्म P.I.4.49.

ईमसच् tad. affix ईमस added to the word मल in sense of possession: e. g. मलीमसः, cf. P. V. 2.114.

ईय substitute for the tad.afix छ; e.g: शालीयः, मालीयः etc; cf P. VII. 1.2 and IV. 2. 114.

ईयङ्' afix ईय added to the root ऋत्, ङ् showing the application of the Ātmanepada affixes; e. g. ऋतीयते cf. P. III.1.29

ईयस् tad-affix ईयसुन् , showing superi- ority or excellence of one indivi- dual over another in respect of a quality, added to a substantive ex- presive of quality; when the subst- antive ends in the affix तृ, that affix तृ is removed: e.g. पटीयान्, लघीयान्, गरीयान्, दोहीयसी (धेनुः) cf.P.V.3.57-64.

ईयसुन् the same as ईयस् which see above.

ईरच् tad-affix added to the word अण्ड in the sense of possession: e.g. अण्रडीरः;cf. काण्डाण्डादीरन्नीरचौ P.V.2.111.

ईश् substitute ई for इदम् before the tad-affixes दृक्, दृश् and वतु; e.g. ईदृक् ईदृशः also ईदृक्षः; cf. P.VI.3.90.

ईश्वरकान्त author of 'Dhātumāla', a short metrical treatise on roots.

ईश्वरानन्द author of (l) a gloss on Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣya-pradīpa,

and (2)an independent treatise Śāb- dabodhataraṅgiṇī. He is believed to have been a pupil of सत्यानन्द and iived in the latter part of the 16th century A.D.

ईषच्छ्वास an external effort ( बाह्य-प्रयत्न) in the production of sound charac- torized by the emission of breath, when the cavity made by the cords of the throat is kept wide apart, as found in the utterance of the consonants श्, ष् and स.

ईषत्स्पृष्ट an external effort ( बाह्यप्रयत्न) in the production of sound charac- torized by only a slight contact of the cords of the throat, made in the utteranee ofsemi-vowels cf. ईषत्स्पृष्ट- मन्तःस्थानाम् S.K. on P.I.1.9.

ईषदसमाप्ति stage of the quality of a thing or of an undertaking which is almost complete,to show which,the tad-affixes कल्प, देश्य and देशीय are applied to a word:e.g. पटुकल्पः,पटुदेश्यः; पटुदेशीयः, पचतिकल्पम्, जल्पतिकल्पम्, cf. P, V.3.67.

ईषन्नाद an external effort characteri- zed by slight resonance or sound- ing of throat cords when they slightly touch one another.

ईहा effort made for the production of sound; cf. अापद्यते श्वासतां नादतां वा वक्त्रीहायां उभयं वान्तरौभौ । ईहायाम् चेष्टायाम R.Pr.XIII.1.

(l) labial vowel standing for the long ऊ and protracted ऊ3 in Pāṇini's grammar unless the consonant त् is affixed to it, उत् standing for the short उ only: (2) Vikaraṇa affix उ of the 8th conjugation ( तनादिगण ) and the roots धिन्व् and कृण्व्;cf.P.III. 1.79-80; (3) substitute (उ) for the vowel अ of कृ,e.g. कुरुतः, कृर्वन्ति before weak Sārvadhātuka affixes, cf.P.VI


4.110; (4) kṛt. affix उ added to bases ending in सन् and the roots आशंस्, भिक्ष्, विद्, इष् as also to bases ending in क्यच् in the Vedic Litera- ture,e.g. चिकीर्षुः भिक्षुः, बिन्दुः,इच्छुः,सुम्नयु; cf. P. III. 2.168-170; (5) Uṅādi affix उ ( उण् ) e.g, कारुः, वायुः, साधुः, etc.; cf. Uṅādi I.1; (6) mute vowel उ added to the first letters of a class of consonants in Pāṇini's grammar to show the whole class of the five letters; e.g. कु, चु, टु, तु, पु which stand for the Guttural, the palatal the lingual, the dental and the labial classes respectively; cf. also ष्टुना ष्टुः P.VIII.4.41(7) उ added to न् showing the consonant न् as nasalized n; cf, नुः V.Pr. III.133.

उक् short term (प्रत्याहार) for the vowels उ, ऋ and लृ; e.g. उगिदचां सर्वनामस्थानेऽ धातोः P.VII.1.80, also शल्युक्; किति P VII.2.11, इसुसुक्तान्तान् क्तः P.VII.3, 51.

उक (1) the kṛt. affix उकञ् applied to the roots लब्, पत्, पद् and others,e.g. लाषुकः, कामुकः etc. with udātta accent on the first syllable; cf.P.III.2.154; (2) tad.affix उक ( उकञ् ) added to the word कर्मन् e.g. कार्मुकं धनुः; cf. Kāś, on P.V.I.103.

उकञ् the same as उक. See उक.

उक्त prescribed, taught, lit, said (al- ready). उक्तं वा is a familiar expres- sion in the Mahābhāṣya and the Vārttikas referring usually to something already expressed.Some- times this expression in the Ma- hābhāṣya, referring to something which is not already expressed, but which could be found sub- sequently expressed, leads to the conclusion that the Mahābhā- ṣyakāra had something like a 'Laghubhāṣya' before him at the time of teaching the Mahābhāṣya. See Kielhorn's Kātyāyana and

Patañjali, also Mahābhāṣya D.E. S.Ed. Vol. VII, pages 71, 72.

उक्तपुंस्क a word with its meaning (in the neuter gender) unchanged when used in the masculine gender; generally an adjectival word; cf, Cāndra Vyāk. I.4.30.

उक्तार्थ a word or expression whose sense has been already expressed. The expression उक्तार्थानामप्रयोगः is frequently used in the Mahā- bhāṣya and the Vārttikas and cited as a Paribhāṣā or a salutary con- ventional maxim against repetition of words in the Paribhāṣāpāṭhas of Vyādi (Par. 51), Candragomin (Par 28) and Kātantra (Par. 46) and Kālāpa (Par. 46) grammars.

उक्ताप्रयोग see उक्तार्थ.

उक्तिपद, उक्तिपदानि a short anonymous treatise on case-relations, com- pounds etc. written mostly in Gujarati.

उक्तिरत्नाकर' a short grammar work, written by साधुसुन्दर, explaining declension, cases and their mean- ings, compounds, etc. and giving a list of Prākṛta words with their Sanskrit equivalents.

उक्थादि a class of words headed by the word उक्थ to which the taddhita affix इक (ठक् ) is applied in the sense of 'one who studies and understands'; cf. उक्थमधीते वेद वा औक्थिकः, similarly लौकायतिकः Kāś. on P.IV.2.60.

उख्य a writer on Vedic phonetics and euphony quoted in the Tait- tirīya Prātiśākhya; cf. उख्यस्य सपूर्वः Tai. Pra. VIII. 22.

उगित characterized by the mute indicatory letter उ, ऋ or लृ; see उक्.

उग्रभूति or उग्राचार्य writer of a gloss on the Nirukta, called Niruktabhāṣya


believed to have lived in the 18th century A. D; writer also of a grammatical work Śiṣyahitāvṛtti or Śiṣyahitānyāsa, which was sent to kāshmir and made popular with a large sum of money spent upon it, by his pupil Ānanadpāla.

उङ् a technical term for उपधा, the penultimate letter in the Jai- nendra Vyākaraṇa; cf. इदुदुङः Jain. V. 4.28.

उच्च the higher tone also called उदात्त or acute; cf. नीचमुच्चात् R. T. 55, also एते स्वराः प्रकम्पन्ते यत्रोच्चस्वरितोदयाः R. Pr. III.19; cf. also the terms उच्चश्रुति R. T. 61, एकोच्च R.T. 62, अाद्युच्च, अन्तेाच्चक. etc.

उच्चैः उच्च or acute; see उच्च above; cf. उच्चैस्तरां वा वषट्कारः P. 1.2.35.

उच्चरित pronounced or uttered; the phrase उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः is used in connection with the mute indica- tory letters termed इत् in Pāṇini's grammar, as these letters are not actually found in use in the lan- guage and are therefore supposed to vanish immediately after their pur- pose has been served. The phrase 'उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनोSनुबन्धा:' has been given as a Paribhāṣā by Vyāḍi (Pari.11), in the Cāndra Vyāka- raṇa ( Par. 14), in the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa (Pari.54) and also in the Kalāpa Vyākaraṇa ( Par. 71). Patañjali has used the ex- pression उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः in connec- tion with ordinary letters of a word, which have existence for a moment and which also vanish immediately after they have been uttered; cf. उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः खल्वपि वर्णा: ...न वर्णो वर्णस्य सहायः M. Bh. on I.4. 109.

उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिन् vanishing immediate- ly after utterance. See उच्चरित.

उच्चारण pronunciation, enunciation (in the Śāstra). The phrase उच्चारण- सामर्थ्यात् is often found used in the Mahābhāṣya and else- where in connection with the words of Pāṇini, everyone of which is believed to , have a purpose or use in the Śāstra, which pur- pose, if not clearly manifest, is assigned to it on the strength (सामर्थ्य) of its utterance; cf. उच्चारणसामर्थ्यादत्र ( हिन्येाः ) उत्वं न भविष्यति M.Bh. on III.4.89 V.2; cf. also M.Bh. on IV.4.59, VI.4.163, VII.1.12,50, VII.2.84, In a few cases, a letter is found used by Pāṇini which cannot be assigned any purpose but which has been put there for faci- lity of the use of other letters. Such letters are said to be उच्चारणार्थ; cf. जग्धि: । इकार उच्चारणार्थ:। नानुबन्धः । Kāś. on II.4.36.च्लि लुडि. । इकार उच्चार- णार्थ:; चकारः स्वरार्थः । Kāś, on III.1. 43. The expressions मुखसुखार्थः and श्रवणार्थः in the Mahābhāṣya mean the same as उच्चारणार्थः.

उच्चावच diverse; cf. उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु भवन्ति निपाताः Nir. I.3.4.

उच्चैस्तरां specially accented; उदात्ततरः cf. उच्चैस्तरां वा वषट्कारः P. I.2.35.

उज्ज्वलदत्त the famous commentator on the Uṅādi sūtras. His work .is called Uṅādisūtravṛtti, which is a scholarly commentary on the Uṅādisūtrapāṭha, consisting of five Pādas. Ujjvaldatta is belived to have lived in the l5th century A.D. He quotes Vṛttinyāsa, Anu- nyāsa, Bhāgavṛtti etc. He is also known by the name Jājali.

उञ् ( l ) short term ( प्रत्याहार ) for vowels excepting अ and इ, semi- vowels, nasal consonants and the consonants ह् झ् and भ्.; cf भय उञो वो वा P. VIII.3.33; (2) the par-


ticle उ; cf. उञि च पदे P.VIII.3.21, also उञः P.1.I.17.

उञ्छादि a class of words headed by the word उञ्छ which have their final vowel accented acute (उदात्त) ; cf. उञ्छः म्लेच्छा, जल्पः । एते घञन्ता इति ञित्स्वरः प्राप्तः । Kāś. on P. VI.1.160.

उट् augment उ affixed to the roots वृ and तॄ before the kṛt affix तृ; cf. तृरुतृतरूतृवरुतृ वरूतृवस्त्रीरिति तरतेर्वृङ्वृञोश्च तृचि उट् ऊट् इत्येतावाग निपात्येते Kāś. on P. VII.2.34.

उण् the affix उण्, causing वृद्धि on ac- count of the mute letter ण , pre- scribed after the roots कृ, वा, पा, जि, मि, स्वद्, साध् and अशू by the rule कृवापाजिमित्वदिसाध्यशूभ्य उण् which is the first rule (or Sūtra) of a series of rules prescribing various affixes which are called Uṇādi affixes, the affix उण् being the first of them. e.g. कारुः, वायु , स्वादु, साधु etc.; cf. Uṇādi I,1.

उणादि affixes headed by the affix उण्, which are similar to kṛt affixes of Pāṇini, giving derivation mostly of such words as are not derived by rules of Pāṇini. No particular sense such as agent, object etc. is mentioned in connection with these affixes, but, as Pāṇini has stated in 'ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः P.III. 4.75, the various Uṇādi affixes are applied to the various roots as prescribed in any Kāraka sense, except the संप्रदान and the अपादान; in other words, any one of the senses, agent, object, instrument and abode, is assigned to the Uṇādi affix as suits the meaning of the word. Although some scholars believe that the Uṇādi affixes are given by a grammarian later than Pāṇini as there are words like ताम्बूल, दीनार and others included in the list of Uṇādi

words and that there are many interpolated Sūtras, still the Uṇādi collection must be looked upon as an old one which is definitely mentioned by Pāṇini in two different rules; cf. Pāṇini उणादयो बहुलम् P. III.3.1 and ताभ्यामन्यत्रो- णादयः III.4.76. Patañjali has given a very interesting discus- sion about these Uṇādi affixes and stated on the strength of the Vārttika, तत्रोणादिप्रतिषेधः, that these affixes and the words given in the Uṇādi collection should not be considered as genuinely de- rived.The derivation is not a very systematic and logically correct one and therefore for practical pur- poses, the words derived by the application of the affixes उण् and others should be looked upon as underived; cf. उणादयोSव्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि. M. Bh. on. P.I.1.16, III.4.77, IV.1.1, VI.1.62, VII.1.2, VII.2.8 etc. There is a counterstatement also seen in the Mahābhāṣya उणादयो व्युत्पन्नानि, representing the other view pre- vailing at the time; cf. M. Bh. on III.I.133; but not much importance seems to be attached to it. The different systems of grammar have different collect- ions of such words which are also known by the term Uṇādi. Out of the collections belonging to Pāṇi- ni's system, three collections are available at present, the collection into five pādas given in the prin- ted edition of the Siddhānta Kaumudi, the collection into ten Pādas given in the printed edi- tion of the Prakriya-Kaumudi and the collection in the Sarasvatī- kaṇthābharaṇa of Bhoja forming Pādas 1, 2 and 3 of the second Adhyāya of the work.


उणादेिकोश a metrical work explain- ing the उणादि words referred to above with meanings assigned to them. There are two such compositions one by Rāmatar- kavāgīśa or Rāmaśarma and the other by Rāmacandra Dīkṣita.

उणादिप्रातिपदिक word form or crude base, ending with an affix of the uṇ class, which is looked upon as practically underived, the affixes un and others not be- ing looked upon as standard affixes applied with regular mean- ings attached to them and capable of causing operations to the preceding base as prescribed by rules of grammar; cf. उणादयोS व्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि । व्युत्पन्नानीति शाक- टायनरीत्या । पाणिनेस्त्वव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष एवेति शब्देन्दु- शेखरे निरूपितम्. Pari. Śek. on Pari- bhāṣa 22.

उणादिसूत्र, उणादिसूत्रपाठ the text of the Sūtras which begins with the Sūtras prescribing the affix उण् after the roots कृ, वा, पा, जि, स्वद्, साध् and अश्; cf Uṅādi Sūtras 1.1. for the different versions of the text See उणादि. Similar Sūtras in Kātantra, Āpiśali, Sakaṭāyana and other systems of grammar are also called Uṇādi Sūtras.

उणादिसूत्रदशपादी the text of the Uṇādi Sūtras divided into ten chapters believed to have been written by शाकटायन. It is printed at the end of the Prakriyā Kau- mud and separately also, and is also available in manuscripts with a few differences. Patañjali in his Bhāṣya on P.III.3.1, seems to have mentioned Sakaṭāyana as the author of the Uṇādi Sūtras al- though it cannot be stated defi- nitely whether there was at that time, a version of 10

the Sūtras in five chapters or in ten chapters or one, com- pletely different from these, as scholars believe that there are many interpolations and changes in the versions of Uṇādi Sūtras available at present. A critical study of the various versions is extremely desirable.

उणादिसूत्रपञ्चपादी the text of the Uṇādi Sūtras divided into five chapters which is possessed of a scholarly commentary written by Ujjvala- datta. There is a commentary on it by Bhaṭṭoji Dīkṣita also.

उणादिसूत्रवृत्ति a gloss on the Uṇādi Sūtras in the different versions. Out of the several glosses on the Uṇādi Sūtras, the important ones are those written by Ujjvaladatta, Govardhana, Puruṣottamadeva, Rāmacandra Dīkṣita and Hari- datta. There is also a gloss called Uṇādisūtrodghātana by Miśra. There is a gloss by Durgasiṁha on the Kātantra version of the Uṇādi Sūtras.

उत् (1) Short vowel उ in Pāṇini's terminology cf, P.I.1.70, I,2.21. IV.1.44, V.1.111 ; (2) tad-affix उत् applied to पूर्व and पूर्वतर for which पर् is substituted; e.g. परुत्. See P. V.3.22 Vārt.

उत्करादि a class of words headed by the word उत्कर, to which the tad- dhita affix छ is added in the four senses, the affix being popularly known as चातुरर्थिक; cf. उत्करीयम्, शफरीयम् etc.; Kāś. on P.V.2.90.

उत्क्रम a variety of the Krama des- cribed in the Prātiśākhya works.

उत्तम (1) the best,the highest,the last: (2) the last letter of the consonant- classes, the nasal; cf, A.Pr.II.4.14; R.Pr.IV.3; cf. also अनुत्तम meaning non-nasal; (3) the उत्तमपुरुष or the


premier or the first person constituting the affixes मि, वस् and मस् and their substitutes, cf. P.I.4.107.

उत्तर (1) following, subsequent, e. g. उत्तरपद, the latter part of a com- pound word; (2) end of a word, पदान्त; cf. उत्तरे पदान्ते वर्तमानः Com. on T.Pr. III.1.

उत्तरकालम् subsequently, then, after- wards; cf. तत् उत्तरकालमिदं दृष्टम् M.Bh. on I.1.1.

उत्तरत्र in subsequent rules; cf. उत्तर- त्रानुवर्तिष्यते M. Bh. on I.1.23.

उत्तरपद the latter member or portion of a compound word as contrast- ed with पूर्वपद; cf. पतिरुत्तरपदमाद्युदात्तम् A. Pr. II. 3. 11; cf also अलुगुत्तरपदे P. VI. 3.1.

उत्तररूप ulterior form.

उत्तरार्थ serving a purpose in subse- quent rules; of use in a subse- quent rule; cf. योगविभाग उत्तरार्थः, क्त्वाग्रहणमुत्तरार्थम् M. Bh. on I.2.22.

उत्थान elevation of tone.

उत्पत्ति (I) production: cf. वर्णोत्पत्तिः production of a phonetic element T. Pr. 23.1 ; (2) production of a grammatical element such as the application of an affix or addition of an augment or sub- stitution of a letter or letters during the process of word-for- mation: cf. गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Pari. Śek. Par. 75; M. Bh. II.2.19. Vārt, 4.

उत्पद् to be produced, to be placed after to be annexed; (caus.) to produce, to get annexed, to add; cf. धेनुरनञि कमुत्पादयति Āpiśali's Vārt. quoted in M; Bh. on P.IV.2.45.

उत्पल author of a commentary on Pāṇini's Liṅgānuśāsana. It is doubt- ful whether he was the same as उत्पल-

भट्ट or ‌भट्टोत्पल, the famous astrologer of the tenth century.

उत्वत् possessed of short उ; cf. नोत्वद्वर्ध्र- बिल्वात् P.IV.3.15I.

उत्सर्ग a general rule as contrasted with a special rule which is called अपवाद or exception; cf. उत्सर्गापवादयो- रपवादो बलीयान् Hema. Pari.56; प्रकल्प्य वापवादविषयं तत उत्सर्गोभिनिविशते Par.Śek. Pari.63, Sīra. Pari.97; cf. also उत्सर्ग- समानदेशा अपवादा;. For the बाध्यबाधकभाव relation between उत्सर्ग and अपवाद and its details see Nāgeśa's Pari- bhāṣenduśekhara on Paribhāṣās 57 to 65: cf. also न्यायैर्मिश्रान् अपवादान्प्रतीयात् explained by the commentator as न्याया उत्सर्गा महाविषया विधयः अपवादा अल्प- विषया विधयः । तान् उत्सर्गेण भिश्रानेकीकृतान् जानीयात् । अपवादविषयं मुक्त्वा उत्सर्गाः प्रवर्तन्ते इत्यर्थः R.Pr.I.23.

उत्सूत्र not consistent with what is taught in rules of a Śāstra; cf. अनुत्सूत्रपदन्यासा सद्वृत्तिः सन्निबन्धना । शब्द- विद्येव नो भाति राजनीतिरपस्पशा Śiśupāla- vadha II.

उत्सङ्गादि a class of words headed by the word उत्सङ्ग, to which the tadd- hita affix इक् ( ठ ) is added in the sense of तेन हरति (takes away by means of): cf. हरतिर्देशान्तरप्रापणे वर्तते । उत्सङ्गेन हरति औत्सङ्गिकः । अौडुपिकः । Kāś. on P IV.4.15.

उत्सादि a class of words headed by the word उत्स to which the tadd- hita affix अञ्, instead of the usual affixes अण् and others, is added in the sense of an offspring: cf. औत्स:, औदपानः etc. Kāś, on P.IV.1.86.

उदय that which follows; a term fre- quently used in the Prātiśākhya works in the sense of 'following' or पर; cf. उदयस्वरादिसस्थानो हकार एकेषाम् explained by the commentator as आत्मन उपरिस्वरादिसस्थानः T.Pr.II.47: cf. also ऋकार उदये कण्ठ्यौ explained by the commentator as ऋकारे उदये परभूते


सति R.Pr.II.11;cf. also नेादात्तस्वरितेादयं P.V.III.4.67.

उदयंकर surnamed pāṭhaka who wrote a commentary on the Laghuśab- denduśekhara named Jyotsna and a very critical work on Paribhāṣās similar to Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti; the work is incomplete.

उदयकीर्ति author of a treatise giving rules for the determination of the pada or padas of roots; the trea- tise is named पदव्यवस्थासूत्रकारिकाटीका He was a Jain grammarian, and one of the pupils of Sādhusundara.

उदात्त the acute accent defined by Pāṇini in the words उचैरुदात्त: P.I.2. 29. The word उच्चैः is explained by Patañjali in the words 'आयामो दारुण्यं अणुता स्वस्य इति उचैःकराणि शब्दस्य' where आयाम (गात्रनिग्रह restriction of the organs), दारुण्य (रूक्षता rudeness ) and स्वस्य अणुता ( कण्ठस्य संवृतता closure of the glottis) are given as specific characteristics of the acute accent. The acute is the prominent accent in a word-a simple word as also a compound word-and when a vowel in a word is possessed of the acute accent, the remaining vowels have the अनुदात्त or the grave accent. Accent is a property of vowels and consonants do not possess any independent accent. They possess the accent of the adjoining vowel connected with it. The acute accert corresponds to what is termed 'accent' in English and other languages.

उदात्ततर raised acute, a tone slightly higher than the acute tone which is mentioned in connection with the first half of a circumflex vowel; cf. तस्योदात्ततरोदात्तादर्धमात्रार्धमेव वा R.P.III.2.

उदात्तनिर्देश conventional understand- ing about a particular vowel in the wording of a sūtra being

marked acute or Udātta, when ordinarily it should not have been so, to imply that a Pari- bhāṣā is to be applied for the interpretation of that Sūtra: cf. उदात्तनिर्देशात्सिद्धम् P.VI.1.13 Vārt.14, also Sīra. Pari. 112.

उदात्तमय an accent made up of Udātta, i. e. an accent which is a reduced Udātta.It is called also प्रचय. It is mentioned in connection with an acute vowel following इति in the Padapāṭha, according to Kāṇva's view;cf. उदात्तमयोन्यत्र नीच एव अन्तोदान्तमध्योदात्तयोः पर्वणोरन्यत्र इति कार- णात् परो नीच उदात्तमय एव भवति प्रचित एव भवतीत्यर्थः com. on V.Pr. I.150

उदात्तश्रुति the same as एकश्रुति, accent- less tone, mentioned in connection with the latter half of a circumflex vowel as also with a grave vowel or vowels, if not followed by another acute or circumflex vowel; cf. नोदात्तस्वरितोदयं. P.VIII.4.67.

उदात्तसम similar to Udātta although not exactly acute, which character- izes the latter half of the circum- flex vowel; cf. उदात्तसमश्शेषः T.Pr.I.42.

उदाहरण a grammatical example in explanation of an interpretation; cf. नैकमुदाहरणमसवर्णग्रहणं प्रयोजयति P.VI. 1.11.

उदित् characterized by short उ as a mute indicatory vowel, by virtue of which the word कु, for instance, signifies along with क् its cognate consonants ख्, ग्, घ् and ङ् also; cf. अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P.I.I.69. Roots marked with उ as mute get the augment इ optionally added before the kṛt affix क्त्वा; e g- शमित्वा and शान्त्वा from the root शम् ( शमु ) by virtue of the rule उदितो वा P.VII.2.56.

उदुपधत्व possession of short उ as the penultimate letter, e. g. इदुदुपधस्य चाप्रत्ययस्य P.VII.3.41.


उद्गात्रादि a class of words headed by the word उद्गातृ to which the tadd- hita affix अञ् is added in the sense of 'nature' or 'profession'; cf. उद्गातुर्भावः कर्म वा औद्गात्रम् । Similarly औन्नेत्रम् Kāś. on P. V. 1.129.

उद्ग्राह alleviation, ease, relief; name given to a Saṁdhi in the Prātiśā- khya works when a visarga and a short vowel अ preceding it are changed into short अ, (e. g. यः + इन्द्र: = य इन्द्र:), as also when the vowel ए or ओ is changed into अ being followed by a dissimilar vowel; e. g. अग्ने + इन्द्रः = अग्न इन्द्रः; cf. R.Pr.II.10.

उद्ग्राहपदवृत्ति name given in the Rk. Prātiśākhya to the Udgrāhasaṁdhi where the vowel अ is follow- ed by a long vowel; e.g, कः ईषते =क ईषते R.Pr.II.10.

उद्ग्राहवत् name given to a saṁdhi in the Rk. Prātiśākhya when the vowel अ or अा is changed into अ e. g. प्र ऋभुभ्यः=प्रऋभुभ्य: also मधुना + ऋतस्य=मधुन ऋतस्य cf. R. Pr. II. 11.

उद्धात elevation; named also उच्चीभाव.

उद्धार (1) elision, a term used in the sense of 'lopa' in the ancient gra- mmar works; (2) name of a com- mentary on the Haima-liṅgā- nuśāsana.

उद्देश description; mention of quali- ties; cf. गुणैः प्रापणम् M. Bh.on I. 3.2: the word is used in contrast with उपदेश or direct mention; cf. कः पुनुरुद्देशोपदेशयोर्विशेषः । प्रत्यक्षमाख्यानमुपदेशो गुणैः प्रापणमुद्देशः । प्रत्यक्षं तावदाख्यानमुपदेशः तद्यथा । अगोज्ञाय कश्चिद्गां सक्थनि कर्णे वा गृहीत्वोपदिशति । अयं गौरिति । स प्रत्यक्षमा- ख्यातमाह । उपदिष्टो मे गौरिति । गुणैः प्रापणमुद्देशः । तद्यथा । कश्चित्कंचिदाह । देवदत्तं मे भवानुद्दिशतु इति । स इहस्थः पाटलिपुत्रस्थं देवदत्तमुद्दिशति । अङ्गदी कुण्डली किरीटी...ईदृशो देवदत्त इति । स गुणैः प्राप्य- माणमाह । उद्दिष्टो मे दवदत्त इति । M. Bh.

on I. 3.2; (2) spot, place, passage of occurrence: उद्देश उपदेशदेशः; cf. यथोद्देशं संज्ञापरिभाषम् Pari.Śek. Pari. 2.

उद्देश्य referred to; pointed out, sub- ject, as contrasted with the pre- dicate मानान्तरप्राप्तमुद्देश्यम् ; cf. उद्दश्यप्र- तिनिर्दिश्यमानयोरैक्यमापद्यत् सर्वनाम पर्यायेण तत्तल्लिङभाक् । तद्यथा | शैत्यं हि यत्सा प्रकृति- र्जलस्य, शैत्यं हि य यत्तत्प्रकृतिर्जलस्य वा । उद्देश्य in grammar refers to the subject- part of a sentence as opposed to the predicate-part. In the sen- tence वृद्धिरादैच् the case is strikingly an opposite one and the explana- tion given by Patañjali is very interesting;cf. तदेतदेकं मङ्गलार्थं आचार्यस्य मृष्यताम् । माङ्गलिक अाचार्यः महतः शास्त्रौघस्य मङ्गलार्थं वृद्धिशब्दमादितः प्रयुङ्कते, M. Bh. on I. 1.1.

उद्देश्यविधेयभाव relationship between the subject and the predicate where generally the subject is placed first in a sentence; cf. उद्देश्यवचनं पूर्वं विधेयत्वं ततः परम् । cf. also तादात्म्यसंसर्गकस्थले विशेष्यत्वमेव उद्देश्यं विशे- षणत्वमेव विधेयम् Padavākyaratnākara.

उद्द्योत the word always refers in grammar to the famous com- mentary by Nāgeśabhaṭṭa written in the first decade of the 18th century A. D. om the Mahābhā- ṣyapradīpa of Kaiyaṭa. The Uddyota appears to be one of the earlier works of Nāgeśa. It is also called Vivaraṇa. The com- mentary is a scholarly one and is looked upon as a final word re : the exposition of the Mahābhāṣya. It is believed that Nāgeśa wrote 12 Uddyotas and 12 Śekharas which form some authoritative commentaries on prominent works in the different Śāstras.

उद्द्योतनप्रभा name of a commentary on the 'Tantrapradipa' of Mai- treya Rakṣita,which latter is a com-


mentary on Jinendrabuddhi's Nyāsa which itself is a commen- tary on Jayāditya's Kāśikā.

उप् a technical term in the jainendra Grammar for the terms लुप् and लुक्; cf. अन्तरङ्गानपि विधीन् बहिरङ्ग उप् बाधते. Jain. Pari. 85, प्रकृतिग्रहणे यङुबन्तस्यापि ग्रहणम् Jain Pari. 20.

उपकादि a class of words headed by the word उपक after which the taddhita affix, added in the sense of गोत्र ( grand-children etc. ) is optionally elided, provided the word is to be used in the plural number; cf. उपकलमकाः भ्रष्टककपिष्ठलाः also उपकाः, औपकायनाः; लमकाः, लाम- कायना ; भ्रष्टकाः भ्राष्टकयः । Kāś. on P. II.4.69.

उपगीत a fault in the pronunciation of letters, noticed sometimes in the utterance of a letter adjoin- ing such a letter as is coloured with a musical tone on account of the proximity of the adjacent letter which is uttered in a musical note and which therefore is called 'प्रगीत'; cf. प्रगीतः सामवदुच्चारितः । उपगीतः समीपवर्णान्तरगीत्यानुरक्तः Kaiyaṭa's Pradīpa on M.Bh. I. Āhnika 1.

उपग्रह a term used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of the Parasmaipada and the Ātmane- pada affixes. The word is not found in Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. The Vārttikakāra has used the word in his Vārttika उपग्रहप्रतिषेधश्च on P. III.2.127 evidently in the sense of Pada affixes referring to the Ātmanepada as explained by Kaiyaṭa in the words उपग्रहस्य आत्मने- पदसंज्ञाया इत्यर्थ: । The word occurs in the Ślokavārttika सुप्तिङुपग्रहलिङ्गनराणां quoted by Patañjali in his Mahā- bhāṣya on व्यत्ययो बहुलम् P. III. 1.85, where Nāgeśa writes लादेश- व्यङ्ग्यं स्वार्थत्वादि । इह तत्प्रतीतिनिमित्ते परस्मै-

पदात्मनेपदे उपग्रहशब्देन लक्षणयोच्येते । The word is found in the sense of Pada in the Mahābhāṣya on P. III. 1.40. The commentator on Puṣpasūtra explains the word as उपगृह्यते समीपे पठ्यते इति उपग्रहः. The author of the Kāśikā on P. VI. 2.134 has cited the reading चूर्णादीन्यप्राण्युपग्रहात् instead of चूर्णादी- न्यप्राणिषष्ठ्याः and made the remark तत्रेापग्रह इति षष्ठ्यन्तमेव पूर्वाचार्योपचारेण गृह्यते. This remark shows that in an- cient times उपग्रह meant षष्ठ्यन्त i. e. a word in the genitive case. This sense gave rise to, or was based upon, an allied sense, viz. the meaning of 'षष्ठी' i. e. possession. Possibly the sense 'possession' further developed into the further sense 'possession of the fruit or result for self or others' referring to the तिङ् affixes which possessed that sense. The old sense 'षष्ठ्यन्त' of the word 'उपग्रह' having gone out of use, and the sense 'पद' having come in vogue, the word षष्ठी' must have been substituted for the word 'उपग्रह' by some grammarians before the time of the Kāśikākāras. As Patañjali has dropped the Sūtra (VI. 2.134), it cannot be said definitely whether the change of reading took place before Patañjali or after him.

उपचार (l) taking a secondary sense; implication; lit. moving for a sense which is near about; the same as लक्षणा. The word आचार is explained as उपचार, employment or current usage, by Patañjali; cf. आचारात् । आचार्याणामुपचारात् । M. Bh. I.1.1. Vārt. 4; ( 2 ) substitution of the letter सं for विसर्ग : cf. प्रत्ययग्रहणोपचारेषु च, P.IV.1.1 Vārt. 7.

उपजन lit.origin; one that originates, augment, उपजायते असौ उपजन: । The



word is used in the sense of 'addi- tional phonetic element'; cf. उपजन आगमः M. Bh. on Śiva- sūtra 5; cf. also वर्णव्यत्ययापायोपजनविका- रेष्वर्थदर्शनात् । Śiva Sūtra 5 Vārt. 15. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya gives स् in पुरुश्चन्द्र as an instance of. उपजन cf. R. Pr. IV. 37. In the Nirukta उपजन is given as the sense of the prefix 'उप'; cf. उपेत्युपजनम्: The com. on the Nirukta explains the word उपजन as अाधिक्य.

उपजीव्य a term used by later gramm- arians in connection with such a rule on which another rule depends cf. उपजीव्यादन्तरङ्गाच्व प्रधानं प्रबलम् Pari. Śekh. on Pari. 97, as also M. Bh. on हेतुमति च P. III.1.26. The relationship known as उपजीव्योपजी- वकभाव occurs several times in gra- mmar which states the inferiority of the dependent as noticed in the world.

उपदेश instruction; original enuncia- tion; first or original precepts or teaching; cf. उपदेश आद्योच्चारणम् S. K. on T the rule उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् P.I.3.2. cf. वर्णानामुपदेशः कर्तव्यः; M. Bh. on Āhn. I. Vārt. 15. For diff- erence between उपदेश and उद्देश see उद्देश; cf. also उपदिश्यतेनेनेत्युपदेशः । शास्त्र- वाक्यानि, सूत्रपाठः खिलपाठश्च Kāśikā on P. I.3.2; cf. also Vyāḍi. Pari. 5; (2) employment (of a word) for others cf. उपेदश: परार्थः प्रयोगः । स्वयमेव तु बुद्धया यदा प्ररमृशति तदा नास्त्युपदेशः Kāś. on अदोनुपदेशे P.I.4.70.

उपदेशिन् such a word as is found in the original instruction.

उपदेशिवद्भाव occurrence in the origi- nal statement before the applica- tion of any affixes etc., cf. एवमप्युप- देशिवद्भावो वक्तव्यः, M. Bh. on P.I. 1.56, Vārt. 23.

उपदेशिवद्वचन statement to the effect that a word should be looked

upon as occurring in the original instruction although it is not there. See उपदेश.cf. नुम्विधावुपदेशिवद्वचनं प्रत्ययविध्यर्थम् P. VII.1.58. Vārt. 1.

उपद्रुत name of a saṁdhi which is described as उद्ग्राहवत् in R.Pr: e. g. न ऋते. See उद्ग्राह.

उपधा penultimate letter, as defined in the rule अलोन्त्यात्पूर्वं उपघा P. I. 1.65, e.g. see ह्रस्वोपध, दीर्घोपध, लघूपध, अकारोपध etc.; lit. उपधीयते निधीयते सा that which is placed near the last letter.

उपधालोपिन् a word or a noun which has got the penultimate letter omitted; cf. अन उपधालेपिनोन्यतरस्याम् P. IV. 1. 28.

उपध्मानीय a letter or a phonetic elem- ent substituted for a visarga foll- owed by the first or the second letter of the labial class. Visarga is simply letting the breath out of the mouth. Where the visarga is followed by the first or the second letter of the labial class, its pronun- ciation is coloured by labial utterance. This coloured utterance cannot be made independently; hence this utterance called 'उपध्मा- नीय' ( similar to a sound blown from the mouth ) is not put in, as an independent letter, in the वर्ण- समाम्नाय attributed to महेश्वर. Patañj- ali, however, has referred to such dependent utterances by the term अयोगवाहवर्ण. See अयेागवाह; cf. xक इति जिह्वामूलीयः । जिह्वामूलेन जन्यत्वात् । xप इत्युप- ध्मानीयः । उपध्मानेन जन्यत्वात्. अयेगवाह is also called अर्धविसर्ग. See अर्धविसर्ग.

उपन्यास proposition, statement, The remark 'विषम उपन्यासः' is of frequ- ent occurrence in the Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya in connection with statements that are defective and have to be refuted or corrected; cf. M.Bh. on P.1.1.21,46,50; I.2.5 etc.



उपपद lit.a word placed near; an adjo- ining word. In Pāṇini's grammar, the term उपपद is applied to such words as are put in the locative case by Pāṇini in his rules prescri- bing kṛt affixes in rules from 1 II. 1, 90 to III. 4 end; cf. तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम् P.III.1.92; e.g. कर्मणि in कर्मण्यण् P. III.2.1. The word is also used in the sense of an adjoining word connected in sense. e. g. युष्मद्युपपदे as also प्रहासे च मन्योपपदे P.I.4.105,106; cf. also क्रियार्थायां क्रियायामुपपदे धातोर्भविष्यति काले तुमुन्ण्वुलौ भवतः Kāś. on P.III.3.10; cf. also इतरेतरान्योन्योपपदाच्च P.I.3.10, मिथ्योपपदात् कृञोभ्यासे P.I.3.71, as also उपपदमतिङ् P.II.2.19; and गतिकारकोपपदात्कृत् P. VI.2.139. Kaiyaṭa on P.III.1. 92 Vārt. 2 explains the word उपपद as उपोच्चारि or उपोच्चारितं पदं उपपदम्. The word उपपद is found used in the Prātiśākhya literature where it means a word standing near and effecting some change: cf. च वा ह अह एव एतानि चप्रभृतीनि यान्युपपदानि उक्तानि आख्यातस्य विकारीणिo Uvaṭa on V. Pr. VI. 23.

उपपदविधि a grammatical operation caused by a word which is near; cf उपपदविधौ भयाढ्यादिग्रहणं P. I.1.72 Vārt 9, also अतिप्रसङ्ग उपपदविधौ P. IV 1.1. Vārt. 8 where rules such as 'कर्मण्यण्' and the following are referred to as उपपदविधि, the words कर्मणि, स्तम्ब, कर्ण, etc. being called उपपद by the rule तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्; P. III.1.92.

उपपदविभक्ति a case termination add- ed to a word on account of the presence of another word requir- ing the addition;cf. the well-known Paribhāṣā,उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बली- यसी. Par. Śek. Pari. 94; and M.Bh. on I.4. 96 stating the possession of greater force in the case of a kāra-

kavibhakti than in the case of an upapadavibhakti.

उपपदसमास the compound of a word, technically termed as उपपद by Pāṇini according to his definition of the word in III.1.92., with another word which is a verbal derivative; cf. कुम्भकारः, नगरकारः Here technically the compound of the words कुम्भ, नगर etc. which are upapadas is formed with कार,before a case-termination is added to the nominal base कार; cf. गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Par. Śek. Pari. 75.

उपबन्ध a technical term used in the Prātiśākhya works in the sense of words which proceed from a rule to the following rules upto a par- ticular stated limit; cf. उपबन्धस्तु देशाय नित्यम् T. Pr I.59 explained by the commentator as उपबध्यते इति उपबन्धः । एतस्मिन्नित्यधिकरणरूपः संख्यानविषयः प्रदेशश्च उपबन्ध उच्यते । उपबन्धे यदुक्तं तदन्यत्र न भवतीति तुशब्दार्थः ।

उपब्दिमत् the fourth out of the seven stages or places in the production of articulate speech, upāṁśu being the first stage; cf. सशब्दमुपद्भिमत् Tait. Pr. 23.9 explained by the commentator as: सशब्दं परश्राव्यशब्दसहि- तम् । यत्र प्रयुज्यमानः शब्दः परैरक्षरव्यञ्जनववेकवर्जे श्रूयते तदुपद्विमत्संज्ञं भवति ।

उपमन्यु (1) the famous commentator on the grammatical verses attributed to Nandikeśvara which are known by the name नन्दिकेश्वरकारिका and which form a kind of a comment- ary on the sūtras of Maheśvara; (2) a comparatively modern gra- mmarian possibly belonging to the nineteenth century who is also named Upamanyu and who has written a commentory on the fam- ous Kāśikāvṛtti by Jayāditya and Vāmana. Some believe that Upa-



manyu was an ancient sage who wrote a nirukta or etymological work and whose pupil came to be known as औपमन्यव.

उपमा a well-known term in Rhetorics meaning the figure of speech ' simile ' or ' comparison '. The word is often found in the Nirukta in the same sense; cf. अथात उपमाः | 'यत् अतत् तत्सदृशम्'इति गार्ग्यः । Nir III.13. Generally an inferior thing is com- pared to another that is superior in quality.

उपमान standard of comparison. The word is found in the Pāṇinisūtra उपमानानि सामान्यवचनैः P.II.I.55 where the Kāśikāvṛtti explains it as उपमीयतेऽनेनेत्युपमानम् ।

उपमित an object which is compared. The word is found in Pāṇinisūtra उपमितं व्याघ्रादिभिः P.II.1.56, where the Kāśikā paraphrases it by the word उपमेय and illustrates it by the word पुरुष in पुरुषव्याघ्र.

उपमेय an object which is to be com- pared. See उपमित.

उपलक्षण implication, indication: a thing indicatory of another thing. The term is very frequently found in commentary works in connec- tion with a word which signifies something beyond it which is similar to it; the indication is generally inclusive; cf. Kāśikā on भीस्म्योर्हेतुभये P.I.3.68 भयग्रहणमुपलक्षणार्थं विस्मयोपि तत एव । as also मन्त्रग्रहणं तु च्छन्दस उपलक्षणार्थम् Kāś. on II.4.80. The verbal forms of लक्ष् and उपलक्ष् as also the words लक्षयितुम्, लक्षणीय, लक्षित etc. possess the sense of 'expressing the meaning not primarily, but secondarily by indication or implication'.

उपलिङ्गिन् a substituted word element; cf. शेवः इति सुखनाम । शिष्यतेः वकारः नाम- करणः अन्तस्थान्तरोपलिङ्गी विभाषितगुणः | शिवम् Nir. X. I7.

उपवर्ष an ancient grammarian and Mīmāmsaka believed to have been the brother of Varṣa and the preceptor of Pāṇini. He is refer- red to, many times as an ancient writer of some Vṛttigranthas.

उपश्लेष immediate contact, as for instance, of one word with another: cf. शब्दस्य च शब्देन कोन्योभिसंबन्धो भवितु- मर्हति अन्यदत उपश्लेषात् । M.Bh. on VI. 1.72. The word उपश्लिष्ट is also found in the Mahābhāṣya in the same context.

उपसंख्यान mention, generally of the type of the annexation of some words to words already given, or of some limiting conditions or additions to what has been already stated. The word is often found at the end of the statements made by the Vārttikakāra on the sūtras of Pāṇini.: cf. P.I.1.29 Vārt. 1: I.1.36 Vārt. 3 etc. The words वाच्य and वक्तव्य are also similarly used.The word is found similarly used in the Mahābhāṣya also very frequently.

उपसंग्रह inclusion of something, which is not directly mentioned; cf. प्रसिद्ध्युपसंग्रहार्थमेतत् Kāś.on P.I.3.48,also इतिकरणं एवंविधानामेप्यन्येषामुपसंग्रहार्थम् Kāś. on P VII.4.65.

उपसंयोग (l) union;cf. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोप- संयोगद्योतका भवन्ति prepositions are signs to show that such a union with another sense has occurred in the case of the noun or verb to which they are prefixed, Nir. I.3.; (2) addition; cf. अक्रियमाणे हि संज्ञाग्रहणे गरीयानुपसंयोगः कर्तव्यः स्यात् M.Bh. on P. IV.2.21. Vārt, 2.

उपसंहृत drawn close: cf. ओष्ठौ तूपसंहृततरौ T. Pr. II.14. The root उपसंहृ is used in the sense of finishing in the Mahābhāṣya; cf. येनैव यत्नेनैको वर्ण उच्चार्यते विच्छिन्ने वर्ण उपसंहृत्य तमन्यमुपा



दाय द्वितीयः प्रयुज्यते तथा तृतीयस्तथा चतुर्थः । M.Bh. on P.I.4. 109 Vārt. 6.

उपसमस्त compounded together, join- ed together by special grammatical connection called समास; cf. न केवल; पथिशब्दः स्त्रियां वर्तते । उपसमस्तस्तर्हि वर्तते M. Bh. on VII.1.1. Vārt. 18.

उपसर्ग preposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': cf. सोपसर्गेषु नामसु R. Pr. XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् etc. which are always used along with a verb or a verbal deriva- tive or a noun showing a verbal activity; cf. उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessari- iy compounded with the follow- ing word unless the latter is a verbal form; cf. कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the inter- vention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; cf. न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् Nir. I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots 11

as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, etc.), which implies possibly that roots them- selves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा etc. which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assign- ed some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix posses- ses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any inde- pendent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karma- pravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see Nir. I. 3, Vākya- padīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Vārt. 7 and Pradīpa and Uddyota thereon. The Ṛk Prā- tiśākhya has discussed the ques- tion in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attached. It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indi- cation, the words वाचक in stanza



6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभि- धायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः R. Pr. XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upa- sargas see R. Pr. XII. 6, T. Pr. I. 15, V. Pr. VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60.

उपसर्गद्योत्यता the view or doctrine that prefixes, by themselves, do not possess any sense, but they indicate the sense of the verb or noun with which they are conne- cted. For details See Vākyapadīya II.165-206; also vol. VII. pages 370-372 of Vyākaraṇa Mahābhā- ṣya ed. by the D. E. Society, Poona.

उपसर्गयोग connection with a prefix; joining of the prefix. Some scholars of grammar hold the view that the Upasarga is prefixed to the root and then the verbal form is arrived at by placing the desired terminations after the root, while others hold the oppo- site view: cf. पूर्वं धातुः साधनेनोपयुज्यते पश्चादुपसर्गेण । अन्ये तु पूर्वं धातुरुपसर्गेण युज्यते पश्चात्साधनेनेत्याहुः Sīradeva's Paribhā- ṣāvṛtti Pari. 131, 132; cf also vol. VII. Mahābhāṣya edited by the D. E. Society, Poona, pages 371-372.

उपसर्गवाद a treatise on upasargas, by Harikṛṣna.

उपसर्गविचार a treatise on upasargas by Gadādhara Cakravartin.

उपसर्गविवरण a short anonymous work on the nature of upasargas or prepositions explaining their mean- ings with illustrations.

उपसर्गवृत्ति a treatise on upasargas by Bharatamalla in the Sixteenth Century A.D.

उपसर्जन (1) adjective, subordinate member which does not get the treatment of the principal mem- ber, e. g. गोस्त्रियोरुपसर्जनस्य P.I.2.48, ' अनुपसर्जनात् P.IV.1.14 संज्ञोपसर्जनीभूतास्तु न सर्वादयः S.K. on P.I.1.29, also P.I.1.27 Vārt.2;(2) a word referred to by the word which is put in the nominative case in rules of Pāṇini prescribing compounds, e. g. कष्ट (in the compound क्रष्टश्रितः) which is referred to by the word द्वितीया in the rule द्वितीया श्रितातीतo P.II.1.24 which prescribes the Acc. Tat- puruṣa compound. These words are given the first place in a com- pound; cf. प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् P.I.2.43, उपसर्जनं पूर्वम् P.II.2.30; (3) a word which has one and the same case when a compound in the different cases is shown as dissolv- ed, e. g. the word कौशाम्बी in the compound निष्कौशाम्बिः which keeps its ablative case when the com- pounds निष्कौशाम्बिम् , निष्कौशाम्बिना, निष्कौशाम्बये etc. are dissolved; cf. एकविभक्ति चापूर्वनिपाते P.I.2.44.

उपसृष्ट attended with a prefix, gene- rally used in connection with roots; e.g. क्रुधद्रुहोरुपसृष्टयोः कर्म P.I.4.38 where the Kāśikā has explaincd the word as उपसर्गसंबद्ध.

उपस्कार introduction of the necessary changes in the wording of the base, such as elision, or addition or substitution of a letter or letters as caused by the addition of suffixes.

उपस्थान occurrence: prescnce by vir- tue of anuvṛtti i. e. recurrence or continuation of a word in the rules that follow; cf. शब्देन चाप्यधिकृतेन कोन्यो व्यापारः शक्योवगन्तुमन्यदतो योगे योग उपस्थानात् M.Bh. on 1.3.11 Vārt. 1.

उपस्थित a word used father techni- cally in the sense of the word इति



which is used in the Krama and other recitals when Vedic reciters show separately the two words compounded together by uttering the compound word first, then the word इति and then the two compound words, e.g. सुश्लोक ३ इति सु-श्लोक। विभावसो इति विभा-वसो. The Kāśikā defines the word उपस्थित as समुदायादवच्छिद्य पदं येन स्वरूपे अवस्थाप्यते तद् उपस्थितम् । इतिशब्दः । Kāś.on VI.1.129. The Ṛk-Prātiśākhya explains the word rather differently, but in the same context.The word after which इति is placed is called upasthita e.g. the word बाहू in बाहू इति or विभावसौ in विभावसो इति as contrasted with स्थित i.e. the word without इति e.g. बाहू or विभावसो, as also contrasted with स्थितोपस्थित i.e. the whole word विभावसो इति विभाsवसो which is also called संहित or मिलित; (2) occurring, present; cf कार्यकालं संज्ञापरिभाषम् . यत्र कार्यं तत्रोपस्थितं द्रष्टव्यम् । Par.Śek. Pari.3.

उपहित (l) with, preceded by; e g. दीर्घोपहित, ह्रस्वोपहित; (2) sticking to, connected with, 'उपश्लेषित': cf.Durga on Nir.V.12;(3) coming to be plac- ed near or in juxtaposition with the preceding word: cf. आवोन्तोपहितात् सतः R. Pr. II.15.

उपांशु lit. inaudible. The word is explained in the technical sense as the first place or stage in the utterance of speech where it is perfectly inaudible although pro- duced; cf. उपांशु इति प्रथमं वाचः स्थानम् Com. on T. Pr. XXIII, 5.

उपाचरित (l) sibilation substitution of a sibilant letter for a visarga: cf. प्लुतोपाचरिते च R.Pr. XI.19; (2) name of the saṁdhi in which a visarga is changed into a sibilant letter; cf. सर्वत्रैवोपाचरितः स संधिः R. Pr.IV.14 which corresponds to Pāṇini VIII.3.18 and 19.

उपाचार change of Visarga into s (स्); sibilation of Visarga, e. g. ब्रह्मणः पतिः = ब्रह्मणस्पतिः. The words उपचार and उपाचरित are found used in the same sense by ancient Grammari- ans. See उपचार; cf. समापाद्यं नाम वदन्ति षत्वं, तथा णत्वं सामवशांश्च सन्धीन् । ...उपाचारं लक्षणतश्च सिद्धम् , आचार्या व्यालिशाकल्यगार्ग्याः R. Pr. VIII.12.

उपादान hypothesis, presumption, acceptance.

उपाद्य lit. near the first; second.

उपाधि condition, limitation, determi- nant, qualification: e.g. न हि उपाधे- रुपाधिर्भवति, विशेषणस्य वा विशेषणम् M.Bh. on I.3.2 as also on V.1.16; cf. also इह यो विशेष उपाधिर्वोपादीयते द्योत्ये तस्मिंस्तेन भवितव्यम् । M.Bh. on III.1.7.

उपान्त lit. near the last; penultimate. The word is generally found used in the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa.

उपान्त्य see उपान्त; the word is gene- rally found used in the grammars of Śākaṭāyana and Hemacandra.

उपोत्तम lit.one near or before the last; the term is generally used in con- nection with words having two or more syllables, where it means the vowel before the last (vowel); cf. उपोत्तमं रिति P. VI.1.217 and योपधाद्गुरूपोत्तमाद्वुञ् P.V.1.132 where the writer of the Kāśikā explains it as त्रिप्रभृतीनामन्त्यमुत्तमं तस्य समीपमुपोत्तमम् । giving रमणीय and वसनीय as examples where the long ई is upottama; cf. also T.Pr. XI.3. and Nir.I.19 where the word refers to the third out of the four feet of the verse.

उपोद्बलक a supporting assertion or statement; cf तस्यैवोपोद्बलकमेतत् M.Bh. on I.2.64. Vārt. 38-39.

उभयगति both the alternatives; both the senses; double signification; cf. उभयगतिरिह भवति P.I.1.23,Vārt 4,Pari. Śek, Par. 9 where the word ubhaya



refers to both the senses-the ordi- nary one ( अकृत्रिम } and the techni- cal one ( कृत्रिम)--e.g. the meanings ( i ) numeral, and ( ii ) words बहु, गण etc. of the word संख्या.

उभयतस्पाशा presenting a difficulty in both the ways; cf. सैषा उभयतस्पाशा रज्जुर्भवति M.Bh. on VI.1.68.

उभयतोभाष lit. speaking or showing both the padas or voices; possess- ed of both the padas viz. the Parasmaipada and the Ātmane- pada. The word is found common- ly used in the Dhātupaṭha of Pāṇini.

उभयत्र in both the ways lit. in both the places; cf. उभयत्र च P. I. 1. 44 V rt. 22. The word उभयत्रविभाषा is used in grammar referring to the option ( विभाषा) which is प्राप्त as also अप्राप्त; cf.M.Bh.on P.1.1.26 Vārt.22.

उभयथा in both the ways (in the case of an option, of course); cf. छन्दस्यु- भयथा P.III.4.117 where the word ubhayathā refers to both the alter- native uses e.g. Sārvadhātuka and Ārdhadhātuka;so also vidhiliṅ and āśīrliṅ; cf. Kāśikā on P.III.4.117. The term ubhayatha is described as synonymous with 'bahulam' or 'anyatarasyām' or 'vā' or ekeśām'; cf. बहुलमन्यतरस्यामुभयथा वा एकेषामिति M. Bh. on P.I. 1.44: Vart. 19; cf. also अध्यायान्तेषूभयथा स्मरन्ति R.Pr.XV.8.

उभयदीर्घा a hiatus or a stop which occurs between two long-vowelled syllables; the term उभयदीर्घा is a conventional term in the Prāti- śākhya literature. The term उभय- ह्रस्वा is similarly used in connection with short vowels.

उभयनियम a restriction understood in both the ways; cf. सिद्धं तूभयनियमात् उभयनियमोयम् । प्रकृतिपर एव प्रत्ययः प्रयोक्तव्यः, प्रत्ययपरैव च प्रकृतिरिति । M. Bh. on P. III.1.2, Vārt. 11; cf also M. Bh. on VI.2.148.

उभयपद (1) double voice--the Paras- maipada as well as the Ātmane- pada; (2) both the words or members (in a compound); cf. उभयपदार्थप्रधानो द्वन्द्वः Kāś on P.I.2.57.

उभयपदिन् a root conjugated in both the Padas; a root to which both, the Parasmaipada and the Ātmanepada terminations are affixed; e.g. roots वृ, भी, मुच् etc.

उभयप्राप्ति a case or a matter in which both the alternatives occur, as for instance, the genitive case for the subject and the object of a verbal derivative noun (कृदन्त); cf. उभयप्राप्तौ कर्मणि । उभयोः प्राप्तिः यस्मिन् कृति सोयमुभय- प्राप्तिः तत्र कर्मण्येव षष्ठी स्यात् न कर्तरि । आश्चर्यो गवां दोहः अगोपालकेन Kāś. on P. II.3.66.

उभयवत् possessed of both the kinds of properties; cf. य इदानीमुभयवान् स तृतीयामाख्यां लभते स्वरित इति M.Bh. on P.I.2.81 ; cf. also उभयवान् स्वरितः V. Pr.I.110.

उम् the augment उ, affixed to the last vowel of वच् by P.VII.4.20; e.g. अवोचत्

उरच् tad-affix उर, with udātta accent on the last vowel, affixed to the word दन्त when it refers to protu- berant teeth; cf. P.V.2.66; e.g. दन्तुरः ।

उरःप्रभृति a class of words headed by the word उरस् to which the samā- sānta affix क (कप् ) is added, when these words stand at the end of Bahuvrihi compounds; cf. व्यूढमुरोस्य व्यूढोरस्कः similarly प्रियसर्पिष्कः, Kāś. on P.V.I.151.

उरस्य produced at the breast; cf.केचि- देता उरस्या R.Pr.I.18, explained by the commentator as केचिदाचार्याः एतौ हकारविसर्जनीयौ उरःस्थाने इच्छन्ति ।

उरुता opening (of the hole of the throat); the words , उरुता स्वस्य are



used in the sense of 'opening of the glottis' which is described as a characteristic condition of the utterance of a vowel accented grave or अनुदात्त; cf. आयामो दारुण्यमणुता स्वस्येत्युच्चैः कराणि शब्दस्य । अन्ववसर्गो मार्दव मुरुता स्वस्येति नीचैःकराणि शब्दस्य M.Bh. on नीचैरनुदात्तः P.I.2.30 cf. T. Pr. on XXII. 9, 10.

उरोबृहती a variety of the Vedic metre बृहती in which the first pada con- sists of twelve syllables and the rest of eight syllables; cf. R. Pr. XVI. 33.

उव् (उवङ्) substitute for the vowel उ belonging to the Vikaraṇa श्रु, to roots and to the noun भ्रू under certain conditions: cf अचि श्नुधातुर्भ्रुवां य्वोरियङुवङौ P.VI.4.77.

उवट also उव्वट or ऊअट a reputed Kaāśmirian scholar and writer who was the son of Vajrata. He wrote many learned commentaries, some of which are known as Bhasyas. Some of his important works are Ṛkprātiśākhyabhāṣya, Vājasaneyī prātiśākhyabhāṣya, Vājasaneyīsa- mhitābhāṣya, Vedārthadīpika etc.

उष्णिह् (उष्णिक्) name of the second of the main seven Vedic metres which are known by the name प्रजापतिच्छन्दस्. The Uṣṇik metre con- sists of 28 syllables divided into three padas of 8, 8 and 12 sylla bles. It has got many varieties such as पुरउष्णिह्, ककुभ् and others; for details see R. Pr. XVI 20-26.

उस् (1) substitute for झि ending of the third pers.plu., in the perfect tense and in the present tense in the case of the roots विद् and ब्रू, e.g. विदुः and आहुः cf. P. III.4.82-84 ; (2) substitute जुस् (उस्) for झि in the potential and the benedictive moods, as also after the aorist sign स् and after roots of the third

conjugation, roots ending in आ and the root विद्, e. g. पचेयुः भूयासुः अकार्षुः, अबिभयुः अदुः, अविदुः, etc.; cf. Kāś. on III.4.108-112.

उसि Uṇādi afix उस् applied to the root जन् to form जनुस् cf. जनेरुसिः Uṇ- sūtra. 272.

ऊ long vowel ऊ, उ being the short vowel.

ऊक् augment ऊ added to the अभ्यास or the reduplicative syllable of the root पठ् which is doubled before the affix क which is used instead of घ ( घञर्थे कः ); e.g. पाटूपटः.

ऊक् kṛt affix ऊक added to the root जागृ to form the word जागरूक; cf. जागुरूक; P. III.2.165.

ऊङ् fem. affix ऊ prescribed after masculine nouns ending in the vowel ऊ and denoting a human be- ing as also after some other specific masculine bases cf ऊङुतः P.IV. I.66 and the following sūtras. e.g. कुरूः, पङ्गूः श्वश्रूः, करभोरूः, भद्रबाहूः etc.

ऊट् also उट् āgama ऊ and उ prescrib- ed after the roots तृ and वृ before the affix तृन् or तृच् e. g. तरुतारं तरूतारं वा रथानाम्; वरुतारं वरूतारं वरूत्रीः; cf. Kāś. on P.VII.2.34.

ऊठ् (1) saṁprasāraṇa vowel ऊ sub- stituted for the व् of वाह् under cer- tain conditions e.g., ऊढः, cf. वाह ऊठ् P.VI.4.132; (2) substitute ऊ for व् before certain affixes; e. g. द्यूतः, द्यूत्वा, जूर्तिः, तूर्तिः etc. cf. च्छ्वोः शूडनुनासिके च P.VI.4.19, 20.

ऊत् (l) long vowel ऊ which cannot be combined by rules of saṁdhi with the following vowel when it comes at the end of the forms of the dual number e. g. साधू अत्र etc.; cf. ईदूदेद्विवचनं प्रगृह्यम् P.I.1.11, as , also



ईदूतौ च सप्तम्यर्थे I.1.19; (2) long vowel ऊ substituted for the short उ of the root गोह् before an affix be- ginning with a vowel e. g. निगूहति; cf. ऊदुपधाया गोहः P. VI.4.89.

ऊत्व substitution of the long vowel ऊ; see M. Bh. on P. I.1.12, VI.1.85.

ऊदित् marked with the mute indica- tory letter ऊ; cf. स्वरतिसूतिसूयतिधूञूदितो वा । prescribing the addition of the augment इ optionally in the case of ऊदित् roots P. VII.2.44.

ऊन deficient, wanting; often in com- pounds e.g. पादोन, ह्यून, एकोन; cf. व्यूहैः संपत्समीक्ष्योने R. Pr. VIII. 28; एकह्यूनाधिकता सैव निवृदूनाधिका भुरिक् R. Pr. XVII.1.

ऊर्ध्वबृहती ( विराज् ) a variety of the metre Bṛhatī which has three padas of twelve syllables each; cf. त्रयो द्वादशका यस्याः सा होर्ध्ववृहती विराट् R. Pr. XVI.33.

ऊर्यादि a class of words headed by the words ऊरी उररी etc. ending in the taddhita affix च्वि, which are given the designation गति provided they are related to a verbal acti- vity, and as a result, which can be compounded with kṛdanta words ending in त्वा, तुम्, etc. cf ऊरीकृत्य, ऊरीकृतम् etc.: Kāś on P, I.4.61.

ऊल tad. affix applied to the words वात and बल in the sense of 'unable to bear'; e.g. वातूलः बलूल see Kāś. on V.2.122.

ऊष्मन् aspiration letters, spirants call- ed breathings also: the name is given to letters or sounds produced with unintonated breath through an open posision of the mouth; cf. विवृतमूष्मणाम् M. Bh, on P.I.1.10 Vārt, 3. The word refers to the letters श्, ष्, सु, ह्, visarga, jihvāmū- līya, upadhmāniya and anusvāra; cf. ऊष्मा वायुस्तत्प्रधाना वर्णा ऊष्माणः R. Pr. I.12; cf. also T. Pr. I.10.

ऊष्मसंधि name of a combination or संधि where a visarga is changed into a breathing ( ऊष्मन् ). It has got two varieties named व्यापन्न where the visarga is charged into a breathing as for instance in यस्ककुभः, while it is called विक्रान्त (passed over) where it remains unchanged as for instance in यः ककुभः, य: पञ्च; cf. R. Pr. IV. 1 1.

ऊह modification of a word, in a Vedic Mantra, so as to suit the context in which the mantra is to be utilised, generally by change of case affixes; adaptation of a man- tra: cf. ऊहः खल्वपि । न सर्वैर्लिङ्गैर्न च सर्वाभिर्विभक्तिभिर्वेदे मन्त्रा निगदिताः । ते च अवश्यं यज्ञगतेन यथायथं विपरिणमयितव्याः । M. Bh. on P.1.1 Āhnika 1.

ऋ fourth vowel in Pāṇini's alphabet; possessed of long and protracted varieties and looked upon as cognate ( सवर्ण ) with लृ which has no long type in the grammar of Pāṇini; cf. R.Pr.I,9: V.Pr.VIII.3. (2) uṇādi suffix च् applied to the root स्था to form the word स्थृ; e. g. सव्येष्ठा सारथिः; cf. सव्ये स्थश्छन्दसि Uṇ Sū, II. 101.

ऋकार the letter ऋ with its 18 varieties made up of the ह्रस्व, दीर्घ, प्लुत, and सानुनासिक varieties and characteriz- ed by the three accents. ऋ and लृ are looked upon as cognate in Pāṇini's grammar and hence, ऋ could be looked upon as possessed of 30 varieties including 12 varie- ties of लृ.

ऋक्तन्त्र a work consisting of five chap ters containing in all 287 sūtras. It covers the same topics as the Prāt- iśākhya works and is looked upon as one of the Prātiśākhya works of


the Sāma Veda. Its authorship is attributed to Śākaṭāyana according to Nageśa, while औदिव्राज is held as its author by some, and कात्यायन by others. It bears a remarkable similarity to Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī especially in topics concerning co- alescence and changes of स् and न् to ष् and ण् respectively. It cannot be definitely said whether it pre- ceded or followed Pāṇini's work.

ऋक्प्रातिशाख्य one of the Prātiśākhya works belonging to the Aśvalāyana Śākha of the Ṛg Veda. The work available at present, appears to be not a very old one,possibly written a century or so after Pāṇini's time. It is possible that the work, which is available, is based upon a few ancient Prātiśākhya works which are lost. Its authorship is attribu- ted to Śaunaka.The work is a metrical one and consists of three books or Adhyāyas, each Adhyāya being made up of six Paṭalas or chapters. It is written, just as the other Prātiśākhya works, with a view to give directions for the proper recitation of the Veda. It has got a scholarly commentary written by Uvaṭa and another one by Kumāra who is also called Viṣṇumitra. See अाश्वलायनप्रातिशाख्य.

ऋगयनादि a class of words headed by ऋगयन to which the taddhita affix अण् (अ) is affixed in the sense of 'produced therein' ( तत्र भवः), or 'explanatory of' ( तस्य व्याख्यानः); cf. ऋगयने भव:, ऋगयनस्य व्याख्यानो वा अार्गयनः पादव्याख्यानः, औपनिषदः, शैक्ष: etc. Kāś. on P.IV. 3.73.

ऋग्विराम verse-pause equal to 3 mātrākālas or three mātrā units. cf. ऋग्विरामः पदविरामो विवृत्तिविरामस्समान- पदविवृत्तिविरामः त्रिमात्रो द्विमात्र एकमात्रोर्धमात्र

आनुपूर्व्येण T. Pr. XXII. 13. Accord- ing to Ṛk. Tantra it consists of two mātrās. ऋत् short vowel ऋ. before which the preceding vowel is optionally left as it is, i. e. without coalescence and shortened also if long; cf. ऋत्यकः P. VI.1.128.

ऋत्वत् possessed of short ऋ; cf. रीगृत्वतः संयोगार्थम् P.VII.4.90. Vārt. 1.

ऋदित् possessed of the mute indica- tory letter ऋ, signifying in the Grammar of Pāṇini the preven- tion of the shortening of the long vowel in the reduplicated syllable of the Causal Aorist form of roots which are marked with it; e. g. अशशासत् अबबाधत्, अययाचत् etc. cf. नाग्लोपिशास्वृदिताम् P.VII.4.2.

ऋश्यादि a class of words headed by the word ऋश्य to which the tad- dhita affix क is added in the four senses prescribed in the rules IV. 2.67-70; e. g. ऋश्यकः, न्यग्रोधकः etc. cf. P.IV.2.80.

ऋषिच्छन्द्स् the metre of the Vedic seers. The seven metres गायत्री, उष्णिक्, अनुष्टुप्, बृहती, पङ्क्ति, त्रिष्टुप् and जगती consisting respectively of 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44 and 48 syllables are named ऋषिच्छन्दस् as contrasted with the metres दैव, प्राजापत्य and आसुर, which, when combined to- gether, make the metres of the Vedic seers, For details see R. Pr. XVI.1.5.

ऋष्यण् taddhita affix अण् in the sense of 'descendant' applied to names of ancient sages, by the rule ऋष्यन्धकवृष्णिकुरुभ्यश्च P.IV.1.114; e.g. वासिष्ठः,वैश्वामित्रः.

long variety of the vowel ऋ.

ॠदन्त (roots) ending in ॠ which have the vowel ॠ changed into इर् by the rule ॠत इद्धातोः P.VII. 1.100; e. g. किरति, गिलति.


लृ short vowel लृ taken to be a cognate of ऋ, and described as a vocalic form of the letter ल.

लृदित् (roots) marked with the mute indicatory letter लृ, which take the substitute अ (अङ्) for च्लि, the Vikaraṇa of the aorist; e. g. अपतत्, अशकत् cf. पुषादिद्ताद्य्-लृदितः परस्मैपदेषु P.III.1.55.

diphthong vowel ए made up of अ and इ, and hence having कण्ठतालु- स्थान as its place of origin. It has no short form according to Pāṇini. In cases where a short vowel as a substitute is prescribed for it in grammar, the vowel इ is looked upon as its short form. Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya has observed that followers of the Sātyamugri and Rāṇāyanīya branches of the Sāmaveda have short ए ( ऍ ) in their Sāmaveda recital and has given सुजाते अश्वसूनृते, अध्वर्यो अद्रिभिः सुतम् as illustrations; cf. M. Bh. on I.1-48; as also the article on.

एक (1) Singular number, ekavacana: cf. नो नौ मे मदर्थं त्रिह्येकेषु. V. Pr.II.3: the term is found used in this sense of singular number in the Jainendra, Śākaṭāyana and Haima grammars ( 2 ) single ( vowel ) substitute (एकादेश) for two (vowels); cf एकः पूर्वपरयोः P.VI. 1.84; अथैकमुभे T.Pr. X.1; ( 3 ) many, a certain number : (used in pl. in this sense),

cf. इह चेत्येके मन्यते, M. Bh. on P.I. 4.21 .
एककर्मक transitive verbs having one object, as contrasted with द्विक्रमेक; cf kātantra IV.6.62
एकतिङ् possessed of one verb; given as a definition of a sentence: cf. एकतिङ् P.II.1.1 Vārt 10, explained by Patañjali as एकतिङ् वाक्यसंज्ञं भवतीति वक्तव्यम् । ब्रूहि ब्रूहि ।
एकदिक् in the same direction, given as the sense of the tad. affix तस् by Pāṇini; cf. तेनैकदिक् | तसिश्च । P.IV. .3. 112, 113.
एकदेश a part or a portion of the whole;cf. एकदेशविकृतमनन्यवत् Pari-Śek. Pari 37; also M. Bh. Śivasūtra 2 Vārt 4: एकदेशोनुवर्तते M.Bh. on P.VI. 1.93 Vārt. 5; cf. also पदेकदज्ञानपि तान् प्रतीयात् R.Pr. IX. 16.
एकदेशिन् ( a thing or a substance ) composed of parts; cf the term एकदेशिसमास or एकदेशितत्पुरुष, used in connection with compounds of words such as पूर्व, पर and others with words showing the constituted whole ( एकदेशिन्) prescribed by the rule पूर्वपराधरोत्तरमेकदेशिनेकाधिकरणे P. II. 2.1 ; (2) a partisan; cf. the word सिद्धान्त्येकदेशिन् used often by com- mentators.
एकदेशविकृतन्याय the maxim that ' a thing is called or taken as that very thing although it is lacking in a part,'stated briefly as एकदेश- विकृतमनन्यवत् Pari. Śek. Pari. 37. The maxim is given in all the different schools of grammar: cf. Śak Pari. 17: Cāndra Pari. 15, Kat. Par. Vr. l, Jain. Par.Vr.l l, Hem.Pari.7 etc.
एकदेशानुमति consent to a part of the whole, admission of one part as correct.
एकद्रव्य one and the same individual substance: cf the words एकद्रव्यसम-


वायित्व M. Bh. on P.I.4.23, एक- द्रव्याभिघान on P.VIII.1.51, एकद्रव्योप- निवेशिनी given as a definition of संज्ञा M. Bh. on P.I.4.1.

एकपद made up of one word; con- sisting of one word; cf. अथवा सन्त्ये- कपदान्यप्यवधारणानि । यथा अब्भक्षो वायुभक्षः । अप एव भक्षयति वायुमव भक्षयति । M.Bh. first Āhnika; (2) a continuous word paraphrased as अखण्डपद and समानपद by commentators; cf. तेनानन्तरा षष्ठयेकपदवत् V.Pr.II. 18: (3) every individual word: cf. बहुक्रमे क्रमेत तस्यैकपदानि नि:सृजन् R.Pr.XI.18.

एकपदा made up of a single word; cf. भवति चैतदकस्मिन्नपि एकवर्ण पदम् एकपदा ऋक् एकर्चं सूक्तमिति । M. Bh. on P.I. 1.21 Vārt. 5; (2) made up of one foot ( चरण or पाद ); cf. एक एकपदैतेषां (R.Pr.XVII.24) explained by the commentator as तेषां चतुर्णां पादाना- मष्टाक्षरादीनां एकः पादः यस्याः सा एकपदा ऋक् इत्युच्यते ।

एकपातिन् combined together; cf. R. Pr. com. एकपातिनः एकीभूतस्य अक्षरस्य क्रमे ध्रुवमाषीं लुप्यते; R. Pr. XI. 25, also XVII.26.

एकभाविन् (vowels) combined by rules of Saṁdhi; cf. क्षैप्रवर्णैकभाविनाम् R. Pr. VII.22.

एकमात्रिक (l) possessed of one matra or mora; (2) a term used for a short vowel which measures one mātrā or mora; cf. एकमात्रो ह्रस्वः व्यञ्जनानि च । Ath.Pr.1.60.

एकमुनिपक्ष a view or doctrine pro- pounded by one of the many ancient sages or munis who are believed to be the founders of a Sastra; a view propounded only by Pāṇini, to the exclusion of Kātyāyana and Patañjali; cf. एकमुनिपक्षे तु अचो ञ्णितीत्यत्राच इति योगं विभज्य...व्यवस्थितविभाषात्रोक्ता Dur- ghaṭa-Vṛtti I.1.5; see also I.4.24, II.3.18. 12

एकयोग (1) combination of two Sutras into one;cf.अथवा एकयोगः करिष्यते वृद्धिरादै- जदेड्गुण इति M.Bh.P.I.1.3,I.4.59,V.2. 25; (2) one and the same Sūtra;cf. एकयेागनिर्दिष्टानां सह वा प्रवृत्तिःसह वा निवृत्तिः Pari.Śek.Pari.17; cf.also एकयोगानिर्दि- ष्टानामप्येकदेशानुवृत्तिर्भवति P. IV.1.27, Vārt. 2, Pari. Śek. Pari. 39.

एकयोगलक्षण characterized by i.e. mentioned in one and the same rule; cf. एकयोगलक्षणे तुग्दीर्घत्वे M.Bh. on P. I. 1. 62. Vart. 10. See also M. Bh.on P. VI.1.37.

एकवचन singular number; affix of the singular numberin Pāṇini's gra- mmar applied to noun-bases ( प्राति- पदिक) and roots when the sense of the singular number is to be conv- eyed; the singular sense can be of the form of an individual or colle- ction or genus. The word एकवचन in the technical sense of singular number is found used in the Prātiśākhyas and Nirukta also.

एकवत्त्व or एकवद्भाव use or treatment of the plural sense as if it is singu- lar; cf. एकवद्भावोsनर्थक: 1 समाहारैकत्वात् M.Bh. on II. 4.12. Vart. 5.

एकवर्ण(a pada) made up of a single letter; cf. एकवर्णं पदम् आ, उ इति: commentary on R.Pr. X.2; cf. also V.Pr.IV. 144-145 where एकवर्ण is defined as एकप्रयत्ननिर्वर्त्य capable of being produced with a single effort. Pāṇini gives the term अपृक्त to an affix made up of one single letter; cf.अपृक्त एकाल् प्रत्यय: P.I.2.41.

एकवाक्य an expression giving one idea, either a single or a composite one. A positive statement and its negation, so also, a general rule and its exception are looked upon as making a single sentence on account of their mutual expectancy even though they be sometimes detached from each other cf.


विदेशस्थमपि सदेकवाक्यं भवति M. Bh. on III.4.67; cf. also निषेधवाक्यानामपि निषेध्यविशेषाकाङ्क्षत्वाद्विध्येकवाक्यतयैव अन्वयः । तत्रैकवाक्यता पर्युदासन्यायेन । संज्ञाशास्त्रस्य तु कार्यकालपक्षे न पृथग्वाक्यार्थबोधः । Par. Śek on Pari. 3. Such sentences are, in fact, two sentences, but, to avoid the fault of गौरव, caused by वाक्यभेद, grammarians hold them to be composite single sentences.

एकविभक्ति a pada having the same case in the various dissolutions of the compound word; e. g. the word कौशाम्बी in the compound word निष्कौशाम्बिः, which stands only in the ablative case कौशाम्ब्याः, alth- ough the word निष्क्रान्त, which stands for the word निस्, could be used in many cases. The word नियतविभक्तिक is also used in the same sense.

एकवृत्ति single vṛtti or gloss on the Vedic as well as classical portions of grammar. Puruṣottamadeva has used this term in his Bhāṣāvṛtti to contrast his Vṛtti (भाषावृत्ति) with the Kāśikāvṛtti and the Bhāgavṛtti which deal with both the portions; cf.अनार्ष इत्येकवृत्तावुपयुक्तम् Bhāṣāvṛtti on I.1.16, cf.also Bhāṣāvṛtti on III. 4.99, IV.3.22 and VI.3.20.एकवृत्ति is possibly used by Puruṣottama- deva in the sense of मुख्यवृत्ति or साधा- रणवृत्ति i. e. the common chief gloss on both the portions.

एकशब्द a word having one sense only, as opposed to अनेकशब्द many words having the same sense or synonyms which are given in निघण्टु as also in अमरकोष; cf. अथ यान्यनेकार्थानि एकशब्दानि तान्यतोनुक्रमिष्यामः Nir. IV.1.

एकशेष a kind of composite formation in which only one of the two or more words compounded together subsists, the others being elided; cf. एकः शिष्यते इतरे निवर्तन्ते वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ । Kāśikā on सरूपाणामेकशेष एक-

विभक्तौ P.I.2.64; cf. also सुरूपसमुदा- याद्धि विभक्तिर्या विधीयते । एकस्तत्रार्थवान् सिद्धः समुदायस्य वाचकः ।। Bhāṣāvṛtti on P. I. 2.64. There is a dictum of gra- mmarians that every individual object requires a separate ex- pression to convey its presence. Hence, when there is a dual sense, the word has to be repeated, as also the word has to be multiplied when there is a plural sense. In current spoken language, however, in such cases the word is used only once. To justify this single utterance for conveying the sense of plurality, Pāṇini has laid down a general rule सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ and many other similar rules to cover cases of plurality not of one and the same object, but plurality cased by many objects, such as plurality caused by ideas going in pairs or relations such as parents, brothers and sisters, grand-father and grand-son, male and female. For example, see the words वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ; Similarly वृक्षाः for many trees, पितरौ for माता च पिता च; देवौ for देवी च देवश्च; cf. also the words श्वशुरौ, भ्रातरौ, गार्ग्यौ (for गार्ग्य and गार्ग्यायण),आवाम् (for त्वं च अहं च), यौ (for स च यश्च) and गावः fem. अजा fem. अश्वाः masc. irrespective of the indi- viduals being some males and some females. Pāṇini has devoted 10 Sūtras to this topic of Eka- śeṣa. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. Patanjali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic. Some critics hold that the topic of एकशेघ did not exist in the ori- ginal Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini but it was interpolated later on, and ad- duce the long discussion in the Mahābhāṣya especially the Pūrva- pakṣa therein, in support of their


argument. Whatever the case be, the Vārttikakāra has commented upon it at length; hence, the addition must have been made immediately after Pāṇini, if at all there was any. For details see Mahābhāṣya on I.1.64 to 73 as al- so,Introduction p. 166-167, Vol.7 of the Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona.

एकशेषनिर्देश statement by subsistence of one word out of many. The phrase is very often used in the Mahā- bhāṣya where the omission of an individual thing is explained by saying that the expression used is a composite one including the omitted thing along with the thing already expressed; cf. एकशेषनिर्देशो- यम् । सर्वादीनि च सर्वादीनि च सर्वादीनि । M. Bh. on I.I.27, on I.1.59, I.2.39, as also on I.3.1 Vārt. 5,I.4. 101 Vārt. 3, II.1.1. Vārt. 19 etc.

एकश्रुति that which has got the same accent or tone; utterance in the same tone; monotone. The word is applied to the utterance of the vocative noun or phrase calling a man from a distance, as also to that of the vowels or syllables following a Svarita vowel in the Saṁhitā i.e. the continuous utter- ance of Vedic sentences; cf. एकश्रुति दूरात्संबुद्वौ and the foll. P.I.2.33-40 and the Mahābhāṣya thereon. In his discussion on I.2.33 Patañjali has given three alternative views about the accent of Ekaśruti sylla- bles : (a) they possess an ac- cent between the उदात्त (acute) and अनुदात्त (grave), (b) they are in the same accent as is posses- sed by the preceding vowel, (c) Ekaśruti is looked upon as the seventh of the seven accents; cf. सैषा ज्ञापकाभ्यामुदात्तानुदात्तयोर्मध्यमेकश्रुति- रन्तरालं ह्रियते। ... सप्त स्वरा भवन्ति | उदात्तः,

उदात्ततर:, अनुदात्तः, अनुदात्ततर:, स्वरितः स्वरिते य उदात्तः सोन्येन विशिष्टः, एकश्रुतिः सप्तमः । M.Bh. on P.I.2.33.

एकस्वर possessed of one vowel,mono- syllabic; a term used by Hema- candra in his grammar for the term एकाच् of Pāṇini: cf. आद्योंश एकस्वरे Hem.IV.1.2, which means the same as एकाचेा द्वे प्रथमस्य P.VI.1.1.

एकहलादि having a single consonant at the beginning; cf एकहलादौ पूरयितव्येSन्यतरस्याम् P.VI.3.59.

एकहल्मध्य (a vowel) placed between two single consonants; e.g the vowel अ in पच्, रम्, रण्, etc.

एकाक्षर consisting of one single sylla- ble ; e.g. स्व, भू, वाच् etc. cf. एकाक्षरा- त्कृते जातेः सप्तम्यां च न तौ स्मृतौ M.Bh. on P.V.2.115, as also on VI.1.168, VI.4.161.

एकाच् possessed of a single vowel, monosyllabic; cf. एकाचो द्वे प्रथमस्य P. VI.1.1.

एकाच्पाद name given by Sīradeva and other grammarians to the first pāda of the sixth adhyāya cf Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī, as it begins with the sūtra एकाचो द्वे प्रथमस्य VI.1.1.

एकादेश a single substitute in the place of two original units; e.g. ए in the place of अ and इ,or ओ in the place of अ and उ. The ādeśas or substitu- tes named पूर्वरूप and पररूप are looked upon as ekadeśas in Pāṇini's grammar although instead of them, the omission of the latter and former vowels respectively, is prescribed in some Prātiśākhya works. गुण and वृद्धि are sometimes single substitutes for single origi- nals, while they are sometimes ekadeśas for two original vowels e.g. तवेदम्, ब्रह्मौदनः, उपैति, प्रार्च्छति, गाम्, सीमन्तः etc.; see P.VI.1.87 to ll l, cf. also A.Pr.II 3.6.


एकादेशस्वर an accent prescribed for the single substitute,as, for instance, by rules like उदात्तस्वरितयोर्यणः स्वरितो- नुदात्तस्य and the following rules P. VI.2.4, 5 and 6.

एकान्त part, portion. Augments or Āgamas in the Vyākaraṇa Śāstra are looked upon as forming a part of the word to which they are attached; cf. अथ यस्यानुबन्ध आसज्यते, किं स तस्य एकान्तो भवति आहोस्विदनेकान्तः । एकान्तस्तत्रेापलब्धेः । M. Bh. on I.3.9, Vārt.9; cf. also एकान्ताः Par. Śek. Pari, 5.

एकान्तर separated or intervened by one single thing, a letter or a word; e. g. अां पचसि देवदत्त, where देवदत्त follows अाम् with one word पचसि intervening; cf. आम एकान्तरमाम- न्त्रितमनन्तिके P.VIII.1.55.

एकार the letter ए; looked upon as a diphthong ( संध्यक्षर ) made up of the letters अ and इ. The combina- tion of the two constituent parts is so complete as cannot allow any of the two parts to be indepen- dently working for saṁdhi or any other operation with its adjoining letter; cf नाव्यपवृत्तस्य अवयवे तद्विधिर्यथा द्रव्येषु M. Bh. Śivasūtra 3 Vārt. 9.

एकार्थ (1) possessed of one sense as contrasted with बह्वर्थ, द्व्यर्थ etc: (2) synonym, cf. बहवो हि शब्दा एकार्था भवन्ति । तद्यथा इन्द्रः शक्रः पुरुहूतः पुरंदरः । M. Bh. on I.2.45 Vārt. 9; (3) Possessed of a composite sense; cf. समासे पुनरेकार्थानि M. Bh. on II. 1.1 Vārt I. The words एकार्थ्य and एकार्थत्व derived from the word एकार्थ are often found used in the sense of 'possession of a compo- site sense' एकार्थस्य भाव: एकार्थता,ऐकार्थ्ये एकार्थत्वं वा; cf. समासस्यैकार्थत्वंत्संज्ञाया अप्रसिद्धिः M. Bh. on P.I.2.42 Vārt 1; cf. also the word एकार्थी- भावः (4) potent to be connected;

समर्थ; cf. सुप्सुपा एकार्थम् ( समस्यते ) C. Vy. II.2.1; (5) analogous समाना- धिकरण cf. एकार्थं चानेकं च । एकः समानः अर्थः अधिकरणं यस्य तदेकार्थं समानाधिकरणम् Hem. Vy. III. 1.22: cf. also एकार्थे च । Śāk. II.1.4.

एकार्थीमाव union of meanings; one of the two ways in which the word सामर्थ्य is explained; cf. एकार्थी- भावो वा सामर्थ्यं स्याद् व्यपेक्षा वा । M. Bh. on II.1.1.

एकाल् possessed of one single pho- netic element or letter cf. अपृक्त एकाल् प्रत्ययः P. I.2.41.

एकीभाव fusion, mixture, union, com- bination (of 2 or more letters); cf. उदात्तवति एकीभावे उदात्तं सन्ध्यमक्षरम्, R. Pr.III.6.एकीभाव is said to be result- ing from the coalescence called अभिनिहितसन्धि, cf. R. Pr. II.16, 17.

एगेलिंग् ( Eggeling ) a well-known German scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who flourished in the l9th century and who edited the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa with the commentary of Durgasiṁha and many appendices in 1876.

एङ् a brief term ( प्रत्याहार ) for the two diphthong letters ए and ओ; cf. एङ्ह्रस्वात्संबुद्धेः P.VI.1.69, एङः पदान्तादति VI.1.109. etc.

एच् a short term (प्रत्याहार) in Pāṇini's grammar standing for diphthongs or letters ए,ऐ,ओ, औ, e.g. एचोयवायावः P.VI.1.78, एच इग् ह्रस्वादेशे P.I.1.48.

एजर्टन् [Edgerton, Dr. Franklin] an American Sanskrit scholar and author of ’Buddhist Hybrid Sans- krit Grammar and Dictionary.'

एणीकृत A fault in pronunciation when the voice is indistinct, and the word pronounced is not dis- tinctly heard; cf. एणीकृतः अविशिष्टः । किमयमोकारः अथौकार इति यत्र संदेहः Pradīpa on M.Bh.I.1.1,explained as अवशिष्ट: संश्लिष्टः संदिग्ध इति यावत् by Nāgeśa in


his Uddyota. एण्य tad. affix एण्य applied to the word प्रावृष् in the general शैषिक senses; cf. प्रावृष एण्यः । प्रावृषेण्यः बलाहकः Kāś. on P.IV.3.17.

एत् the vowel ए; cf. ईदूदेद्द्विवचनं प्रगृह्यम् P.I.1.11.

एतावत्त्व limitation of the kind; 'such and such' (words etc.); cf. A. Pr.I.

एत्व the substitution of ए; cf. बहुवचने झल्येत् (P. VII.3.103) इति एत्वं प्राप्नोति M.Bh. on P.V.3.10.

एत्य tad. affix applied to the in- declinable दूर; e. g. दूरेत्यः पथिकः । cf. दूरादेत्यः दूरेत्य: Kāś.on P.IV.2.104: cf. also दूरादेत्यो वक्तव्यः । दूरेत्यः M.Bh. on P.IV.2.104.

एदित् marked by the mute indicatory letter ए. Roots marked with indi- catory ए do not allow वृद्धि for their vowel in the aorist: e.g. अरगीत्, अलगीत्; cf. P.VII.2.5.

एद्यवि tad. affix एद्यवि applied to the pronoun पर when the word refers to a day;cf. परस्मिन्नहनि परेद्यवि Kāś. on P.V.3.22.

प्रद्युसच् tad. affix एद्युस् applied to the pronouns पूर्व, अन्य, अन्यतर, इतर, अपर, अधर, उभय and उत्तर when the words so formed refer to a day; e. g. पूर्वेद्युः, अन्येद्युः etc.: cf. P.V.3.22.

एधाच् tad.affix एधा substituted for the tad. affix धा optionally,when appli- ed to the words द्वि and त्रि. e.g.द्विधा, द्वेधा, दैधम्, त्रिधा, त्रेधा, त्रैधम्; cf. Kāś. on एधाच्च P.V.3.46.

एनप् tad. affix एन applied to उत्तर, अधर, and दक्षिण optionally instead of the tad. affix आति in the senses of दिक्, देश and काल, e.g. उत्तरेण, उत्तरतः उत्तरात्, Words with this एन at the end govern the acc. case of the word syntactically connected with them. e. g. तत्रागारं धनपतिगूहान् उत्तरेण Kālidāsa: Meghadūta;cf.एनपा द्वितीया P.II.3.31.

एप् a term used in the Jainendra Vyākaraṇa for the term गुण of Pāṇini standing for the vowels अ, ए and ओ; cf. ऋतः समादेरेप् Jain. Vy. V.2.122.

एफ ending added to the consonant र when a mention of it is to be made; cf. T.Pr.I.19: e.g. रेफ.

एलिम (1) kṛt. afix केलिमर् e.g. पचेलिमा माषाः cf. P. III.1.96 Vārt. 1: (2) Uṇādi affix एलिमच् applied to पच् cf. पच एलिमच् Uṇ. S.IV.37.

एलु tad-affix चेलु in the sense of unable to bear, found in Vedic Literature only; e.g. हिमेलुः cf. हिमाक्चेलुर्वक्तव्यः । P.V.2.122 Vārt. 7.

एव (l) a particle in the sense of re- gulation (नियम) ; cf. एवकारः किमर्थः नियमार्थः M. Bh. on V.3.58: (2) . determinant indeclinable; cf. एव इत्यवधारणे; cf. इष्टतोवधारणार्थस्तर्हि । यथैवं विज्ञायेत । अजादी गुणवचनादेवेति M. Bh. on V.3.58.

एवकारकरण use of the word एव; cf. उक्तममैवाव्ययेन इत्यत्र एवकारकरणस्य प्रयो- जनम्० M.Bh. on P.III.4.24.

एश् (1) the substitute ए for the per- fect affix त, substituted for the whole त by reason of the indica- tory letter श् attached to ए; cf. लिटस्तझयोरेशिरेच् and अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य P. III.4.8l and I.1.55; (2) affix ए applied to the root चक्ष् in Vedic Literature; cf. नावचक्षे । नावख्यातव्य- मित्यर्थः Kāś. on P.III.4.15.

एषितव्य necessary to be sought; necessary to be prescribed; cf. तस्मान्मृजेरिग्लक्षणा वृद्धिरेषितब्या M.Bh. on I.1.3. Vārt. 8.

diphthong vowel ऐ; composite form of आ and ए, also termed वृद्धि in Pāṇini's grammar.


ऐकपदिक given in the group of eka- padas or solitarily stated words as contrasted with anekapadas or synonyms. See एकपद above.

ऐकपद्य treatment as one single word especially found in the case of compound words (सामासिकपद) which, as a result of such treat- ment, have only one accent (acute) and one case affix after the whole word; cf. अयं खल्वपि बहुव्रीहिरस्त्येव प्राथमकल्पिकः । यस्मिन्नैकपद्यमैकस्व र्यमेकविभक्तित्वं च M. Bh.on P.I.1.29. See एकपद.

ऐकश्रुत्य possession of the same tone or accent; uniformity of tone or accent. See the word एकश्रुति above; also see P. I.2.39 Vārt. 1,2; VIII. 1.55 Vārt, 1.

ऐकस्वर्य having only one principal accent (Udātta or Svarita) for the whole compound word which is made up of two or more indivi- dual words cf. M. Bh. on P. I.1.29.

ऐकार्थ्य possession of a single com- posite sense (by all words to- gether in a compound); cf संंघातस्य ऐकार्थ्यात् सुबभावो वर्णात् M.Bh. on I. 2.45 Vārt 10; cf. also M. Bh. on II.2.29 Vārt, 7; cf. also नाम नाम्नैकार्थ्ये समासो बहुलम् Hem. III.1.18 where the commentator explains ऐकार्थ्य as एकार्थीभावः In the com. on Hem. III 2.8 ऐकार्थ्य is explain- ed as ऐकपद्य

ऐच् short term ( प्रत्याहार ) standing for 'the two diphthong vowels ऐ and औ; cf. न य्वाभ्यां पदान्ताभ्यां पूर्वौ तु ताभ्यामैच् P.VII.3.4; cf. ऐचोश्चोत्तरभूयस्त्वात् M. Bh. on P.I.1.48, The short substitutes of ऐ and औ are इ and उ when prescribed cf. P. I.1.48; so also the protracted forms of ऐ and औ are protracted इ and उ; cf. P. III.2.106. They are called

द्विस्वर vowels in the Ṛk Prātiś- ākhya. Śākaṭāyana says they are द्विमात्र.

ऐत् the vowel ऐ; cf. एत ऐदित्यैत्वं M.Bh. on P.III.4.93

ऐत्त्व substitution of ऐ for ए by the rule एत ऐ prescribing the substitu- tion of the vowel ऐ for ए in the case of the imperative first person terminations; cf P. III.4.93.

ऐन्द्र name of an ancient school of grammar and of the treatise also, belonging to that school, believed to have been written under instructions of Indra. The work is not available. Patañjali mentions that Bṛhaspati instructed Indra for one thousand celestial years and still did not finish his instructions in words': (M. Bh. I.1.1 ). The Taittirīya Saṁhitā mentions the same. Pāṇini has referred to some ancient grammarians of the East by the word प्राचाम् without mention- ing their names, and scholars like Burnell think that the grammar assigned to Indra is to be referred to by the word प्राचाम्. The Bṛhat- kathāmañjarī remarks that Pāṇi- ni's grammar threw into the back- ground the Aindra Grammar. Some scholars believe that Kalāpa grammar which is available today is based upon Aindra,just as Cāndra is based upon Pāṇini's grammar. References to Aindra Grammar are found in the commentary on the Sārasvata Vyākaraṇa, in the Kavikalpadruma of Bopadeva as also in the commentary upon the Mahābhārata by Devabodha.Quo- tations, although very few, are given by some writers from the work. All these facts prove that there was an ancient pre-Pāṇinian treatise on Grammar assigned to


इन्द्र which was called Aindra-Vyā- karaṇa.For details see Dr.Burnell's 'Aindra School of Sanskrit Gram- marians' as also Vol. VII pages 124-126 of Vyākaraṇa Mahā- bhāṣya, edited by the D.E.Society, Poona.

ऐप् a term used in the Jainendra Grammar instead of the term वृद्धि of Pāṇini which stands for अा, ऐ and औ; cf P.I.1.1.

ऐरक् taddhita affix ऐर applied to the word चटका in the sense of offspring to form the word चाटकैर; cf चटकाया ऐरक् P.IV.1.128.

ऐषुकार्यादि a class of words headed by the word एषुकारि to which the taddhita affix भक्त is added in the sense of 'place of residence'; e.g. एषुकारिभक्तम्, चान्द्रायणभक्तम्; cf. Kāś. on P.IV.2.54.

ऐस् substitute for the case affix भिस् after words ending in अ; cf. अतो भिस एस्. P.VII.I.9 to 11.

(1) diphthong vowel made up of the vowels अ and उ, termed as guṇa in Pāṇini's grammar and prescribed sometimes in the place of the vowel उ; ( 2 ) affix ओ app- lied to the root गम् or गा to form a noun; cf. ओकारो नामकरणः Nir.II.5.

ओंकार the syllable ओं called by the term प्रणव and generally recited at the beginning of Vedic works. Patañjali has commented upon the word briefly as follows; पादस्य वा अर्धर्चस्य वा अन्त्यमक्षरमुपसंहृत्य तदाद्यक्षरशेषस्य स्थाने त्रिमात्रमोंकारं त्रिमात्रमोंकारं वा विदधति तं प्रणव इत्याचक्षते M.Bh. on VIII.2.89.

ओत् the vowel ओ; cf. ओत् PI.1.15,16 prescribing- प्रगृह्यसंज्ञा for Nipātas like अहो, उताहो and others with a view that the wowel at their end

should not coalesce with the following vowel. The Prātiśākhya works prohibit the coalescence of ओ in many cases with the succeed- ing vowel; cf. R. Pr. I.70; V. Pr. I.94.

ओदित् marked with the indicatory letter ओ; roots marked with the mute letter ओ have the Niṣṭhā affix त or तवत् changed to न or नवत्; e.g. लग्नः, लग्नवान् दीनः, दीनवान् etc. cf. ओदितश्र P VIII.2.45; cf. also स्वादय ओदितः इत्युक्तम् । सूनः सूनवान्; दूनः दूनवान् Si. Kau. on P. VIII.2.45.

ओप्पेर्ट् [Gustav Oppert 1836-1908 ] a German scholar of Sanskrit who edited the Śabdānuśāsana of Śākaṭāyana.

ओम् See ओंकार above- ओम् consists of 2 1/2 matras, cf. अर्धतृतीयमात्र एके ब्रुवते T. Pr 18.1; शैत्यायन says that ओम् has any one of the three accemts, while कौण्डिन्य says it has प्रचय or एकश्रुति i. e. absence of any accent.

ओरंभट्ट् a scholar of grammar of the nineteenth century who wrote a Vṛtti on Pāṇini sūtras called पाणिनि- सूत्रवृत्ति. He has written many works on the Pūrvamīmāmsa and other Śāstras.

ओष्ठ Iit. lip; the place of origin ( स्थान ) of the labial letters called उपध्मानीय वर्ण i.e the vowels उ, ऊ, the consonants प्, फ्, ब्, भ्, म् and the उपध्मानीय letter; cf. ऊपूपध्मानीयाना- मेाष्ठौ Sid. Kau. on तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P.I.1.9, also उवोपोपध्मा ओष्ठे V. Pr . I.70.

ओष्ठय lit. produced upon the lip: a letter ofthe labial class;letters उ,ऊ, ओ, औ, प्, फ्, ब्, भ्, म् and व् are given as ओष्ठय letters in the Ṛk Prātiś- ākhya, cf. R. Pr. I. 20. See the word ओष्ठ above. For the utterance of the letter व् tips of the teeth. are also employed; hence the letter व्


is said to have दन्तौष्ठ as its स्थान.. ओस् the case affix ओस् of the gen. and the loc, dual.

( 1 ) the vowel औ; diphthong vowel made up of आ and ओ; ( 2 ) the substitute औ for the final letter उ of the word मनु before the fem, affix ई; cf. मनोः स्त्री मनायी, मनावी,मनुः Kāś. on P. IV. 1. 38; ( 3 ) case ending of the nom. and acc. dual called औङ् also.

ओङ् a term used by ancient gramm- arians for the affix औ of the nom. and the acc. dual. The vowel ई (शी) is substituted for औ in the case of nouns of the feminine and neu- ter genders; cf. औङः शी P. VII. 1.18, 19.

औट् the case ending औ of the acc. dual; cf. P.IV.1.2.

अौणादिक an afix mentioned in the class of affixes called उणादि in treatises of Pāṇini and other grammarians; cf. नमुचि । मुचेरौणादिकः केिप्रत्ययः Kāś.on P.VI.3.75; फिडफिड्डौ अौणादिकौ प्रत्ययौ M.Bh. on Śiva Sūtra 2. See the word उणादि above.

औणादिकपदार्णव a collection of words called औणादिक; a name given to his work by पेदुभदृ of the 18th century.

औत् (1) the letter औ included in the वृद्धि vowels अा, ऐ and औ, and hence called वृद्धि in Pāṇini's gra- mmar, (2) substitute for the case- ending इ ( ङि ) in Pāṇini's gra- mmar; cf. P. VII.3.118, 119.

औत्तरपदिक pertaining to the ulte- rior member of a compound cf. औत्तरपदिके ह्रस्वत्व (P.VI.3.61) कृते तुक् प्राप्नोति M.Bh. on I.1.62.

औत्व the substitution of the vowel अौ; cf. P. VII.3.117-119.

औत्सर्गिक an affix or an operation resulting from the general rule ( उत्सर्ग ); cf. अपत्ये कुत्सिते मूढे मनौरो- त्सर्गिकः स्मृत: M. Bh. on IV.1.161 ; cf. also एवमप्यौत्सर्गिकाणां तद्विषयता न प्राप्नोति M. Bh. on IV.2.66.

औदव्रजि an ancient sage and scholar of Vedic Grammar who is believ- ed to have revised the original text of the ऋक्तन्त्रप्रातिशाख्य of the Sāma-Veda. cf. Śab. Kaus. I.1.8.

अौदुम्वरायण an ancient sage whose doctrine of 'evanescence of words' (lit. existence as long as its cognition is had by the sense organs) is seen quoted in the Nirukta; cf. इन्द्रियनित्यं वचनमौदुम्बरा- यणस्तत्र चतुष्टयं नोपपद्यते Nir. I.1.

औद्देशिक enumerated; actually stated; उद्देशतः प्रोक्तम् औद्देशिकम् cf. न तु औद्देशिकमिव Nir.I.4.

औपचारिक resulting from उपचार or लक्षणा ; metonymical.

अौपदेशिक mentioned in the original statement; cf. अन्तग्रहणं औपदेशिकांर्थम् । Kāś. on ष्णान्ता षट् P.I.1.24, cf. also औपदेशिकप्रायोगिकयोरौपदेशिकस्यैव ग्रह- णम् Par. Śek. Pari. 120.

औपमन्यव name of an ancient etymo- logist referred to by Yaska in his Nirukta possibly as a commenta- tor on निघण्टु; cf. निगन्तव एव सन्तो निगमनान्निघण्टव उच्यन्यन्ते इत्यौपमन्यवः Nir. I.1. line 4.

औपमिक figurative metaphorical ap- plication or statement: cf. ( विराट् ) पिपीलिकमध्या इत्यौपमिकम् Nir. VII. 13. औपश्लेषिक resulting from immediate contact immediately or closely connected; one of the three types of अधिकरण or location which is given as the sense of the locative case; cf. अधिकरणं नाम त्रिप्रकारं-व्यापकम् ओपश्लेषिकम्, वैषयिकमिति ... इको यणचि | अचि उपाश्लिष्टस्येति | M. Bh. VI. 1.72.


औपसंख्यानिक subsequently stated by way of addition or modification as done by the Vārttikakāras; cf. औपसंख्यानिकस्य णस्यापवादंः । आरण्यको मनुष्यः Kāś on P.IV.2.129; cf. also Kāś. on V.1.29 and VI.3.41.

औरस produced from the chest ; the Visajanīya and h (हकार) are look- ed upon as औरस and not कण्ठ्य by Some ancient phoneticians;cf. केचि- दाचार्याः एतौ हकारविसर्जनीयौ उर:स्थानाविच्छ- न्ति com. on R.Pr.I.18: cf. also हकारं पञ्चमैर्युक्तमन्तस्थाभिश्च संयुतम् । उरस्यं तं विजानीयात्कण्ठ्यमाहुरसंयुतम् । Pān. Śikṣā. 16.

औरस्य produced from the chest. See औरस.

औश् substitute औ for the nom. and acc. case endings applied to the numeral अष्टन्; cf. अष्टाभ्य औश् P.VII. 1.21.

औष्णिह beginning with a stanza of the Uṣṇih metre; cf. उष्णिहापूर्वः सतो- बृहत्यन्तः प्रगाथः औष्णिह इत्युच्यते । यथा यमा- दित्यासो अद्रुहः Uvaṭa on R.Pr.XVIII.5.

{{c|-( अनुस्वार ) ंअनुस्वार or nasal (l) looked upon as a phonetic element, indepen- dent, no doubt, but incapable of being pronounced without a vowel Preceding it. Hence, it is shown in writing with अ although its form in writing is only a dot above the line cf अं इत्यनुस्वारः । अकार इह उच्चारणर्थ इति बिन्दुमात्रो वर्णोनुस्वारसंज्ञो भवति Kāt. Vyāk I.1.19; (2) anusvāra,showing or signifying Vikāra i.e. अागम and used as a technical term for the second विभक्ति or the accusative case. See the word अं above on page 1.

            ः ( विसर्ग )

'ः or विसर्गः lit. letting out 13

breath from the mouth; sound or utterance caused by breath escap- ing from the mouth; breathing. The Visarjanīya, just like the anusvāra, is incapable of being independently uttered. Hence, it is written for convenience as अः although its form for writing pur- poses is only two dots after the vowel preceding it; cf. अः इति विसर्जनीयः । अकार इह उच्चारणार्थः इति कुमारी- स्तनयुगाकृतिर्वर्णो विसर्जनीयसंज्ञो भवति । Kāt. Vyāk. I.1.16. See अः above on page 2.

          ᳵ ( जिह्वामूलीय )

जिह्वामूलीय, a phonetical element or unit called Jihvāmūlīya, pro- duced at the root of the tongue, which is optionally substituted in the place of the Visarga (left 0ut breath) directly preceding the utterance of the letter क् or ख् and hence shown as ᳵ क्. See अ ᳵ क् above on page 2.

         ᳶ ( उपध्मानीय )

ᳶ उपध्मानीय lit. blowing; a term applied to the visarga when followed by the consonant प् or फ्. The upadhmānīya is looked upon as a letter or phonetic element, which is always connected with the preceding vowel. As the upadhmānīya is an optional sub- stitute for the visarga before the letter प् or फ्, when, in writing, it is to be shown instead of the visarga, it is shown as ᳶ, or as w , or even as x just as the Jihvāmūlīya; cf. उपध्मायते शब्दायते इति, उप समीपे ध्मायते शब्द्यते इति वा com. on Kāt. I:; : cf. also कपाभ्यां प्रागर्धविसर्गसदृशो जिह्वामूलीयोपध्मानीयौः:S.K.on P.VIII.2.1.


            ( ँ नासिक्य )

ँ नासिक्य, a nasal letter or utterance included among the अयोगवाह letters analogous to anusvāra and yama letters. It is mentioned in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as हुँ इति नासिक्यः on which Uvvaṭa makes the remark अयमृक्शाखायां प्रसिद्धः. The Ṛk-Prātiśākhya mentions नासिक्य, यम and अनुस्वार as नासिक्य or nasal letters, while Uvvaṭa defines नासिक्य as a letter produced only by the nose; cf. केवलनासिकया उच्चार्यमाणे वर्णॊ नासिक्यः Uvvaṭa on R. Pr. I. 20. The Taittirīya Prātiśākhya calls the letter ह् as nāsikya when it is followed by the consonant न् or ण् or म् and gives अह्नाम् , अपराह्णे and ब्रह्म as instances. The Pāṇinīya Śikṣā does not mention नासिक्य as a letter. The Mahābhāṣya men- tions नासिक्य as one of the six ayogavāha letters; cf. के पुनरयो- गवाहाः । विसर्जनीयजिह्वामूलीयोपध्मानीयानु- स्वारानुनासिक्ययमाः M. Bh. on Śiva- sūtra 5 Vārt. 5, where some manuscripts read नासिक्य for अानुना- सिक्य while in some other manus- cripts there is neither the word आनुनासिक्य nor नासिक्य. It is likely that the anunāsika-colouring given to the vowel preceding the conso- nant सू substituted for the conso- nants म, न् and others by P. VIII. 3.2. to 12, was looked upon as a separate phonetic unit and called नासिक्य as for instance in सँस्कर्ता, मा हिँसीः, सँशिशाधि etc.

 ( यम )

यम, a letter called यम which is uttered partly through the nose. A class consonant excepting the fifth, when followed by the fifth viz. ङ्, ञ्, ण्, न or म् , gets doubled

in the Vedic recital, when the second of the doubled consonant which is coloured by the follow- ing nasal consonant is called यम. This यम letter is not independent. It necessarily depends upon the following nasal consonant and hence it is called अयोगवाह. The nasalization is shown in script as xx followed by the consonant; e. g. पलिक्क्नी, अगूग्रे, etc. The pro- nunciation of this yama or twin letter is seen in the Vedic recital only; cf. पलिक्कनी ... कखगघेभ्य; परे तत्सदृशा एव यमाः S. K. on P. VIII. 2.1. cf. कु खु गु घु इति यमाः विंशति- संख्याका भवन्ति V. Pr. VIII.24.

क्(l) the consonant क्; the first con. sonant of the consonant group as also of the guttural group; (2) substitute क् for consonants ष्, and ढ् before the consonant स्;cf.V.P.2.41. For the elision ( लोप ) of क् on ac- count of its being termed इत् see P.I.3.3 and 8.

क.(l) tad.affix क applied to the words of the ऋश्य group in the four senses called चातुरर्थिक e. g. ऋश्यकः, अनडुत्कः, वेणुकः etc., cf. P.IV.2.80; (2) tad. affix क applied to nouns in the sense of diminution, censure, pity etc. e. g. अश्वक्रः, उष्ट्रकः, पुत्रकः, cf. P.V. 3.70-87: (3) tad. affix क in the very sense of the word itself ( स्वार्थे ) e.g. अविकः, यावकः, कालकः; cf. P.V.4.28- 33; (4) Uṇādi affix क e.g. कर्क, वृक, राका, एक, भेक, काक, पाक, शल्क etc. by Uṇādi sūtras III. 40-48 before which the angment इट् is prohibit- ed by P. VII.2.9; (5) kṛt affix क ( अ ) where क् is dropped by P. I. 3.8, applied, in the sense of agent, to certain roots mentioned in P.III.1.135, 136, 144, III. 2.3 to


7, III.2.77 and III.3.83 e.g. बुध:, प्रस्थः, गृहम्, कम्बलदः, द्विपः, मूलविभुजः, सामगः, सुरापः etc.; (6) substitute क for the word किम् before a case affix, cf. P.VII.2.103; (7) the Samāsānta affix कप् (क) at the end of Bahu- vrīhi compounds as prescribed by P.V.4.151-160.

ककार the consonant क; cf. वर्णात्कारः P. III.3.108 Vārt. 3.

कंसविजयगणि a Jain grammarian who wrote a commentary by name शब्दचन्द्रिकोद्धार on the सारस्वतव्याकरण.

कर्क्यादि a class of words headed by the word कर्की, the word प्रस्थ after which in a compound, does not have the acute accent on its first vowel. e. g. कर्कीप्रस्थः; cf. P.VI.2.87.

कच्छादि a class of words headed by कच्छ to which the taddhita affix अण् is added in the miscellaneous (शैषिक) senses, provided the word, to which the affix अण् is to be added, is the name of a country; e.g. ऋषिकेषु जातः आर्षिकः similarly माहिषिकः, ऐक्ष्वाकः; cf. Kāś. on P.IV.2.133.

कक् tad. cāturarthika affix क (I) by P. IV.2.80 after words headed by वराह, e.g. वराहकः, पलाशकः; (2) by P.IV.4.21, after the word अपमित्य e.g. आपमित्यकः

कञ् kṛt, affix ( अ ) affixed to the root दृश् preceded by त्यद्, तद् etc. by P. IV.2.60 e.g. तादृश:, यादृशः etc., fem. तादृशी by P.IV.1.15.

कटच् tad.affix कट affixed to सं, प्र, उद् and अव by P.V.2.29, 30; e.g. संकट, प्रकट etc.

कट्यच् tad. affix कटय affixed to the word रथ in the sense of collection by P.IV.2.5l e.g. रथकटया.

कडारादि a class of words headed by the word कडार which, although adje- ctival,are optionally placed first in

the Karmadhāraya compound, e.g. कडारजैमिनिः जैमिनिकडारः; cf. Kāś. on II.2.38.

कर्णादि (1) a class of words headed by कर्ण to which the taddhita affix अायन ( फिञ् ) is applied in the four senses given in P.IV.2.67-70; e.g. कार्णायनिः वासिष्ठायनिः etc.; cf Kāś. on P.IV.2.80; (2) a class of words headed by कर्ण to which the taddhita affix जाह (जाहच्) is added in the sense of a 'root' e.g. कर्णजाहम् ; cf. Kāś. on P.V.2.24.

कण्टकोद्धार name of a commentary on Nāgeśa's Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Mannudeva, known also as Mantu- deva or Manyudeva, who was a pupil of Pāyaguṇḍe in the latter half of the 18th century.

कण्ठ glottis: cavity in the throat holding vocal cords; the place of the production of the sounds अ, अI and ह; cf. अहविसर्जनीयाः कण्ठे V, Pr.I. 71; cf, also कण्ठ्योsकारः प्रथमपञ्चमौ च R.Pr.I.18.

कण्ठतालव्य gutturo-palatal. The diph- thongs ए and ऐ are called Kaṇṭha- tālavya, as they are produced in the Kaṇṭhatalu-sthāna.

कण्ठोक्त formally mentioned; directly mentioned.

कण्ठोष्ठ्य, कण्ठौष्ठ्य gutturo-labial, the diphthongs ओ and औ are called Kaṇṭhoṣṭhya as they are produc- ed at both the Kaṇṭha and the Oṣṭha Sthānas.

कण्ठ्य produced at the throat or at the glottis; the vowel अ, visarga and the consonant ह् are called कण्ठ्यं in the Prātiśākhyas, while later grammarians include the guttural consonants क्, ख् ग्, घ् and ङ् among the Kaṇṭhya letters; cf. अकुहविसर्जनीयानां कण्ठः Sid. Kau.on तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P.I.1.9. See कण्ठ.


कण्ड्वादि a group of words which are headed by the word कण्डू and which are either nouns or roots or both to which the affix यक् is added to arrive at the secondary roots e.g. कण्डूयति, कण्डूयते; हृणीयति, हृणीयते, महीयते cf. धातुप्रक्ररणाद्धातुः कस्य चासञ्जनादपि । आह चायमिमं दीर्घं मन्ये धातुर्विभाषितः ॥ Kāś. on P.III.1.27.

कण्वादि a class of words forming a portion of the class of words call- ed गर्गादि, and headed by the word कण्व, to the derivatives of which, formed by the afix यञ् by the rule गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् (P.IV.1.105) the affix अण् is added in the misce- llaneous senses; e.g. काण्वाः छात्राः; similarly गौकक्षाः, शाकलाः , अगस्तयः, कुण्डिनाः etc: cf. P.IV.2.111 and II. 4.70.

कत्र्यादि a class of words headed by the word कत्रि to which the tad. affix एयक (ढकञ्) is applied in the miscellaneous senses; e.g. कात्रेयकः, ग्रामेयकः, कौलेयकः (from कुल्या); cf. P. IV.2.75.

कथादि a class of words headed by कथा the word कथा to which the affix इक (ठक्) is added in the sense of 'good therein' (तत्र साधुः); e.g. काथिकः, वैतण्डिकः, गाणिकः, अायुर्वेदिकः cf. P.IV.4.102.

कध्यै कध्यैन् kṛt affix अध्यै of the infinitive in Vedic Literature: cf. तुमर्थे सेसे...कध्यैकध्यैन्..तवेनः P.III.4.9.

कन् (1) Uṇādi affix as in the words एक, भेक, शल्क etc; (2) tad.affix क as given by Pāṇini sūtras IV.2.13l, IV.3.32, 65, 147, IV.4.21; V.1.22, 23, 51, 90, V.2.64, 65, 66, 68-75, 77-82, V.3.51, 52, 75,81,82,87, 95, 96, 97. V.4.3,4,6, 29-33.

कप् (l) kṛt affix क prescribed after the root दुह् e.g. कामदुघा, cf. P.III.2. 70;(2) the Samāsānta अ at the end

of Bahuvrīhi compounds e.g. व्वूढो- रस्कः, बहुदण्डिका, बहुकुमारीकः,बहुकर्तृकः, cf. P.V.4.151-154. For its prohibi- tion, see P.V.4.155-160.

कर्मणिपाद name given by Sīradeva and other grammarians to the second pāda of the third adhyāya of Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī, which begins with the sūtra कर्मण्यण् P. III.2.1 .

कमुल् kṛt. affix अम् in Vedic Litera- ore in the sense of the infinitive, e. g. विभाजं in अग्निं वै देवा विभाजं नाशक्नुवन्;cf. P.III.4.12.

कम्प vibration of the larynx which produces thc sound.

कम्पन a fault in uttering an accent- ed vowel especially a vowel with the circumflex accent which is not properly uttered by the Souther- ners as remarked by Uvvata; cf कम्पनं नाम रचराश्रितपाठदोषः । स च प्रायेण दाक्षिणात्यानां भवति । स च वर्ज्यः । Uvvaṭa on R. Pr. III.18.

कम्पित the same as कम्पन. See कम्पन above

कम्बोजादि a class of words headed by the word कम्बोज, the affix अञ् placed after which is elided, pro- vided the words कम्बोज and others are names of countries; e.g. कम्बोजः चोलः, केरलः, शकः, यवनः etc. cf. P. IV.1.175.

करण(1) lit instrument; the term signifies the most efficient means for accomplishing an act; cf. क्रियासिद्धी यत् प्रकृष्टोपकारकं विवक्षितं तत्साधकतमं कारकं करणसंज्ञं भवति, Kāś. on साधकतमं करणम् P.I.4.42, e. g. दात्रेण in दात्रेण लुनाति; (2) effort inside the mouth (अाभ्यन्तर-प्रयत्न ) to produce sound; e. g. touching of the particular place ( स्थान ) inside the mouth for uttering consonants; cf. स्पृष्टं स्पर्शानां करणम् M. Bh. on P, I.1.10 Vārt. 3; (3)


disposition of the organ which produces the sound; cf. श्वासनादो- भयानां विशेषः करणमित्युच्यते । एतच्च पाणिनि- संमताभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न इति भाति । Com. on R. Pr. XIII.3;cf. also स्थानकरणानुप्रदानानि M. Bh. on I.2.32: cf. also अनुप्रदानात्संसर्गात् स्थानात् करणविन्ययात् । जायते वर्णवैशेष्यं परीमाणाच्च पञ्चमात् T. Pr. XXIII. 2. where karaṇa is describ- ed to be of five kinds अनुप्रदान (i.e. नाद or resonance), संसर्ग (contact), स्थान, करणविन्यय and परिमाण; cf.अकारस्य तावत् - अनुप्रदानं नादः, संसर्गः कण्ठे, स्थानं हनू, करणविन्ययः ओष्ठौ, परिमाणं मात्राकालः । अनुप्रदानादिभिः पञ्चभिः करणैर्वर्णानां वैशेष्यं जायते Com. on Tai. Pr. XXIII.2. The Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya men- tions two karaṇas संवृत and विवृत; cf. द्वे करणे संवृतविवृताख्ये वायोर्भवतः V. Pr. I. 11; (4) use of a word e.g. इतिकरणं, वत्करणम्; cf. किमुपस्थितं नाम । अनार्षं इतिकरणः M.Bh.on. P.VI.1.129.

करविणी or कर्विणी name of a svara- bhakti i. e. behaviour like the vowel लृ, noticed in the case of the consonant ल् when followed by the sibilant ह्; cf. करेणू रहयोर्योगे कर्विणी लहकारयोः । हरिणी रशसानां च हारिता लशकारयोः ॥ करेणुः बर् हिः । कर्विणी भलहाः Com. on T. Pr. XXI. 15. See स्वरभक्ति.

करिणी name of a svarabhakti i. e. behaviour like the vowel ऋ noticed in the case of the conso- nant र्. when it is followed by ह् e. g. बर् हिः करिणी is named करेणु also.

करिष्यत् करिष्यन्ती ancient technical terms for the future tense;the word करिष्यन्ती is more frequently used.

कर्णमूलीयproduced at the root of the ear; the utterance of a cir- cumflex vowel is described as Karṇamūliya.

कर्तृ agent of an action, subject; name of a kāraka or instrument in general, of an action, which

produces the fruit or result of an action without depending on any other instrument; cf. स्वतन्त्रः कर्ता P. I.4.54, explained as अगुणीभूतो यः क्रियाप्रसिद्धौ स्वातन्त्र्येण विवक्ष्यते तत्कारकं कर्तृ- संज्ञं भवति in the Kāśikā on P.I. 4.54. This agent, or rather, the word standing for the agent, is put in the nominative case in the active voice (cf. P.I.4.54), in the instrumental case in the passive voice (cf P. II.3.18), and in the genitive case when it is connected with a noun of action or verbal derivative noun, (cf. P.II.3.65).

कर्तृयक् the affix य of the passive voice where the object functions as the subject: e. g. यक् in लूयते केदारः स्वयमेव; cf. अचः कर्तृयकि P.VI. 1.95 and the Kāśikā thereon.

कर्तृवेदना experience (of something) by the agent himself; cf. सुखादिभ्यः कर्तृवेदनायाम् P. III.1.18

कर्तृसाधन (an affix) appplied in the sense of the agent of an activity; भवतीति भावः । कतृसाधनश्चायं प्रत्ययः M. Bh. on P.I.3.1. Vārt. 7.

कर्तृस्थक्रिय(a root) whose activity is found functioning in the subject;cf. यत्र क्रियाकृतविशेषदर्शनं कर्तरि Kaiyata on P.III.1.87 Vārt. 3. Such roots, although transitive do not have any Karmakartari construction by the rule कर्मवत्कर्मणा तुल्यक्रियः P.III. 1.87. as e.g. ग्रामं गच्छति देवदत्तः has no कर्मकर्तरि construction; cf. कर्मस्थभाव- कानां कर्मस्थक्रियाणां वा कर्ता कर्मवद् भवतीति वक्तव्यम् । कर्तृस्थभावकानां कर्तृस्थक्रियाणां वा कर्ता कर्मवन्मा भूदिति M. Bh. on III. 1.87. Vārt, 3.

कर्तृस्थभावक (a root) whose action or happening is noticed functioning in the subject; e.g. the root स्मृ. cf. कर्तस्थभावकश्चायं (स्मरतिः) M. Bh. of I.3.67, कतृस्थभावकश्च शेतिः (शीधातुः) M. Bh. on V.3.55.


कर्त्रभिप्राय meant for the agent of the action. The word is used in connection with the fruit or result of an action; when the result is for the agent, roots having both the Padas get the Ātmanepada terminations; cf. स्वरितञ्जितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले P.I.3.72.

कर्मकर्तृ object of the transitive verb which functions as the subject when there is a marked facility of action: e.g.ओदन is karmakartari- object, functioning as subject, in पच्यते ओदनः स्वयमेव. The word कर्मकर्तृ is used also for the कर्मकर्तरि प्रयोग where the object, on which the verb-activity is found, is turned into a subject and the verb which is transitive is turned into intransitive as a result.

कर्मधारय name technically given to a compound-formation of two words in apposition i. e. used in the same case, technically called समानाधिकरण showing the same sub- stratutm; cf. तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्म- धारयः I 2.42. The karmadhāraya compound is looked upon as a variety of the tatpuruṣa com- pound. There is no satisfactory explanation of the reason why such a compound is termed कर्म- धारय. Śākaṭāyana defines Karma- dhāraya as विशेषणं व्यभिचारि एकार्थं कर्मधारयश्च where the word विशेषण is explained as व्यावर्तक or भेदक (distin- guishing attribute) showing that the word कर्म may mean भेदकक्रिया. The word कर्मधारय in that case could mean 'कर्म भेदकक्रिया, तां धारयति असौ कर्मधारयः' a compound which gives a specification of the thing in hand.

कर्मन् (l) object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants

primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; cf. कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; cf. कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म Kāt. II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Hem. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treat- ed as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna etc. It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; cf. अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित above. Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically con- nected with a verb or a verbal deri- vative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinabl- es or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is con- nected with affixes other than those mentioned above; cf. P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a noun- affix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. e.g. कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः etc. It is called अभिहित in such cases;cf. P.II.3.1.Sec the word अन- भिहित above.The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained

कर्म नामन्

from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति etc. It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति etc. It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; e.g. घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; cf. निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् Padamañjarī on I.4.49: cf. also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also Nyāsa on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय e.g. (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित e.g. बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; cf. Padamañjarī on I.4 49, The com- mentator Abhayanandin on Jain- endra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; cf. कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and com. thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; cf. उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोग- द्योतका भवन्ति Nir. I. 3.4, where Dur- gācārya explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ).

कमेनामन् lit. noun showing action, participle. कर्मप्रवचनीय a technical term used in

connection with a preposition which showed a verbal activity formerly, although for the present time it does not show it; the word is used as a technical term in grammar in connection with prefixes or उपसर्गs which are not us- ed along.with a root, but without it cf. कर्म प्रोक्तवन्तः कर्मप्रवचनीयाः इति M.Bh. on P.I.4.83; e.g. शाकल्यस्य संहितामनु प्रावर्षत्, अन्वर्जुनं योद्धारः, अा कुमारं यशः पाणिनेः; cf. Kāś. on P.I.4.83 to 98.

कर्मवद्भाव the activity of the agent or kartā of an action represented as object or karman of that very ac- tion, for the sake of grammatical operations: e. g. भिद्यते काष्ठं स्वयमेव;. करिष्यते कटः स्वयमेव. To show facility of a verbal activity on the object, when the agent or kartā is dispen- sed with, and the object is looked upon as the agent, and used also as an agent, the verbal termina- tions ति, त; etc. are not applied in the sense of an agent, but they are applied in the sense of an ob- ject; consequently the sign of the voice is not अ (शप्), but य (यक्) and the verbal terminations are त, आताम् etc. (तङ्) instead of ति, तस् etc. In popular language the use of an expression of this type is called Karmakartari-Prayoga. For details see M. Bh. on कर्मवत्कर्मणा तुल्यक्रियः P.III.1.87. Only such roots as are कर्मस्थक्रियक or कर्मस्थभावक i.e. roots whose verbal activity is noticed in the object and not in the subject can have this Kar- makartari-Prayoga.

कर्मव्यतिहार exchange of verbal acti- vity; reciprocity of action; कर्मव्यति- हार means क्रियाव्यतिहार or क्रियाविनिमय; cf. कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14.; also कर्मव्यतिहारे णच् स्त्रियाम् । व्यावक्रोशी, व्यात्युक्षी Kāś. on P.III.3.43.


The roots having their agents characterized by a reciprocity of action take the Ātmanepada ter- minations; cf. P. I. 3.14.

कर्मसाधन prescribed in the sense of an object; a term used in the Mahābhāṣya in the sense of affixes used in the sense of 'object' as contrasted with कर्तृसाधन or भावसाधनः e. g. the affix कि in the word विधि, explained as विधीयते इति विधिः or in the word भाव explained as भाव्यते यः स भावः; cf. क्रिया चैव हि भाव्यते, स्वभावसिद्धं तु द्रव्यम् M.Bh. on P. I.3.1. See similarly the words समाहार M.Bh. on II.1.51 and उपधि M.Bh. on V.1.13.

कर्मस्थक्रिय (roots) having their verbal activity situated in the object; e.g. the root अव + रुध् in अवरुणद्धि गाम् or the root कृ in करोति कटम्; cf. कर्मस्थभा- वकानां कर्मस्थक्रियाणां च P. III.1.87 Vārt. 3.

कर्मस्थभावक (roots) having their verbal action or happening noticed in the object; e. g. the root आस् and शी in बालमासयति शाययति where the function of the root bears effect in the Object boy and not in the move- ments of the object as in the sentence बालमवरुणद्धि. See कर्मस्थक्रिय above as also M.Bh. on III.1.87 and Kaiyaṭa on the same.

कर्मादि lit. karman and others; a term often used in the Mahābhāṣya for kārakas or words connected with a verbal activity which have the object or karmakāraka mentioned first; सुपां कर्मादयोप्यर्थाः संख्या चैव तथा तिङाम् M.Bh, on I.4.21.

कर्मापदिष्ट operations prescribed speci- fically for objects i. e. prescribed in the case of objects which are described to be functioning as the subject to show facility of the verbal action: e. g. the vikaraṇa

यक् or the affix च्णि; cf. कर्मापदिष्टाविधय: कर्मस्थभावकानां कर्मस्थक्रियाणां वा भवन्ति । कर्तृस्थभावकाश्च दीपादयः M.Bh.on I.1.44.

कर्विणी A kind of svarabhakti. See करविणी.

कर्षण extension; protraction, defined as kālaviprakarṣa by commentators; a peculiarity in the recital as noticed in the pronunciation of ट् when followed by च् , or ड् when followed by ज् e.g. षट्चै; षड्जात. cf. Nār. Śik. I.7.19.

कल a fault of pronunciation conse- quent upon directing the tongue to a place in the mouth which is not the proper one, for the utte- rance of a vowel; a vowel so pro- nounced; cf. संवृतः कलो ध्मात: ... रोमश इति cf.also निवृत्तकलादिकामवर्णस्य प्रत्यापत्तिं वक्ष्यामि M.Bh. Āhnika 1.

कलाप (कलाप-व्याकरण) alternative name given to the treatise on grammar written by Sarvavarman who is believed to have lived in the days of the Sātavāhana kings. The trea- tise is popularly known by the namc Kātantra Vyākaraṇa. The available treatise,viz. Kalpasūtras, is much similar to the Kātantra Sūtras having a few changes and additions only here and there.It is rather risky to say that Kalāpa was an ancient system of grammar which is referred to in the Pāṇini Sūtra कलापिनोण् P. IV.3.108. For details see कातन्त्र.

कलापरत्न a commentary on the kāraka portion of the Kalāpa grammar as- cribed to the famous commentator Durgasiṁha.

कलापसंग्रह a commentary on the Kalāpa Sūtras.

कलापिन् the author of the work re- ferred to as Kālāpa in the Mah- ābhāṣya which perhaps was a work on grammar as the word कालाप is


mentioned with the word in the Mahābhāṣya, cf. M.Bh. on कलापिनोSणू P. IV.3. 108. Kalāpin is mentioned as a pupil of Vaiśam- pāyana in the Mahābhāṣya; cf. वैशम्पायनान्तेवासी कलापी M.Bh. on P. IV.3.104.

कल्प the tad. affix कल्पप् added to any substantive in the sense of slightly inferior, or almost complete; e.g. पट्कल्पः, मृदुकल्प; cf. P.V.3.67 and Kāśikā thereon.

कल्पन, कल्पना supposition, assumption; cf गुणकल्पनया च भिक्षुनटसूत्रयोश्छन्दस्त्वम् Kāś. on P. IV.3.110; cf. also अनेक- क्लिष्टकल्पनापेक्षया अस्या उचितत्वात् Pari. Śek. on. Pari. 94.

कल्पनालाघव brevity of thought: bre- vity of expression: minimum assumption. See the word लाघव.

कल्पप् tad. affix कल्प. See कल्प.

कल्पलता name of a commentary on Bhaṭṭojī's Praudhamanoramā ' by Kṛṣṇamiśra.

कल्मन् the same as karman or object of an action especially when it is not fully entitled to be called karman, but looked upon as karman only for the sake of being used in the accusative case; subordinate karman, as for instance the cow in गां पयो दोग्धि. The term was used by ancient grammarians; cf. विपरीतं तु यत्कर्म तत् कल्म कवयो विदुः M.Bh. on P.I.4.51. See कर्मन्.

कल्याणमल्ल author of the commentary Śabdaratnadīpa on the Śabdaratna of Hari Dīkṣita.

कल्याणसरस्वती author of the Laghus- ārasvata, a small grammar work. He lived in the 18th century A. D.

कल्याणसागर author of the Haimaliṅg- ānuśāsana-vivaraṇa, a commentary on the Liṅgānuśāsana chapter of| 14

कसुन Hemacandra's grammar. He lived in the 16 th century A. D.

कल्याण्यादि a class of words headed by the word कल्याणी to which the taddhita affix एय (ढक्) is add- ed, in the sense of 'offspring' and, side by side, the ending इन् (इनड्) is substituted for the last letter of those words; e. g. काल्या- णिनेयः, सौभागिनेयः cf. Kāś. on P.IV. 1.126.

कवर्ग the class of guttural consonants consisting of the five consonants क्, ख्, ग्, घ् ङ्

कविकल्पद्रुम a treatise on roots wri- tten by Bopadeva, the son of Keś- ava and the pupil of Dhaneśa who lived in the time of Hemādri, the Yādava King of Devagiri in the thirteenth century. He has written a short grammar work named Mugdhabodha which has been very popular in Bengal being studied in many Tols or Pāṭhaś- ālās.

कविकल्पद्रुमटीका a commentary on the Kavikalpadruma, written by the author ( बोपदेव ) himself. It is kno- wn by the name Kāvyakāmad- henu; (2) a commentary on Kavikalpadruma by Rāmatarka- vāgīśa.

कविचन्द्र author of a small treatise on grammar called Sārasatvarī. He lived in the seventeenth century A.D. He was a resident of Darbha- ṅgā. Jayakṛṣṇa is also given as the name of the author of the Sārasa- tvarī grammar and it is possible that Jayakṛṣṇa was given the title, or another name, Kavicandra.

कश्यप name of a writer on the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa.

कसुन् kṛt affix अस् found in Vedic Literature, in the sense of the infinitive: e. g. ईश्वरो विलिखः (विलि-


खितुम्) cf. P. III.4.13, 17. The word ending in this कसुन् becomes an indeclinable: cf क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः P.I.1.40.

कसेन् kṛt affix असे in the sense of the infinitive in Vedic Literature; e. g. प्रेषे, श्रियसे्; cf. Kāś. on P. III. 4. 9.

कस्कादि a class of compound-words headed by कस्क in which the visarga occurring at the end of the first member is noticed as changed into स् against the usual rules e. g. कस्क:, कौतस्कुतः भ्रातुष्पुत्रः, सद्यस्कालः, धनुष्कपालम् and others; cf. P. VIII.3.48. As this कस्कादिगण is said to be अाकृतिगण, similar words can be said to be in the कस्कादिगण although they are not actually mentioned in the गणपाठ.

का a technical term used in the Jainendra Vyākaraṇa for the term पञ्चमी used in Pāṇini's grammar.

काण्ड tad. affix काण्ड prescribed after words like दूर्वा, तृण, कर्म in the sense of समूह; cf दूर्वादिभ्यः (v.1. पूर्वादिभ्यः) काण्डः; Kāś on P.IV. 2.51.

काण्डमायन name of an ancient writer of a Prātiśākhya work who held that Visarga before the consonant स् is dropped only when स् is followed by a surd consonant; cf. Tai.Pr. IX. 1.

कातन्त्र name of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridg- ment of the Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,

declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supple- mented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavar- man or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words - कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very promi- nent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Catur- tha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vara- ruci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of consi- derable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Kālāpa. A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Gram-


mar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstruc- tions for the grammar were re- ceived by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For de- tails see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375.

कातन्त्रकौमुदी (i) a commentary on the Kātantra Sūtras written by Govardhana in the 12th century. A. D.; (2) a commentary on the Kātantra Sūtras ascribed to Gaṅ- geśaśarman.

कातन्त्रचन्द्रिका a gloss on the com- mentary of Vararuci on the कातन्त्रसूत्र ascribed to Hari Dīkṣita of the 17th century if this Hari Dīkṣita is the same as the author of the Śabdaratna.

कातन्त्रधातुवृत्ति ascribed to Durga- siṁha, the famous commentator of the Kātantra Sūtras who lived in the ninth or the tenth century.

कातन्त्रधातुवृत्तिटीका a commentary ascribed to Ramanātha and call- ed Manoramā on the Kātantra- dhātuvṛtti of Durgasiṁha. See कातन्त्रधातुवृत्ति above.

कातन्त्रपञ्जिका a name usually given to a compendium of the type of Viva- raṇa or gloss written on the Kā- tantra Sūtras. The gloss written by Durgasiṁha on the famous com- mentary on the Kātantra Sūtras by Durgasiṁha ( the same as the the famous Durgasiṁha or another of the same name ) known as दौर्गसिंही वृत्ति is called Kātantra Pañjika or Kātantra- vivaraṇa. A scholar of Kātantra grammar by name Kuśala has written a Pañjika on दुर्गसिंहृ's वृत्ति which is named प्रदीप, Another scholar, Trivikrama has written a gloss named Uddyota.

कातन्त्रपरिभाषापाठ name given to a text consisting of Paribhāṣāsūtras, believed to have been written by the Sūtrakāra himself as a supple- mentary portion to the main grammar. Many such lists of Pari- bhāṣāsūtras are available, mostly in manuscript form, containing more than a hundred Sūtras divi- ded into two main groups-the Paribhāṣā sūtras and the Balābala- sūtras. See परिभाषासंग्रह ed. by B. O. R. I. Poona.

कातन्त्रपरिभाषावृत्ति (1) name of a gloss on the Paribhāṣāpaṭha written by Bhāvamiśra, probably a Mai- thila Pandit whose date is not known. He has explained 62 Pari- bhāṣās deriving many of them from the Kātantra Sūtras. The work seems to be based on the Paribhāṣā works by Vyāḍi and others on the system of Pāṇini, suitable changes having been made by the writer with a view to present the work as belonging to the Kātantra school; (2) name of a gloss on the Pari- bhāṣāpaṭha of the Kātantra school explaining 65 Paribhāṣās. No name of the author is found in the Poona manuscript. The India Office Library copy has given Durgasiṁha as the author's name; but it is doubted whether Durgasiṁha was the author of it. See परिभाषासंग्रह ed. by B. O. R. I. Poona.

कातन्त्रपरिशिष्ट ascribed to Śrīpatidatta, whose date is not known; from a number of glosses written on this work, it appears that the work was once very popular among students of the Kātantra School.

कातन्त्रपरिशिष्टचन्द्रिका a gloss on the Kātantra-Pariśiṣṭa ascribed to a scholar named Ramadāsa-cakra- vartin who has written another...


work also named Kātantravyā- khyāsāra.

कातन्त्रपरिशिष्टटीका a gloss on the Kātantra-Pariśiṣṭa written by a Kātantra scholar Puṇḍarīkākṣa.

कातन्त्रपरिशिष्टप्रद्योत a gloss on the Kātantrapariśiṣṭa by Goyicandra in the twelfth century.

कातन्त्रपरिशिष्टसिद्धान्तरत्नाङ्कुर a gloss on the Kātantra-pariśiṣṭa by Śiva- rāmendra, who is believed to have written a gloss on the Sūtras of Pāṇini also.

कातन्त्रप्रक्रिया a name given to the Kā- tantra Sūtras which were written in the original form as a Pra- kriyāgrantha or a work discussing the various topics such as alpha- bet, euphonic rules, declension, derivatives from nouns, syntax, conjugation derivatives from roots etc. etc.

कातन्त्रप्रदीप a grammar work written by a scholar named Kuśala on the Kātantrasūtravṛtti by Durgasiṁha. See कातन्त्रपञ्जिका.

कातन्त्रबालबोधिनी a short explanatory gloss on the Kātantra Sūtras by Jagaddhara of Kashmir who lived in the fourteenth century and who wrote a work on grammar called Apaśabdanirākaraṇa.

कातन्त्ररहस्य a work on the Kātantra Sūtras ascribed to Ramānātha Vidyāvācaspati of the sixteenth century A. D.

कातन्त्ररूपमाला a work, explaining the various forms of nouns and verbs according to the rules of the Kātantra grammar, ascribed to Bhāvasena of the fifteenth century.

कातन्त्रलघुवृत्ति a short gloss on the Kātantra Sūtras ascribed to a scholar named Chucchukabhaṭṭa.

कातन्त्रविवरण a commentary on the

Kātantravistara of Vardhamāna by Pṛthvīdhara who lived in the fifteenth century A. D.

कातन्त्रविस्तर a famous work on the Kātantra Grammar written by Vardhamāna a Jain Scholar of the twelfth century who is believed to be the same as the author of the well-known work Gaṇaratna- mahodadhi.

कातन्त्रवृत्ति name of the earliest com- mentary on the Kātantra Sūtras ascribed to Durgasiṁha. The commentary was once very popu- lar as is shown by a number of explanatory commentaries written upon it, one of which is believed to have been written by Durgasiṁha himself. See Durgasiṁha.

कातन्त्रवृत्तिटिप्पणी a gloss on दौर्गसिंहीवृत्ति written by Guṇakīrti in the four- teenth century A.D.

कातन्त्रवृत्तिटीका a commentary on Durgasiṁha's Kātantravṛrtti by Mokṣeśvara in the fifteenth cen- tury A.D.

कातन्त्रवृत्तिव्याख्या named Aṣṭamaṅ- galā on Durgasiṁha's Kātantra- vṛtti written by Rāmakiśora Cakr- avartin who is believed to have written a grammatical work शाब्दबो- धप्रकाशिका.

कातन्त्रव्याख्यासार a work of the type of a summary written by Rāma- dāsa Cakravartin of the twelfth century.

कातन्त्रसूत्रवृत्ति an old Vṛtti on the Kātantra Sūtras ascribed to Vara- ruci who is, of course, different from Vararuci Kātyāyana. The Vṛtti appears to have been occu- pying a position similar to that of Durgasiṁha.

कातन्त्रोत्तर a treatise on the Kātantra Grammar believed to have been written by Vidyānanda.


कात्थक्य an ancient writer of Nirukta quoted by Yāska in his Nirukta.

कात्य (i) another name sometimes given to Katyāyana to whom is ascribed the composition of the Vārttikas on Pāṇini-sūtras; (2) an ancient writer Kātya quoted as a lexicographer by Kṣīrasvāmin, Hemacandra and other writers.

कात्यायन the well-known author of the Vārttikas on the sūtras of Pāṇini. He is also believed to be the author of the Vājasaneyi Prāti- śākhya and many sūtra works named after him. He is believed to be a resident of South India on the strength of the remark प्रियतद्धिता दाक्षिणात्याः made by Patañjali in connection with the statement 'यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु' which is looked upon as Kātyāyana's Vārttika. Some schol- ars say that Vararuci was also ano- ther name given to him, in which case the Vārttikakāra Vararuci Kātyāyana has to be looked upon as different from the subsequent writer named Vararuci to whom some works on Prakrit and Kātan- tra grammar are ascribed. For details see Mahābhāṣya Vol. VII. pages I93-223 published by the D. E.Society, Poona.See also वार्तिकपाठ below.

कानच् affix अान forming perfect part- ciples which are mostly seen in Vedic Literature. The affix कानच् is technically a substitute for the लिट् affix. Nouns ending in कानच् govern the accusative case of the nouns connected with them: e.g. सोमं सुषुवाणः; cf. P. III.3.106 and P.II.3.69.

काम् augment आम् applied to तूष्णीम् just as अकच् is applied, e.g.; आसितव्यं किल तूष्णीकाम M. Bh. on V.3.72.

कामचार option; permission to do as

desired liberty of applying any of the rules of grammar that present themselves; cf. तत्र कामचारो गृह्यमाणेन वा विभक्तिं विशेषयितुं अङ्गेन वा M. Bh. on P.I.1.27 Vārt. 6.

कामधेनु abridgment of काव्यकामधेनु of Bopadeva; the word is also used as a short form for काव्यकामधेनु.

कामधेनुसुधारस a commentary on the Kāvyakāmadhenu by Ananta, son of Cintāmaṇi who lived in the sixteenth century A. D.

कामम् optionally; at will; cf. काममति- दिश्यतांं वा M. Bh. on I.1.57.

काम्यच् affix in the sense of 'desiring for oneself' applied to nouns to form denominative roots; e.g. पुत्रकाम्यति; cf. काम्यच्च् P. III.1. 9.

कार an affix, given in the Prātiśākhya works and,by Kātyāyana also in his Vārttika, which is added to a letter or a phonetic element for conve- nience of mention; e.g. इकारः, उकारः ; cf. वर्णः कारोत्तरो वर्णाख्या; वर्णकारौ निर्देशकौ Tai. Pra.I. 16: XXII.4.;cf. also V. Pr. 1.37. It is also applied to sylla- bles or words in a similar way to indicate the phonetic element of the word as apart from the sense of the word: e. g.' यत एवकारस्तती- न्यत्रावधारणम् Vyak. Paribhāṣā , cf. also the words वकार:, हिंकारः: (2) additional purpose served by a word such as an adhikāra word; cf. अधिकः कारः , पूर्वविप्रतिषेघा न पठितव्या भवन्ति M. Bh. on P.I.3.11.

कारक lit. doer of an action. The word is used in the technical sense ; 1 of ’instrument of action'; cf कारक- शब्दश्च निमित्तपर्यायः । कारकं हेतुरिति नार्था- न्तरम् । कस्य हेतुः । क्रियायाः Kāś. on P.I. 4.23: cf. also कारक इति संज्ञानिर्देशः । साधकं निर्वर्तकं कारकसंज्ञं भवति । M.Bh. on P. I. 4.28. The word 'kāraka' in short, means 'the capacity in which a thing becomes instrumental in


bringing about an action'. This
capacity is looked upon as the
sense of the case-affixes which
express it. There are six kārakas
given in all grammar treatises
अपादान, संप्रदान, अधिकरण, करण , कर्मन् and
कर्तृ to express which the case affixes
or Vibhaktis पञ्चमी, चतुर्थी, सप्तमी, तृतीया,
द्वितीया and प्रथमा are respectively
used which, hence, are called
Kārakavibhaktis as contrasted with
Upapadavibhaktis, which show a
relation between two substantives
and hence are looked upon as
weaker than the Kārakavibhaktis;
cf. उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Pari.
Śek. Pari.94. The topic explaining
Kārakavibhaktis is looked upon as
a very important and difficult
chapter in treatises of grammar
and there are several small com-
pendiums written by scholars deal-
ing with kārakas only. For the
topic of Kārakas see P. I. 4.23 to
55, Kat, II. 4.8-42, Vyākaraṇa
Mahābhāṣya Vol. VII. pp.262-264
published by the D. E. Society,
कारककारिका possibly another name
for the treatise on Kārakas known
as कारकचक्र written by Puruṣotta-
madeva the reputed grammarian
of Bengal who lived in the latter
half of the twelfth century A. D.
See कारकचक्र.
कारककौमुदी a work on the Kātantra
grammar discussing the Kāraka
कारकखण्डनमण्डन also called षट्कारक-
खण्डनमण्डन which is a portion of the
author's bigger work named त्रिलो-
चनचन्द्रिका. The work is a discourse
on the six kārakas written by
Maṇikaṇṭha, a grammarian of the
Kātantra school. He has also
written another treatise named

कारकचक्र (I) written by Puruṣotta
madeva a reputed grammarian
of Bengal who wrote many works
on grammar of which the Bhasa.
vrtti, the Paribhāṣāvṛtti and Jñ
āpakasamuccya deserve a special
mention. The verse portion of
the Kārakacakra of which the
prose portion appears like a
commentary might be bearing
the name Kārakakaumudī.
कारकटीका a work on Kārakas as-
cribed to Bhairava.
कारकतत्त्व a treatise on the topic of
Kārakas written by Cakrapāṇi-
śeṣa, belonging to the famous
Śeṣa family of grammarians, who
lived in the seventeenth century
A. D.
कारकनिर्णय a work discussing the
various Kārakas from the
Naiyāyika view-point written by
the well-known Naiyāyika, Gadā-
dhara Chakravartin of Bengal,
who was a pupil of Jagadīśa and
who fourished in the 16th cen-
tury A. D. He is looked upon as
one of the greatest scholars of
Nyāyaśāstra. His main literary
work was in the field of Nyāya-
śāstra on which he has written
several treatises.
कारकपरिच्छेद a work dealing with
Kārakas ascribed to Rudrabhaṭṭa.
कारकपाद name given by Śivadeva
and other grammarians to the
fourth pāda of the first adhyāya
of Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī which be-
gins with the Sūtra कारके I. 4. 1
and which deals with the Kāra-
kas or auxiliaries of action.
कारकवाद (1) a treatise discussing the
several Kārakas, written by
Kṛṣṇaśāstri Ārade a famous Nai-
yāyika of Benares who lived in
the eighteenth century A. D; (2)


a treatise on syntax written by Jayarāmabhaṭṭācārya which is called कारकविवेक also, which see below.

कारकविचार a work on Kārakas as- cribed to Maṇikaṇṭha. See Kāra- kakhaṇḍanamaṇḍana above.

कारकविभक्ति case affix governed by a verb or verbal derivative as contrasted with उपपदविभक्ति a case affix governed by a noun, not possessing any verbal activity. See the word कारक above, See also the word उपपदविभक्ति.

कारकविभक्तिबलीयस्त्व the dictum that a Kāraka case is stronger than an Upapada case,e. g. the accu- sative case as required by the word नमस्कृत्य,which is stronger than the dative case as required by the word नमः. Hence the word मुनित्रयं has to be used in the sentence : मुनित्रयं नमस्कृत्य and not the word मुनित्रयाय cf. उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्ति- र्बलीयसी Pari. Śek. Pari. 94.

कारकविलास an anonymous elemen- tary work on syntax explaining the nature and function of the six Kārakas.

कारकविवेक known as कारकवाद also; a short work on the meaning and relation of words written by Jaya- rāmabhaṭṭācārya who lived in the beginning of the eighteenth cen- tury. The work forms the con- cluding portion of a larger work called कारकविवेक which was written by शिरोमणिभट्टाचार्य.. The work कारकवाद has a short commentary written by the author himself.

कारकव्याख्या the same as कारकवादव्याख्या written by जयरामभट्टाचार्य. See कारक- विवेक.

कारिका a verse or a line or lines in metrical form giving the gist of the explanation of a topic; cf.

संक्षिप्तसूत्रबह्वर्थसूचकः श्लोकः कारिका Pada- vyavasthāsūtrakārikā of Udaya- kīrti.

कारित (1) ancient term for the causal Vikaraṇa, (णिच् in Pāṇini's grammar and इन् in Kātantra); (2) causal or causative as applied to roots ending in णिच् or words derived from such roots called also 'ṇyanta' by the followers of Pāṇini's grammar; cf. इन् कारितं धात्वर्थे Kāt. III.2.9, explained as धात्वर्थक्रियानाम्न इन् परो भवति धात्वर्थे स च कारितसंज्ञक;।

कार्तकौजपादि a class of words headed by the word कार्तकौजप, which are all dvandva compounds, and which have their first member retaining its own accent; e. g. कार्तकौजपौ, आवन्त्यश्मकाः etc. cf. Kāś. on P.VI.2.37.

कार्तिकेय the original instructor of the Kātantra or Kālāpa Grammar, to Śarvavarman who composed the Sūtras according to inspira- tion received by him. The Kā- tantra, hence, has also got the name Kaumara Vyākaraṇa.

कार्मनामिक the word is found used in Yāska's Nirukta as an adjective to the word संस्कार where it means

  • belonging to nouns derived from

roofs (कर्मनाम)"like पाचक,कर्षक etc.The changes undergone by the roots in the formation of such words i. e. words showing action are termed कार्मनामिकसंस्कार; cf. कर्मकृतं नाम कर्मनाम। तस्मिन् भवः कार्मनामिकः Durgavṛtti on Nir. I.13. कार्य(l) brought.into existence by activity (क्रियया निर्वृत्तं कार्यम् ) as oppo- sed to नित्य eternal; cf. एके वर्णाञ् शाश्वतिकान् न कार्यान् R.Pr. XIII.4 cf. also ननु च यस्यापि कार्याः ( शब्दाः ) तस्यापि पूजार्थम् M. Bh. on I.1.44 Vārt. 17;(2) which should be done, used


in connection with a grammatical operation: cf. कार्य एत्वे सयमीकारमाहुः ।| अभैष्म इत्येतस्य स्थाने अभयीष्मेति । R.Pr. XIV.16; cf. also विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I.4.2; (3) a grammatical opera- tion as for instance in the phrases द्विकार्ययोगे, त्रिकार्ययोगे etc.; cf. also गौणमुख्ययोर्मुख्ये कार्यसंप्रत्ययः Par. Śek. Pari. 15;(4) object of a transitive verb: cf. शेषः कार्ये Śāk.

कार्यकाल along with the operation; cf. कार्यकालं संज्ञापरिभाषम् , rules laying down technical terms and regulat- ing rules are to be interpreted along with the rules that prescribe or enjoin operations ( provided the technical terms occur in those rules, or, the regulating rules con- cern those rules). See Pari. Śek. Pari 3.

कार्यकालपरिभाषा one of the important Paribhāṣā, regarding the applica- tion of the Paribhāṣā rules. See कायैकाल. For details see Par. Śek. Pari. 3.

कार्यातिदेश looking upon the substi- tute as the very original for the sake of operations that are caused by the presence of the original;the word is used in contrast with रूपातिदेश where actually the original is re- stored in the place of the substitute on certain conditions. For details see Mahābhāṣya on द्विर्वचनेचि P. 1.1.59.

कार्यिन् the word or wording that undergoes the operation; cf. सतो हि कार्यिणः कार्येण भवितव्यम् M. Bh. on I.1. 1. Vārt. 7, also कार्यमनुभवन् हि कार्यो निमित्ततया नाश्रीयते Par. Śek. Pari. 10.

काल notion of time created by differ- ent contacts made by a thing with other things one after another. Time required for the utterance of a short vowel is taken as a unit of time which is called मात्रा or

कालमात्रा, lit. measurement of time; (2) degree of a vowel, the vowels being looked upon as possessed of three degrees ह्रस्व,दीर्घ,& प्लुत measur- ed respectively by one, two and three mātrās; cf. ऊकालोSझ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः P.I.2.27; (3) time notion in gene- ral, expressed in connection with an activity in three ways past (भूत), present (वर्तमान), and future (भविष्यत्) to show which the terms भूता, वर्तमाना and भविष्यन्ती were used by ancient grammarians; cf the words पूर्वकाल, उत्तरकाल; also cf. पाणि- न्युपज्ञमकालकं व्याकरणम् Kāś. on P. II. 4.21 ; (4) place of recital ( पाठदेश ) depending on the time of recital, cf. न परकालः पूर्वकाले पुनः (V.Pr.III. 3) a dictum similar to Pāṇini's पूर्वत्रा- सिद्धम् P. VIII.2.1.

कालदुष्ट a word not sanctioned by rules of grammar. The word pro- bably refers to the corruption tak- ing place in connection with the use of a word on account of lapse of time: cf. कालदुष्टा अपशब्दाः Durgh. Vr. on II.2.6.

कालनिदर्शक signifying time; cf. काल- निदर्शकाः प्रत्यया एते लुट् लिट् लट् इत्यादयः.

कालभेद difference in the time of utterance; cf. किमुच्यते विवारभेदादिति । न पुनः कालभेदादपि । M. Bh. on Siva Sutra 1.

कालव्यवाय interval of time: cf. अान्य- भाव्यं तु कालशब्दव्यवायात् । कालव्यवायात् । दण्ड अग्रम् । M. Bh. on Śiva sūtra 1.

कालसामान्य time in general; unspeci- fied time; cf. वर्तमाने लडुक्तः कालसामान्ये न प्राप्नोति Kāś. on P.III.3.142.

काव्यकामधेनु name of the comm- entary by Bopadeva on his own work कविकल्पद्रुम. See कविकल्पद्रुम.

काशकृत्स्न (l)an ancient grammarian and philosopher referred to in the Mahābhāṣya; (2) the work on grammar by Kāśakṛtsna; cf.पाणिनिना


प्रोक्तं पाणिनीयम् । आपिशलम् । काशकृत्स्नम् । M.Bh. on I.1. Āhnika 1.

काशादि a class of words headed by the word काश to which the taddhita affix इल is affixed in the four senses stated in P.IV.2.67-70 e.g. काशिलम्, कर्दमिलम् etc.; cf. Kāś. on P.IV.2.80.

काशिका (1) name given to the reputed gloss (वृत्ति) on the Sūtras of Pāṇini written by the joint authors.Jayā- ditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. Nothing definitely can be said as to which portion was written by Jayāditya and which by Vamana, or the whole work was jointly written. Some scholars believe that the work was called Kāśikā as it was written in the city of Kāśī and that the gloss on the first five Adhyāyas was written by Jayāditya and that on the last three by Vāmana. Although it is written in a scholarly way, the work forms an excellent help to beginners to understand the sense of the pithy Sūtra of Pāṇini. The work has not only deserved but obtained and maintained a very prominent position among stu- dents and scholars of Pāṇini's gram- mar in spite of other works like the Bhāṣāvṛtti, the Prakriyā Kaumudi, the Siddhānta Kaumudi and others written by equally learned scholars. Its wording is based almost on the Mahābhāṣya which it has followed, avoiding, of course, the scholarly disquisitions occurring here and there in the Mahābhāṣya. It ap- pears that many commentary works were written on it, the well- known among them being the Kāśi- kāvivaraṇapañjikā or Nyāsa written by Jinendrabuddhi and the Pada- mañjari by Haradatta. For details see Vyākaraṇamahābhāṣya Vol.VII pp 286-87 published by the D. E. 15

Society, Poona. ( 2 ) The name Kāśikā is sometimes found given to their commentaries on sta- ndard works of Sanskrit Grammar by scholars, as possibly they were written at Kāśī; as for instance, (a) Kāśikā on Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa- sāra by Hari Dīkṣita, and ( b ) Kāśikā on Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Vaidyanātha Pāyaguṇḍe.

काशिकाविवरणपञ्जिका also called Nyāsa, the well-known commentary written by Jinendrabuddhi on the Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. See Kāśikā above.

काशिकावृत्तिसार a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti named अमृतसूति by Vāraṇāvateśa-śāstrin.

काश्यप name of an ancient gramma- rian quoted by Pāṇini, possibly an author of some Prātiśākhya work now lost.

काश्यपीवृत्ति name of a gloss on the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa.

काश्यादि a class of words headed by the words काशि, चेदि and others to which the taddhita affixes ठञ् and ञिठ are added in the miscellaneous senses; e.g. काशिकी, काशिका; वैदिकी, वैदिका etc.; cf. Kāś. on P. IV. 2.116. The fem. afix ई is applied when the affix ठञ् is added to the word काशि; cf. P. IV. 1.15.

काष्ठादि a class of words headed by the word काष्ठ after which a word standing as a second member in a compound gets the grave accent for it,e. g. काष्ठाध्यापकः, परमाध्यापक etc. cf. P. VIII.1.67.

कि (I) kṛt affix इ prescribed after धु roots with a prefix attached;e.g.प्रदिः प्रधिः cf. P.III.3.92, 93; (2) kṛt affix इ looked upon as a perfect termina- tion and, hence, causing reduplica- tion and accusative case of the noun connected, found in Vedic


Literature added to roots ending in अा, the root ऋ, and the roots गम्, हन् and जन्; e.g. पपि; सोमं, जगुरिः, जग्मिः etc., cf. P. III.2.171: (2) a term used in the Jainendra Vyākaraṇa for the term संबुद्वि.

किंवृत्त a form derived from the pro- noun किम्; cf. किमो वृत्तं किंवृत्तम् । किंवृत्त- ग्रहणेन तद्विभक्त्यन्तं प्रतीयाड्डतरडतमौ च। Kāś. on P. VIII.1.48.

किंशुलकादि a class of words headed by the word किंशुलक, which get their final vowel lengthened when the word गिरि is placed after them as a second member of a compound, provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; e. g. किंशुल- कागिरिः, अञ्जनागिरिः; cf. Kāś. on P. VI.3.117.

कित् (l) marked with the mute letter क् which is applied by Pāṇini to affixes, for preventing guṇa and vṛddhi substitutes to the pre- ceding इक् vowel (इ, उ, ऋ or लृ); cf.क्ङिति च, Pāṇ. I.1.5; (2) con- sidered or looked upon as marked with mute indicatory क् for pre- venting guna; cf. असंयोगाल्लिट् कित् and the following P.I.2.5 etc. The affixes of the first type are for instance क्त, क्त्वा, क्तिन् and others. The affixes of the second type are given mainly in the second pada of the first Adhyāya by Pāṇini. Be- sides the prevention of guṇa and wrddhi, affixes marked with कु or affixes called कित्, cause Saṁprasā- raṇa (see P. VI.1.15,16), elision of the penultimate न् (P.VI.4.24), elision of the penultimate vowel (P. VI.4.98,100), lengthening of the vowel (VI.4.15), substitution of ऊ (VI.4.19,21), elision of the final nasal (VI. 4.37), substitution of अI (VI.4.42). The taddhita affixes which are marked with

mute क् cause the Vṛddhi substi- tute for the first vowel in the word to which they are added.

कित्करण marking with the mute letter क्, or looking upon as marked with mute क् for purposes men- tioned above; ( see कित् above ). The word is often used in the Mahābhāṣya; see M.Bh. on I. 1. 3, 5, 46; I.2.5, etc.

किन kṛt affix इ prescribed along with कि. See कि above. The affix किन् causes the acute accent on the first vowel of the word ending with it, while the affix ki ( इ ) has itself the acute accent on its vowel इ.

किरादि a class of roots headed by the root कॄ, viz. the five roots कॄ, गॄ, दृ, धृ and प्रच्छ् after which the desidera- tive sign, i.e. the affix सन्, gets the augment इ (इट्); e.g. चिकरिषति, पिप्रच्छिषति: cf. Kāś. on P.VII.2.75.

किशरादि, किसरादि a class of words headed by किसर meaning some kind of scent, which get the taddhita affix इक (ष्टन्) applied to them when the word so formed means 'a dealer of that thing;' e.g. किशारिकः, किशारिकी cf; Kāś. on P. IV.4.53.

कील्हार्न् Kielhorn F., a sound scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who brought out excellent editions of the Pātañj- ala Mahābhāṣya and the Paribhāṣ- enduśekhara and wrote an essay on the Vārttikas of Kātyāyana. For details see Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya Vol VII.p.40, D. E society edition, Poona.

कु (l) guttural class of consonants, ie the consonants क्, ख्, ग्, घ्, ङ् The vowel उ added to क्, signifies the class of क्. e. g. चजोः कु घिण्यतो, VII.3.52, कुहोश्चुः VII.4.62, चोः कुः


VIII.2.30, किन्प्रत्ययस्य कुः; VIII.2.62; cf. अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P.I.1.69; (2) substitute कु for किम् cf. P.VII.2. 104.

कुक् augment क् (1) added to ङ् at the end of a word before a sibi- lant letter; e.g प्राङ्क्शेते cf. P.VIII. 3.28; (2) added to the words वात and अतीसार before the affix इन्, cf. P.V.2.129; (3) added to words of the नड group before the tad. affix छ (ईय), e.g. नडकीयम्, प्लक्षकीयम् cf. P.IV.2.91.

कुङ्कुमविकाश a commentary by Siva- Bhaṭṭa on Jinendrabuddhi's Kāśi- kāvivaraṇapañjikā which is known popularly as Nyāsa.

कुञ्चिका ( 1 ) a commentary on Nāgeśa's Laghūmañjūṣā by Krṣṇa- miśra; ( 2 ) a commentary on Nāgeśa's Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Durbalācārya.

कुञ्जादि a class of words headed by कुञ्ज to which the taddhita affix अायन (च्फञ्) is applied in the sense of गोत्र i. e. grandchildren etc e. g. कौञ्जा- यनाः cf. Kāś, on P.IV.1.9.

कुटादि a group of roots headed by the root कुट् of the VIth conjugation after which an affix which is neither ञित् nor णित् becomes ङित्,and as a result prevents the substitution of गुण or वृद्धि for the preceding vowel e. g. कुटिता, कुटितुम् । cf. गाङ्कुटादिभ्योञ्णिन्डित् I.2.1.

कुटादिपाद name given by Sīradeva and later grammarians to the sec- ond pāda of the first adhyāya of Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī, as the pāda begins with the Sūtra गाङ्कुटादिभ्यो ञ्णिन्डित् P.I.2.1.

कुटारच् tad. affix कुटार् added to अव, e.g, अवकुटारम्: cf P. V.2.30.

कुणप् tad. affix कुण added to words of पीलु group in the sense of 'ripen-

ed condition';e.g.पीलुकुणः=पीलूनां पाकः; cf. P.V.2.24.

कुणरवाडव name of an ancient gran- marian who lived possibly after Pāṇini and before Patañjali and who is referred to in the Mahā- bhāṣya as giving an alternative forms for the standard form of cer- tain words; cf. कुणरवाडवस्त्वाह नैषां शंकरा शंगरैषा M.Bh. on III.2.14; cf also कुणरवस्त्वाह नैष वहीनरः । कस्तर्हि । विहीनर एषः M. Bh. on VII.3.1.

कुणि name of an ancient Vṛttikāra the Sūtras of Pāṇini, mentioned in their works by Kaiyata and Hara- datta; cf. Kaiyaṭa's Pradīpa on P. I.1.74, also Padamañjarī on I.1.1

कुत्व substitution of the consonants of the क् class or guttural consonants

कुप्पुशास्त्रिन् a famous grammarian of the eighteenth century who wrote some works on grammar of which the परिभाषाभास्कर is an independent treatise on Paribhāṣās.

कुमत् a word containing a guttural letter in it;.cf. कुमति च P. VIII.4. 13.

कुमार (1) Kārtikeya who is believed to havegiven inspiration to the Kat- antra-sūtrakāra to write the Kātan- tra-sūtras; (2) named Viṣṇumitra who wrote a commentary on the ऋक्प्रातिशाख्य,

कुमारीस्तनयुगाकृति a phrase used in the gloss on the कातन्त्र by Durga- siṁha to give along with the defi- nition of र्विसर्जनीय or विसर्ग a graphic description of it as shown in script cf. Kāt, I.1.16 com.

कुमुदादि a class of words (१) consisting of कुमुद, शर्करा, न्यग्रोध etc. to which the taddhita affix ठक् is applied in the four senses given in P.IV.2.67-70; e.g. कुमुदिकम्,शर्करिकम् etc(2) consist- ing of कुमुद गोमय, रथकार etc to which


the taddhita affix इक ( ठक् ) is applied in the senses referred to in (I): e.g. कौमुदिकम् , राथकारिकम् etc.; cf. Kāś, on P.IV.2.80.

कुम्भपद्यादि a class of words headed by कुम्भपदी in which the word पाद at the end of the compound is changed into पाद् and further chan- ged into पद् before the feminine affix ई; e.g. कुम्भपदी, शतपदी, द्रुपदी, पञ्चपदी etc.; cf Kāś. on P. V.4.138, 139.

कुरच् kṛt. affix उर applied to the roots विद्, भिद् and छिद्: e.g. विदुर: । भिदुरम् ! छिदुरम् । cf. Kāś.on P.III.2.162.

कुर्वत् a term found in the Brāhmaṇa works and used by ancient gram- marians for the 'present tense'.

कुर्वद्रूप effective or efficient, as oppo- sed to dormant, as applied to निमित्त (cause); cf.निमित्तशब्दोयमस्ति योग्यतामात्रे । कुसुलस्थेष्वपि बीजेषु वक्तारो भवन्ति अङ्कुरनि- मित्तान्येतानीति अस्ति च कुर्वद्रूपे । Pada- mañjarī on P.VII.2.36.

कुर्वादि a class of words headed by the word कुरु to which the taddhita affix य ( ण्य ) is added in the sense of अपत्य or descendant; e.g. कौरव्यः गार्ग्यः etc.; cf. Kāś, on P.IV.1.51.

कुर्विणी a kind of svarabhakti; see कर्विणी.

कुलालादि a class of words headed by the word कुलाल to which the tadd- hita affix अक ( वुञ्) is applied in the sense of 'made by', provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; e g.कौलालकम् , वारुडकम्; cf. Kāś. on P.IV.3.118.

कुव्यवाय intervention by a letter of the guttural class;cf. कुव्यवाये हादेशेषु प्रतिषेधो वक्तव्यः । प्रयोजनं वृत्रघ्नः, स्रुघ्नः प्राघानीति, P.VIII.4.2 Vārt.4,5.

कुशल name of a grammarian who wrote a commentary on the Kāta- ntra Vyākaraṇa; see कातन्त्रपञ्जिक्रा.

कृञ् (l) root कृ in the general sense of activity; (2) pratyāhāra or short form for the three roots कृ, भू and अस्, cf. कृञ् चानुप्रयुज्यते लिटि P.II.1.40.

कृत् lit. activity; a term used in the grammars of Pāṇini and others for affixes applied to roots to form verbal derivatives; cf. कृदतिङ् । धातोः ( ३ ।१।९१ ) इत्यधिकारे तिङ्कवर्जितः प्रत्ययः कृत् स्यात् । Kāś. on III.1.93, The kṛt affixes are given exhaustively by Pāṇini in Sūtras III.1.91 to III.4. I17. कृत् and तद्धित appear to be the ancient Pre-Pāṇinian terms used in the Nirukta and the Prātiśākhya works in the respective senses of root-born and noun-born words ( कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त according to Pāṇini's terminology), and not in the sense of mere affixes; cf. सन्त्यल्पप्रयोगाः कृतोप्यैकपदिकाः Nir. I.14: अथापि भाषिकेभ्यो धातुभ्यो नैगमाः कृतो भाष्यन्ते Nir. II.2; तिङ्कृत्तद्धितसमासा: शब्दमयम् V.Pr. I.27; also cf. V.Pr. VI.4. Patañjali and later grammarians have used the word कृत् in the sense of कृदन्त; cf. गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Pari Śek.Pari.75. The kṛt affixes are given by Pāṇini in the senses of the different Kāra- kas अपादान, संप्रदान, करण, अाधकरण, कर्म and कर्तृ, stating in general terms that if no other sense is assigned to a kṛt affix it should be understood that कर्ता or the agent of the verbal activity is the sense; cf. कर्तरि कृत् । येष्वर्थनिर्देशो नास्ति तत्रेदमुपतिष्ठते Kāś. on III.4.67. The activity element possessed by the root lies generally dormant in the verbal derivative nouns; cf. कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति, क्रियावदपि । M.Bh.on V.4.19 and VI. 2.139

कृत (१) a term used by ancient grammarians in the sense of 'past tense';(2) effected, done. The word


is mostly used in this sense in grammar.works;e.g. किं तेन कृतं स्यात् ; नानुबन्धकृतमनेकात्त्वम् Par. Śek.Pari. 6.

कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि a definition of the term नित्य in the sense of a rule which occurs after certain another rule is applied as well as before that rule is applied: cf. कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि नित्यम् । तद्विपरीतमनित्यम् । Pari, Sek. Pari. 42; cf also कंथं पुनरयं नित्यः । कृताकृतप्रसङ्गित्वात् l M. Bh. on VI. 4. 62.

कृतादेि a class of words such as कृत, मित, मत, भूत, उक्त and others with which the words श्रेणि, एक, पूग, कुण्ड, राशि and others are compounded, pro- vided both the words forming the compound are in the same case;.e.g. श्रेणिकृता:, एककृताः, कुण्डभूताः etc. cf Kāś. on P.II.1.59.

कृतार्थ lit which has got its purpose served: a term used in connection with a rule that has been possible to be applied (without clash with another rule) in the case of cer- tain instances, although it comes into conflict in the case of other istances cf. तत्र कृतार्थत्वाद् दिकशब्दपक्षे परेण ठञ्जतौ स्याताम् Kāś. P.IV. 3.5. The word चरितार्थ is used almost in the same sense.

कृत्य lit. that which should be done; the word कृत्य is used as a tech nical term in grammar in the sense of kṛt affixes which possess the sense 'should be done'. Pāṇini has not defined the term कृत्य but he has introduced a topic ( अधिकार ) by the name कृत्य (P. III.1.95), and mentioned kṛt afixes therein which are to be called कृत्य right on upto the men- tion of the affix ण्वुल्. in P.III. 1.133; cf. कृत्याः प्राङ् ण्वुलः P. III. 1.95 The kṛtya affixes, common-

ly found in use, are तव्य, अनीय and य ( यत्, क्यप् and ण्यत् ).

कृत्रिमartificial; technical, as opposed to derivative. In grammar, the term कृत्रिम means 'technical sense', as contrasted with अकृत्रिम 'ordi- nary sense'; cf. कृत्रिमाकृत्रिमयोः कृत्रिमे कार्यसंप्रत्यय: Par. Śek. Pari. 9.

कृत्रिमाकृत्रिमपरिभाषा a term popular- ly used by grammarians for the परिभाषा or maxim that out of the two senses, the technical and the derived ones, the technical sense should be preferred; in rare cases, the other too, is preferred cf. Pari. Śek. Pari.9.

कृत्वसुच् tad. affix कृत्वम् applied to numerals to convey the sense of repetition, e. g. पंञ्चकृत्वः दशकृत्वः cf. संख्यायाः क्रियाभ्यावृत्तिगणने कृत्वसुच् P. V. 4.17.

कृत्वे form of the tad. affix कृत्वम् in Vedic Literature. See कृत्वसुच्,

कृत्स्वर the same as कृदुत्तरपदप्रकृतिस्वर, the retention of its accent by the second member of a tatpuruṣa compound, if the first member is a word termed Gati or Kāraka, by the rule गतिकारकोपपदात् कृत् P.VI.2. 139; cf. अव्ययस्वरस्य कृत्स्वरः M.Bh. on VI.2.52; cf.विभक्तीषत्स्वरात्कृत्स्वरः M.Bh. VI.2.52 Vārt, 6.

कृदन्त the word ending with a kṛt affix; the term कृत् is found used in the sūtras of Pāṇini for कृदन्त; cf. कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च P. I.2.46. The term कृदन्त for root-nouns, or nouns deri- ved from roots, is found in the Atharvaprātiśākhya (I.1.10, II.3.8, II1.2.4), the Mahābhāṣya and all the later works on grammar. See the word कृत्.

कृदभिहित expressed by a kṛt affix;cf. कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति M.Bh. on P. II.2.19, III.1.67, IV.13, VI.2.139,


कृद्ग्रहण mention of a kṛt i.e. of a word ending with a kṛt affix. The word mainly occurs in the Pari- bhāṣā कृद्ग्रहणे गतिकारकपूर्वस्यापि ग्रहणम् which occurs first as an expression of the Vārttikakāra (P.I.4.13 Vārt. 9) and has been later on given as a Paribhāṣā by later grammarians (Pari. Śek. Pari.28).The Paribhāṣā is referred to as वृद्ब्रह्मणपरिभाषा in later grammar works especially comme- ntary works.

कृद्ग्रहणपरिभाषा a short term used by the grammarians for the maxim कृद्ग्रहणे गतिकारकपूर्वस्यापि ग्रहणम्. Par.Śek. Pari. 28. See कृद्ग्रहण.

कृद्वृत्ति a short treatise by a gramma- rian named मोक्षेश्वर who lived in the fifteenth century. The work deals with verbal derivatives.

कृल्लुक् the elision of a kṛt affix: the word is found used along with the words प्रकृतिप्रत्यापत्तिः, and प्रकृतिवत् कारकं भवति in the Vārttika अाख्यानात्कृतस्त- दाचष्टे इतेि कृल्लुक् प्रकृतिप्रत्यापत्तिः प्रकृतिवच्च कारकम् by means of which the phrase कंसं घातयति is formed for the sentence कंसवधमाचष्टे.

कृल्लोप the dropping or removal of the verbal noun(कृदन्त)after the words प्र, परा etc when they are compound- ed with the following noun; e.g. the dropping of गत from the expression निर्गतः कौशाम्ब्याः when it is compounded into निष्कौशाम्बिः । cf. कृल्लोपे निष्कौशाम्बिः, निर्वाराणसिः M.Bh. on P.I.4.l. Vārt. 18.

कृशाश्वादि a class of words headed by the word कृशाश्वं to which the taddhita affix ईय (छण् ) is applied in the four senses given in P.IV.2. 67-70, e.g. कार्शीश्वीयः, आरिष्टीयः cf. Kāś, on P.IV.2.80. .

कृष्ट also क्रुष्ट the foremost of the seven Yamas: .cf कुष्टप्रथमद्वितीयतृतीयचतुर्थ- मन्द्राति स्वार्याः Tai.Pr.XXIII.14.

कृष्णकिंकरप्रक्रिया an alternative name for the well-known grammar-work क्रियाकौमुदी written by Rāmacandra Śeṣa. See प्रक्रियाकौमुदी.

कृष्णपण्डित called also शेषकृष्ण, a sho- lar of Sanskrit Vyākaraṇa who wrote गूढभावविवृत्ति,a commentary on the Prakriyā-Kaumudī of Rāma- candra Śeṣa.

कृष्णमित्र a scholar of grammar and nyāya of the 17th century A.D. who wrote many commentary works some of which are (l) a commentary called Ratnārṇava on the Siddhānta-Kaumudī, (2) a commentary named Kalpalata on Bhaṭṭoji's Prauḍhamanoramā, (3) a commentary named Bhāvadīpa on Bhaṭṭoji's Śabdakaustubha, (4) a commentary on Nagojibhaṭṭa's Laghumañjūṣā by name Kuñcikā and (5) a commentary on Vaiyā- karaṇabhūṣaṇa.

कृष्णमिश्र an alternative name of कृष्ण- मित्र. See कृष्णमित्र.

कृष्णमौनिन् Son of Govardhana and surnamed Maunī, who wrote a commentary named सुबोधिनी on the Siddhānta-Kaumudī at the end of the 17th century A.D.

कृष्णलीलाशुकमुनि author of a commen- tary named Puruṣakāra on Bhoja's Sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇa.

कृष्णशास्त्रिन् ( आरडे ) a famous gram- marian and logician of the 18th century who wrote Ākhyātaviveka and Kārakavāda. See अारडे.

कृष्णशेष a famous grammarian of the Śeṣa family who wrote a commen- tary named the Gūḍhabhāvavivṛti on the Prakriyā Kaumudī of Rāma- candra Śeṣa.See कृष्णपण्डित

केन् kṛt. affix ए in the sense of कृत्य (Pot.pass.part.) found in Vedic


Literature; e.g. नावगाहे = नावगाहितव्यम् cf. Kāś. on P.III.4.14.

केन्य kṛt. affix एन्य in the sense of कृत्य in Vedic Literature: e.g. दिदृक्षेण्यः शुश्रूषेण्यः cf. Kāś. on P.III.4.14.

केलिमर् kṛt, affix एलिम in the sense of कृत्य; e. g. पचेलिमा माषाः cf. केलिमर् उपसंख्यानम् P.III.I.96 Vārt.

केवल isolated;a term applied to a letter or a word when it is not combined with another letter or another word in a compound; cf. धर्मादनिच् केवलात् । केवलान्न पदसमुदायात् Kāś. on P.V.4.124; (2) simple (word) without an affix added: cf. अर्थवत्ता नोपपद्यते केवलेन अवचनात् । P. I. 2.45 Vārt. 7, also कृत्तद्धितान्तं चैवार्थवत् । न केवलाः कृतस्तद्धिता बा M.Bh.on P.I.4.14.

केशव writer of a commentary named प्रकाश on the Śikṣā of Pāṇini. He lived in the 17th century.

केशवदत्त writer of the commentary named दुर्धटोद्धाट on the grammar संक्षिप्तसार written by Goyicandra,

कै kṛt affix ऐ used in Vedic Litera- ture as noticed in the forms प्रयै रोहिष्यै and अव्यथिष्यै: cf. P.III.4.10.

कैमर्थक्य iit. position of questioning the utility; absence of any appa- rent utility: cf. कैमर्थक्यान्नियमो भवति विधेयं नास्तीति कृत्वा M. Bh. on I. 4.3, III.1.46; III.2.127, III. 3.19; VI.4.49, VII.2.26, and VIII.4.32.

कैयट name of the renowned com- mentator on the Mahābhāṣya, who lived in the 11th century. He was a resident of Kashmir and his father's name was Jaiyaṭa. The commentary on the Mahā- bhāṣya was named महाभाष्यप्रदीप by him, which is believed by later grammarians to have really acted as प्रदीप or light, as without it, the Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali

would have remained unlit, that is unintelligible, at several places. Later grammarians attached to प्रदीप almost the same importance as they did to the Mahābhāṣya and the expression तदुक्तं भाव- कैयटयोः has been often used by com- mentators. Many commentary works were written on the Pradīpa out of which Nageśa's Uddyota is the most popular. The word कैयट came to be used for the word महाभाष्यप्रदीप which was the work of Kaiyaṭa. For details see Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII. pp. 389-390.

कैयटप्रकाश a commentary on the Mahābhāṣyapradīpa of Kaiyaṭa written by Nīlakaṇṭha of the Dra- viḍa country. Nīlakaṇṭha lived in . the 17th century and wrote works on various subjects.

कैयटप्रकाशिका a commentary on the Mahābhāṣyapradīpa of Kaiyaṭa written by Pravartakopādhyāya.

कैयटविवरण (1) a commentary on the Mahābhāṣyapradīpa of Kaiyaṭa written by Iśvarānanda, in the 16th century; (2) a commentary on Kaiyaṭa's Pradīpa by Rāma- candra-Sarasvatī, who lived in the 16th century.

कोटरादि a class of words headed by the word कोटर which get their final vowel lengthened when the word वन is placed after them as a second. member of a compound, provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; e.g. कोटरावणम्, मिश्रकावणम्. cf. Kāś. on P.VI.3.117.

कोण्डभट्ट a reputed grammarian who wrote an extensive explanatory gloss by name Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa on the Vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakā- rikā of Bhaṭṭoji Dīkṣita. Another


work Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra. which is in a way an abridgment of the Bhūṣaṇa, was also written by him. Koṇḍabhaṭṭa lived in the beginning of the l7th century. He was the son of Raṅgojī and nephew of Bhaṭṭojī Dīkṣita. He was one of the few writers on the Arthavicāra in the Vyākaraṇaśāstra and his Bhūṣaṇasāra ranks next to the Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari. Besides the Bhūṣaṇa and Bhūṣaṇa- sāra, Koṇḍabhaṭṭa wrote two independent works viz. Vaiyāka- raṇsiddhāntadīpika and Sphoṭa- vāda.

कोद्ण्डराम a scholar of Sanskrit Vy- ākaraṇa who composed शब्दसिद्धान्त- मञ्जरी a small treatise dealing with the declension of nouns.

कौण्डिन्य an ancient grammarian referred to in the Taittirīya Prātiśākhya(T. Pr. V. 38) and Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī, (P.II.4.70).

कौमार, कोमारव्याकरण (1)an alternative name of the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa given to it on the strength of the traditional belief that the original inspiration for writing it was received by Sarvavarman from Kumara or Kārtikeya; (2) small treatises bearing the name Kau- māravyākaraṇa written by Muni- puṅgava and Bhāvasena. The latter has written Kātantrarūpa- māla also.

कौहलीपुत्र an ancient grammarian referred to in the Taittirīya Prāti- śākhya: cf. T.Pr. XVIII.2.

क्त kṛt affix त in various senses, call- ed by the name निष्ठा in Pāṇini's grammar along with the affix क्तवतू cf. क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा P.I.1.26.The various senses in which क्त is prescribed can be noticed below : (1) the general sense of something done

in the past time as past pass.parti- ciple e. g. कृत:, भुक्तम् etc.: cf P. III.2.102; (2) the sense of the beginning of an activity when it is used actively: e. g. प्रकृतः कटं देवदत्तः, cf. P.III.2.102 Vārt. 3; (3) the sense of activity of the present tense applied to roots marked with a mute ञ् as also to roots in the sense of desire, knowledge and worship; e.g.मिन्नः, क्ष्विण्ण:, धृष्ट: as also राज्ञां मतः, राज्ञामिष्टः, राज्ञां बुद्धः; cf. P.III.2.187, 88; (4) the sense of mere verbal activity (भाव) e. g. हसितम् , सहितम् , जल्पितम् , (used always in the neuter gender); cf. P.III.3. 114: (5) the sense of benediction when the word ending in क्त is used as a technical term, e.g. देवदत्तः in the sense of देवा एनं देयासुः. The kṛt affix क्तिन् is also used similarly e.g. सातिः भूतिः मन्ति:; cf. Kāś. on P. III.3.174.

क्तवतु kṛt affix तवत् which also is call- ed निष्ठा. It is prescribed in the active sense of somebody who has done a thing sometime in the past. A word ending in it is equivalent to the past active participle; e.g. भुक्तवान् ब्राह्मणः cf P.I.1.26. The fem. affix डीप् ( ई ) is added to nouns ending in क्तवतु to form feminine bases; cf. P.IV.1.6.

क्तान्त a noun base ending in the kṛt affix क्त; past passive participle; cf. क्षेपे सप्तम्यन्तं क्तान्तेन सह समस्यते । अवतप्तेनकुलस्थितं त एतत् M. Bh.on II.2. 47.

क्तार्थं sense of क्त i.e. sense of the past pass. participle; cf. उपसर्गाः क्तार्थे, प्रादयः क्तार्थे ( समस्यन्ते ), P.II.2.18, Vārt. 4.

क्तिच् kṛt affix ति added to roots in the benedictive sense to form संज्ञाशब्द or nouns in a technical sense; e.g- तन्तिः in the sense of तनुतात्: cf. Kāś.


on III.3.174. क्त is also added in the same way. See क्त.

क्तिन् kṛt affix ति added to roots to form nouns in the sense of verb- action; e.g. कृति:, स्थितिः, मति: etc.;cf. P.III.3.94-97.

क्त्रि kṛt affix त्रि added to the roots marked with the syllable डु by Pāṇ- ini in his Dhātupāṭha; after this affix त्रि, the tad. affix म ( मप् ) in the sense of निर्वृत्तम् (accomplished) is necessarily added, e. g. पक्त्रिमम्, कृत्रिमम्; cf. P. III. 3.88. and P. IV. 4.20.

क्त्वा kṛt. affix त्वा added to roots (1) in the sense of prohibition conveyed by the word अलं or खलु preceding the root, e.g. अलं कृत्वा, खलु कृत्वा; cf. P. III.4.18; (2) in the sense of exchange in the case of the root मा, e. g. अपमित्य याचते; cf. P. III.4.19; (3) to show an activity of the past time along with a verb or noun of action showing comparatively a later time, provided the agent of the former and the latter activi- ties is the same; e.g. भुक्त्वा व्रजति, स्नात्वा पीत्वा भुक्त्वा व्रजति; cf. P. III.4. 21. This kṛt affix is always added to roots when they are without any prefix; when there is a prefix the indeclinable, ending in त्वा, is always compounded with the prefix and त्वा is changed into य (ल्यप्), e.g. प्रकृत्य, प्रहृत्य; cf. समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप् P. VII. 1.37. The substitution of य is at will in Vedic Literature; e.g. कृष्णं वासो यजमानं परिधापयित्वा ( instead of परिधाप्य ), cf. P. VII.1.38, while sometimes, य is added after त्वा as an augment e. g. दत्वाय सविता धियः cf. P. VII.l.47, as also sometimes त्वी or त्वीनम् is substi- tuted for त्वा e. g. इष्ट्वीनं देवान्, स्नात्वी मलादिव, cf. P. VII.1.48, 49.

क्त्वान्त gerund; a mid-way derivative

of a verbal root which does not leave its verbal nature on the one hand although it takes the form of a substantive on the other hand.

क्नु kṛt affix नु added to the roots त्रस्, गृध्, धृष् and क्षिप् in the sense of habituated etc. as given in the rule आक्वेरतच्छीलतद्धर्मतत्साधुकारिषु P.III.2.134; e.g, त्रस्नुः, गृध्नु: etc. cf. P. III. 2.140.

क्मरच् kṛt affix मर added in the sense of habituated etc. to the roots सृ, घस् and अद्; e. g. सृमरः, घस्मर:, अद्मर: cf. P.III.2.134 and 160.

क्य common term for the Vikaraṇas क्यच् , क्यङ् and क्यञ्; cf. न: क्ये P. I. 4.15, also cf. P.III.2.170, VI. 4. 50.

क्यङ् affix य taking Ātmanepada termi- nations after it, added in the sense of similar behaviour to a substan- tive. The substantive to which this affix य is added, becomes a denominative root; e. g. काकः श्येना- यते, कुमुदं पुष्करायते, cf. Kāś. on P. III. 1.11-12, also on P. III, 1.14-18.

क्यच् denominative affix ( विकरण ) in the sense of desiring for oneself, added to nouns to form denomi- tive roots; e.g. पुत्रीयति; क्यच् is also added to nouns that are upamā- nas or standards of comparison in the sense of (similar) behaviour: e.g. पुत्रीयति च्छात्रम्: cf. Kāś. on P. III.1.8, 10. It is also added in the sense of 'doing' to the words नमस्, वरिवस् and चित्र; e. g. नमस्यति देवान्, वरिवस्यति गुरून् , चित्रीयते ; cf. Kāś. on P. III. 1.19.

क्यप् kṛt afix य applied to the roots व्रज् and यज् in the sense of 'verbal activity' and to the roots अजू with सम्, षद् with नि etc. to form proper nouns e. g. व्रज्या, इज्या, समज्या, निषद्या etc., cf. P. III. 3.98 and 99; (2) kṛtya affix य in the sense of 'should be done' applied to the


roots वद्, भू and हन् (when preceded by certain words put as upapada), as also to roots with penultimate ऋ and the roots मृज्, इ, स्तु and others; e. g. ब्रह्मोद्यम् , ब्रह्मभूयम् , इत्यम् , स्तुत्यम् etc. cf. Kāś. on P. III. 1. 106,121.

क्यष् affix य added to certain nouns like लोहित and others to form denominative roots after which terminations of both the padas are placed e.g. लोहितायति, लोहितायते; cf. Kāś. on P. III. 1.13.

क्यु, क्युन् Uṇādi affixes अन.

क्रत्वादि a class of words headed by the word क्रतु, which have their first vowel accented acute in a Bahu- vrīhi dompound, provided the first member of the compound is the word सु; e.g. सुक्रतुः, सुप्रपूर्तिः etc.; cf. cf. Kāś. on P. VI.2.118.

क्रम (l) serial order or succession as contrasted with यौगपद्य or simul- taneity. The difference between क्रम and यौगपद्य is given by भर्तृहरि in the line क्रमे विभिद्यते रूपं यौगपद्ये न भिद्यते Vāk. Pad. II. 470. In order to form a word by the application of several rules of grammar, a parti- cular order is generally followed in accordance with the general prin- ciple laid down in the Paribhāṣā पूर्वपरनित्यान्तरङ्गापवादानामुत्तरोत्तरं बलीयः, as also according to what is stated in the sūtras असिद्धवदत्राभात्, पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् etc. (2) succession, or being placed after, specifically with re- ference to indeclinables like एव, च etc. which are placed after a noun with which they are connected. When an inde- cinable is not so connected, it is called भिन्नक्रम; cf. परिपन्थं च तिष्ठति (P.IV. 4.36), चकारो भिन्नक्रमः प्रत्ययार्थं समुच्चिनोति, Kāś. on P. IV. 4.36; also ईडजनोर्ध्वे च । चशब्दो भिन्नक्रमः

ईशेः (VII.2.77) अनुकर्षणार्थो विज्ञायते Kāś. on P.IV.2.78; (3) succession of the same consonant brought about; doubling; reduplication; क्रम is used in this way in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya as a synonym of dvitva prescribed by Pāṇini; e. g. अा त्वा रथं becomes अा त्त्वा रथम् ; सोमानं स्वरणम् becomes सोमानं स्स्वरणम् ; cf. स्वरानुस्वारोपहितो द्विरुच्यते संयोगादि: स क्रमोSविक्रमे सन् । etc, R. Pr. VI. l to 4; cf. also स एष द्विर्भावरूपो विधिः क्रमसंज्ञो वेदितव्यः Uvvaṭa on R. Pr. VI. 1. The root क्रम् IA. is several times used in the Prāti- śākhya works for द्विर्भवन, cf. also T. Pr.XXI.5; XXIV.5; (4) repetition of a word in the recital of Vedic passages, the recital by such a repetition being called क्रमपाठ, which is learnt and taught with a view to understanding the original forms of words combined in the Saṁhitā by euphonic rules, substitution of letters such as that of ण् for न् , or of ष् for स् , as also the separate words of a com- pound word ( सामासिकशब्द ); e. g. पर्जन्याय प्र । प्र गायत । गायत दिवः । दिव- स्पुत्राय । पुत्राय मीळ्हुषे । मीळ्हुषे इति मीळ्हुषे । cf. क्रमो द्वाभ्यामतिक्रम्य् प्रत्यादायो- त्तरं तयोः उत्तेरेणोपसंदध्यात् तथार्द्धर्चं समापयेत् ॥ R. Pr. X. 1. For details and special features, cf. R. Pr. ch. X and XI: cf. also V. Pr. IV. 182- 190: T. Pr, XXIII. 20, XXIV. 6.

क्रमण doubling. Irregular doubling is looked upon as a fault; cf. क्रमणं वा अयथेाक्तम् R.Pr. XIV. 25.

क्रमदीश्वर author of a grammar named संक्षिप्तसार who lived at the end of the 13th century.

क्रमपाठ recital of the Vedic Saṁhitā by means of separate groups of two words, repeating each word ex- cept the first of the Vedic verse- line; see क्रम above. The various


rules and exceptions are given in detail in Paṭalas ten and eleven of the Ṛk Prātiśākhya. The Vedic Saṁhitā or Saṁhitāpāṭha is supposed to be the original one and the Padapāṭha prepared later on, with a view to preserving the Vedic text without any change or modification of a letter, or accent; cf. न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः । पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् M. Bh. on III. 1.109, VI. 1.207 and VIII. 2.16, where Patañjali clearly says that grammar-rules are not to follow the Padapāṭha, but, the writer of the Padapāṭha is to follow the rules already laid down. The Jaṭāpāṭha, the Ghanapāṭha and the other recitals are later developments of the Padapāṭha as they are not mentioned in the Prātiśākhya works.

क्रमादि a class of words headed by the word क्रम to which the tad- dhita affix अक (वुञ् ) is added in the sense of 'one who studies and understands'; e. g. क्रमकः, पदकः, मीमांसकः, शिक्षकः etc. cf. Kāś. on IV. 2.61.

क्रम्य a consonant which is subjected to doubling cf. क्रम्यो वर्णः पूर्वमक्षरं भजते R. Pr. XVIII. 18.

क्रिया action, verbal activity; cf. क्रिया- वचनो धातु: M. Bh. on I. 3.1 ; cf. also क्रियावाचकमाख्यातम् R. Pr. XII. 8. quoted by Uvvaṭa in his Bhāṣya on V. Pr. VIII. 50; cf. also उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I.4.59, लक्षणहेत्वेाः क्रियायाः P.III. 2.126; cf. also यत्तर्हि तदिङ्गितं चेष्टितं निमिषितं स शब्दः । नेत्याह क्रिया नाम सा M. Bh. Āhnika 1. The word भाव many times is used in the same sense as kriyā or verbal activity in the sūtras of Pāṇini. cf. P.I.2.21 ; I.3.13; III. 1. 66.etc; cf. also कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति

a statement made frequently by the Mahābhāṣyakāra. Some scho- lars draw a nice distinction bet- ween क्रिया and भाव, क्रिया meaning dynamic activity and भाव mean- ing static activity: cf. अपरिस्पन्दन- साधनसाध्यो धात्वर्थो भावः । सपरिस्पन्दन- साधनसाध्यस्तु क्रिया Kaiyaṭa's Pradīpa on M. Bh. III. 1.87. Philosophi- cally क्रिया is defined as सत्ता appearing in temporal sequence in various things. When सत्ता does not so appear it is called सत्त्व.

क्रियाकलाप a grammatical work on the conjugation of roots written by Vijayānanda.

क्रियागुप्तक a grammar work quoted by वर्धमान in his गणरत्नमहोदधि.

क्रियातिपत्ति lit. over-extension or excess of action; the word is, however, used in grammar in the sense of non-happening of an expected action especially when . it forms a condition of the con- ditional mood ( लृङ् ); cf. कुताश्चि- द्वैगुण्यादनभिनिर्वृत्तिः क्रियायाः क्रियातिपत्तिः Kāś. on P. III. 3.139; cf. also नान्तरेण साधनं क्रियायाः प्रवृत्तिरस्तीति साधना- तिपत्तिश्चेत्कियातिपत्तिरपि भवति M. Bh. on III.3.139.

क्रियाफल intended fruit of a verbal activity; cf. स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले P.I.3.72.

क्रियायोग association with a verbal activity; cf उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P.I.4.59.

क्रियार्थ (adj. to क्रिया) lit. meant or in- tended for another action; e g. भोक्तुं व्रजति where गमनक्रिया is intend- ed for भोजनक्रिया; cf. तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम् P.III.3.10.

क्रियावचन meaning or expressing a verbal activity; a term generally applied to dhātus or roots, or even to verbs. The term is also applied to denominative affixes like क्यच् which produce a sort of verbal


activity in the noun to which they are added; cf. क्रियावचनाः क्यजादय: M.Bh. on III.1.19.

क्रियाविशेषण determinant or modifier of a verbal activity; cf. क्रियाविशेषणं चेति वक्तव्यम् । सुष्टु पचति दुष्टु पचति M.Bh. on II.1.1; nouns used as Kriyāviśeṣaṇa are put in the neuter gender, and in the nom. or the acc. case in the sing. number; cf. क्रियाविशेषणानां कर्मत्वं नपुंसकलिङ्गता च Pari.Bhāśkara Pari.56.

क्रियासमभिहार repetition or intensity of a verbal activity; cf. समभिहारः पौनः पुन्यं भृशार्थो वा, Kāś. on P.I.4.2.

क्रु kṛt affix रु applied to the root भी, e.g. भीरुः, cf. P.III.2.174.

क्रुकन् kṛt affix रुक; e.g, भीरुकः; cf.(भियः) क्रुकन्नपि वक्तव्यः P.III.2.174 Vārttika.

क्रैयादिक a root belonging to the class of roots which are headed by क्री and which are popularly known as roots of the ninth conjugation; cf. यथा तु वार्तिकं तथा कैयादिकस्याप्यत्र ग्रहणमिष्यते Padamañjarī on VII.2.48.

क्रोडादि a class of words headed by the word क्रोड to which the tadd- hita affix य ( ष्यङ् ) is added in the sense of a female descendant; e.g. क्रौड्या, आपिशल्या, गौकक्ष्या etc. ; cf. Kāś. on P.IV.1.80.

क्रोष्ट्रीय an ancient school of gramma- rians who are believed to have written rules or Vārttikas on some rules of Pāṇini to modify them; the क्रोष्ट्रीय school is quoted in the Mahābhāṣya; cf. परिभाषान्तरमिति च मत्वा क्रोष्ट्रीयाः पठन्ति । M. Bh. on P. I.1.3.

क्रौड्यादि a class of words headed by the word क्रौडि which do not take the feminine affix ई when they stand at the end of a compound; e.g. कल्याणक्रौडा, सुभगा, पृथुजघना etc.; cf. Kāś. on P.IV.1.56.

क्रयादिगण a class of roots headed by

the root क्री ( डुक्रीञ् ) to which the conjugational sign ना ( श्ना ) is added; roots of the ninth conjuga- tion.

क्लीबत्व a word used in the sense of 'neuter gender' by grammarians later than पतञ्जलि and the Vārtti- kakāra; cf. समभागे क्लीबलिङ्गमर्धमेकदे- शिना समस्यते Bhāṣā Vr. on P.II.2.2; पक्षे हि क्लीबत्वम् Kaiyaṭa's Pr. on II.1. 51; समाहारद्वन्द्वे क्लीबत्वप्रसङ्गात् Durgh. Vr. on P.II.4.l7.

क्लुकन् kṛt affix लुक added to the root भी; e.g. भीलुक; cf. P. III.2. 174.

कनिप् kṛt affix वन् in the sense of agent added to (l) a root preced- ed by an Upasarga or a Subanta Upapada or sometimes even with- out any preceding word; e.g.प्रतरित्वा, धीवा, पीवा; (2) to the root दृश्, pre- ceded by an Upapada which is the object of the root दृश्, e.g. पारदृश्वा; (3) to roots युध् and कृञ् having राजन् as their object, e.g. राजयुध्वा, राजकृत्वा ; cf. Pāṇini III.2.94-96.

क्वरप् kṛt affix वर, taking the affix ई ( ङीप् ) in the feminine gender, added to the roots इ, नश्, जि etc.; इत्वरी, नश्वर:, जित्वरी, गत्वरी; cf. P.III. 2.163-164.

क्वसु kṛt affix वस्, taking the fem. affix ई (ङीप्) in the feminine gender, prescribed in the sense of perfect tense, which is mostly found in Vedic Literature and added to some roots only such as सद्, वस्, श्रु etc. in the spoken language; e. g. जक्षिवान् पपिवान् उपसेदिवान् कौत्स; पाणिनिम्; cf. Kāś. on P.III.2.107-109.

क्वि a common term to signify kṛt affixes क्विन् and क्वि both; cf. P. III. 2.134, VI.3.115, VI.4.40; VIII.3. 25, VI.4.15, VI.4.97.

क्विन् kṛt zero affix, i.e. an affix of which every letter is dropped and nothing remains, added to the roots


स्पृश्, यज्, सृज्, दृश्, etc. under certain conditions; e.g. घृतस्पृक्, ऋत्विक्, यादृक्, तादृक्; cf. Kāś. on P.III.2.58-60.

क्विप् (1) kṛt affix zero, added to the roots सद्, सू, द्विष् and others with a preceding word as upapada or with a prefix or sometimes even without any word, as also to the root हन् preceded by the words ब्रह्मन्, भ्रूण and वृत्र, and to the root कृ preceded by सु, कर्मन् etc., and to the roots सु, and चि under certain con- ditions e.g. उपसत्, सूः, प्रसूः, पर्णध्वत्, ब्रह्महा, वृत्रहा, सोमसुत्, अग्निचित्; cf.P.III. 2.61, 76, 77, 87-92: 177-179; (2) the denominative affix zero appli- ed to any substantive in the sense of behaviour अश्वति, गर्दभति etc.; cf. M.Bh. and Kāś, on P.III.1.11.

क्विबन्त a substantive ending with the kṛt affix क्विप् (zero affix) added to a root to form a noun in the sense of the verbal action (भाव). The words ending with this affix having got the sense of verbal activity in them quite suppressed, get the noun terminations सु, औ, जस् etc. and not ति, तः etc. placed after them; cf. कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद् भवति. How- ever, at the same time, these words undergo certain operations peculiar to roots simply because the kṛt affix entirely disappears and the word formed, appears like a root; cf. क्विबन्ता धातुत्वं न जहति. Kaiyaṭa's Prad. on VII.1.70.

क्षपणक a Jain grammarian quoted in the well-known stanza धन्वन्तरिः क्षपणकोमरसिंहशङ्कु which enumerates the seven gems of the court of Vikramāditya, on the strength of which some scholars believe that he was a famous grammarian of the first century B.C.

क्षमामाणिक्य a Jain grammarian who wrote a small grammar work known as Aniṭkārikāvivaraṇa.

क्षितीशचन्द्र (चक्रवर्तिन्) or K. C. CHAT- TERJI a scholar of Sanskrit grammar who has written a work on technical terms in Sanskrit, who has edited several grammar works and is at present editing the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa and conduct- ing the Sanskrit journal named Mañjūṣa at Calcutta.

क्षिप्र lit. rapid, accelerated, a short name given in the a Prātiśākhya works to a Saṁdhi or euphonic combination of the vowels इ, उ, ऋ,; लृ with a following dissimilar vowel; cf. Uvvaṭa Bhāṣya on R.Pr. III.10; cf. also इको यणचि P.VI.1.77. The name Kṣipra is given to this Saṁdhi possibly because the vowel, short or long, which is turned into a consonant by this saṁdhi be- comes very short (i.e. shorter than a short vowel i.e. a semi-vowel). The word क्षैप्र is also used in this sense referring to the Kṣiprasaṁdhi.

क्षीरतरङ्गिणी a kind of commentary on the Dhātupāṭha of Pāṇini written by Kṣīrasvāmin.

क्षीरतरङ्गिणीसंकेत an abridgment of क्षीरतरङ्गिणी by the author himself. See क्षीरतरङ्गणी.

क्षीरस्वामिन् a grammarian of Kashmir of the 8th century who wrote the famous commentary क्षीरतरङ्गिणी on the Amarakośa and a commentary on the Nirukta of Yāska.

क्षुभ्नादि a class of wordings such as क्षुभ्ना, तृप्नु and the like in which the consonant न् is not changed into ण् although the consonant न् is preceded by ऋ, ॠ, र् or ष् and int- ervened by letters which are admissible; e. g. क्षुभ्नाति, तृप्नोति, नृनमनः etc. cf Kāś. on P. VIII. 4.39. This class ( क्षुभ्नादिगण ) is styled as आकृतिगण.


क्षेमंकर author of a commentary on सारस्वतप्रक्रिया.

क्षैप्र (1) another name of the क्षिप्रसंधि- See the word क्षिप्र above; (2) name given to the Svarita accent borne by the vowel following the semi- vowel which results from the Kṣipra- saṁdhi; cf. R. Pr. II. 8; III.7,10; VIII. 22: cf. इवर्णोकारयोर्यवकारभावे क्षैप्र उदात्तयोः V.Pr. XX. 1; cf. also युवर्णौ यवौ क्षैप्रः V.Pr.I.115: उदात्तस्वरितयोर्यणः स्वरितोनुदात्तस्य P.VIII.2.4.

क्ष्वेडन hissing or whizzing sound given as a fault in the utterance of sibilants; cf. क्ष्चेडनमधिको वर्णस्य सरूपो ध्वनि: । com. on R. Pr. XIV. 6.

क्स (1) aorist vikaraṇa affix sub- stituted for च्लि; cf. P.III.1.45, 46; e. g. अदृक्षत्, आश्लिक्षत्, अधुक्षत् cf. Kāś. on P.III.1.45,46; (2) kṛt affix स applied to the root दृश् preceded by a pronoun such as त्यद्, तद् etc. e.g. यादृक्षः, तादृक्ष: etc. cf. दृशेः क्सश्च वक्तव्य: P.III.2.60 Vārttika. (3) affix स applied to the root गाह् or ख्या or कव् to form the noun कक्ष; cf. कक्षो गाहतेः क्स इति नामकरण: ख्यातेर्वा कषतेर्वा Nir. II.2.

क्सरन् Uṇādi affix सर; cf. तन्यृषिभ्यां क्सरन् Uṇādi III.75.

क्सि Uṇādi affix सि; cf. प्रुषिकुषिशुषिभ्यः क्सि: Uṇādi III.155.

क्से kṛt affix से in the sense of तुमुन् in Vedic Literature; e.g.प्रेषे (भगाय) Kāś. on III. 4. 9.

ख्second consonant of the guttural class of consonants possessed of श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष and विवार qualities.

tad. affix, always changed into ईन, (l) applied to the word कुल in the sense of a descendant, e.g. कुलीनः, आढ्यकुलीन:; cf. P. IV. 1.139;

(2) applied to the words अवार, पार, पारावार and अवारपार in the Śaīṣika senses, e. g. अवारीणः, पारीणः etc.; cf. P.IV.2.93 and Vārttikas 2, 3 on it; (3) applied to words ending in the word वर्ग ( which does not mean 'sound' or 'letter' ) in the sense of 'present there,' e. g. वासुदेववर्गीणः, युधिष्ठिरवर्गीणः; cf. P. IV. 3.64; (4) applied to the words सर्वधुर and एकधुर in the sense of 'bearing,' and to ओजसू , वेशोभग, यशोभग and पूर्व, e.g. ओजसीनः etc., cf. P.IV.4.78, 79, 130, 132, 133; (5) applied in the sense of 'favourable to' to the words आत्मन् , विश्वजन, etc. (P.V.1.9), to विंशतिक, (32) to अाढक, अाचित, पात्र and others (53-55), to समा (85-86), to रात्रि, अहन् , संवत्सर and वर्ष (87-88) and संवत्सर and परिवत्सर (92); e. g. आत्मनीनः, आढकीनः पात्रीणः, समीनः, संवत्स- रीणः etc.; (6) to the words सर्वचर्मन्, यथामुख etc. e. g. सर्वचर्मीणः cf. P.V. 2.5 to 17; (7) to the words अषडक्ष, अशितंगु etc. cf. P.V.4.7,8. e. g. अषडक्षीणः. (8) ख is also a technical term in the sense of elision or लोप in the Jainendra Grammar cf. Jain I. 1.61. (9) The word ख is used in the sense of 'glottis' or the hole of the throat ( गलबिल ) in the ancient Prātiṣākhya works.

खकार the consonant ख्; see ख.

खच् kṛt affix अ in the sense of 'agent' applied to the roots वद्, ताप् , and यम् when preceded by certain उपपद words standing as objects. Before this affix खच्, the augment मुम् ( म् ) is added to the preceding उपपद if it is not an indeclinable. e. g. प्रियंवदः, वशंवदः, द्विषंतपः परंतपः वाचंयम: etc. cf P.III. 2.38-47.

खञ् tad. affix ईन, applied to महाकुल in the sense of a descendant; e. g. माहाकुलीनः cf. P. IV. 1.141, to ग्राम


(P. IV. 2.94), to युष्मद् and अस्मद् in the Śaiṣika senses (P.IV.3.1), to प्रतिजन, इदंयुग etc. (P. IV. 4.99), to माणव and चरक (P. V.1.11), to ऋत्विज् (P.IV.3.71), to मास (P. IV. 3.81), to words meaning corn in the sense of 'a field producing corn' (P.V.2.1), to सर्वचर्मन् (P.V.2.5), and to the words गोष्ठ, अश्व, शाला etc. in some specified senses (P. V. 3.18-23). A vṛddhi vowel ( अा, ऐ or औ ) is substituted for the first vowel of the word to which this affix खञ् is applied, as ञ् is the mute letter applied in the affix खञ्.

खण्ड tad. affix applied to कमल, अम्भोज etc. in the sense of समूह, e. g. कमलखण्डम, अम्भोजखण्डम, also to the words वृक्ष and its synonyms, e. g. वृक्षखण्डः, तरुखण्डः etc.; cf. Kāś on P. IV.2.38, 51.

खण्डिकादि a class of words headed by the word खण्डिका to which the affix अञ् is added in the sense of collection; e. g. खाण्डिकम्, वाडवम्, भैक्षुकम्; cf. Kāś. on P. IV.2.45.

खमुञ् kṛt affix अम् applied to the root कृ when preceded by a word standing as the object of the root, provided an abuse is meant, e. g. चोरंकारं आक्रोशति; cf. P. III. 4.25.

खय् the pratyāhāra खयू standing for the first and second consonants of the five classes; cf. शर्पूर्वाः खयः P.VII.4.6; also cf. P. VIII.3.6, VIII.4.54.

खर् the pratyāhāra खर् standing for hard consonants viz. the first and second letters of the five classes and the sibilants, before which, स् at the end of a word becomes विसर्ग, and soft consonants i. e. the third and fourth consonants of the five classes become hard; cf. खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीय; P. VIII.3.15, and खरि च P. VIII.4.55

खल् kṛt afix अ added to any root preceded by the word ईषद्, दुस् or सु, and to the roots भू and कृ pre- ceded by an upapada word form- ing either the subject or the object of the roots, e. g. ईषत्करः कटो भवता, ईषदाढ्यंभवं भवता; cf. P. III. 3.126, 127.

खश् kṛt affix added to the roots यज् (causal), ध्मा, धे,रुज्, वह्, लिह्, पच् , दृश् , तप्, मन् etc. preceded by certain specified upapada words. The root undergoes all the operations such as the addition of the con- jugational sign etc. before this खश् on account of the mute letter श् which makes खश् a Sārvadhā- tuka affix, and the augment म् is added to the preceding उपपद if it is not an indeclinable on account of the mute letter ख्; e. g. जनमेजयः, स्तनंधयः, नाडिंधमः, असूयै. पश्यः पण्डितंमन्यः etc,; cf. Pāṇ. III- 2.28-37, 83.

खित् characterized by the mute letter ख्, applied to kṛt affixes which, by reason of their being खित् , cause (a) the addition of the aug- ment मुम् ( म् ) to the preceding words अरुस् , द्विषद् and words end- ing in a vowel, and (b) the shorten- ing of the long vowel of the preceding word if it is not an indeclinable; cf. P. VI. 3.66-68.

खिलपाठ a supplementary recital or enunciation which is taken along with the original enunciation or upadeśa generally in the form of the sūtras. The word is used in the Kāśikā in the sense of one of the texts forming a part of the original text which is called upadeśa; cf. Kāśikā उपदिश्यते अनेनेत्युपदेश: शास्त्रवाक्यानि सूत्रपाठ: खिलपाठश्च (on P.I.3.2); cf. also खिलपाठो धातुपाठः प्रातिपदिकपाठो वाक्यपाठश्च Padamañjarī on Kāśikā I.3.2.


खिष्णुच् kṛt affix इष्णु in the sense of an agent added to the root भू, e. g. आढ्यंभविष्णुः, स्थूलंभविष्णुः; cf. P. III. 2.57.

खुकञ् kṛt affix उक in the sense of an agent added to the root भू, e. g. आढ्यंभावुकः, सुभगंभावुकः; cf. P. III. 2.57. See खिष्णुच्.

ख्युन् kṛt affix अन applied to the root कृ in the sense of an instru- ment when preceded by the words अाढ्य, सुभग, स्थूल etc. provided the whole word is similar in sense to cvi-formation ( च्व्यर्थ ), e.g. अाढ्यं करणम् , सुभगंकरणम्; cf. P. III. 2.56; fem. अाढ्यंकरणी, cf. नञ्स्नञीकक्ख्युंस्तरुण- तलुनानामुपसंख्यानम् P.IV.1.15.Vārttika.

ग्third letter of the guttural class of consonants, possessed of the properties घोष, संवृत, नाद and अल्पप्राण; some grammarians look upon the word क्ङित् (P.I.1.5) as made up of क् , ग् and ङ् and say that the Guna and Vṛddhi substitutes do not take place in the vowels इ, उ, ऋ, and लृ if an affix or so, marked by the mute letter ग् follows. . गङ्गाधर [GANGADHARA SHASTRI TELANG] (l) a stalwart gramm- arian and Sanskrit scholar of repute who was a pupil of Bāla- sarasvatī of Vārāṇaśī and prepared in the last century a host of Sans- krit scholars in Banaras among whom a special mention could be made of Dr. Thebaut, Dr. Venis and Dr. Gaṅgānātha Jhā. He was given by Government of India the titles Mahāmahopādhyāya and C. I.E. His surname was Mānavallī but he was often known as गङाधरशास्त्री तेलङ्ग. For details, see Mahābhāṣya, D.E. Society Ed.Poona p.p.33, 34;

(2)an old scholar of Vyākarana who is believed to have written a com- mentary on Vikṛtavallī of Vyādi; (3) a comparatively modern scho- lar who is said to have written a commentary named Induprakāśa on the Śabdenduśekhara; (4) author of the Vyākaraṇadīpaprabhā, a short commentary on the Vyāka- raṇa work of Cidrūpāśramin. See चिद्रूपाश्रमिन्.

गङ्गेशशर्मा writer of Kātantra-kaumudī possibly different from the reput- ed Gaṅgeśa Upādhyāa who is looked upon as the founder of the Navyanyāya school of modern Naiyāyikas, and who lived in the twelfth century A. D.

गजकुम्भाकृति a graphic description of the Jihvāmūlīya letter as found in script, given by Durgasiṁha; cf. गजकुम्भाकृतिर्वर्ण उपध्मानीयसंज्ञो भवति Durgasiṁha's com. on Kāt. I.1. 18. see ( उपधानीय ).

गण a class of words, as found in the sūtras of Pāṇini by the mention of the first word followed by the word इति; e.g. स्वरादि, सर्वादि, ऊर्यादि, भ्वादि, अदादि, गर्गादि etc. The ten gaṇas or classes of roots given by Pāṇini in his dhātupātha are given the name Daśagaṇī by later grammarians.

गणपाठ the mention individually of the several words forming a class or gaṇa, named after the first word said to have been written by Pāṇini himself as a supplementary work to his great grammar called Aṣṭaka or Aṣṭādhyāyī, the Sikṣā,the Dhātu- pātha and the Lingānuśāsana being the other ones. Other grammarians such as शाकटायन, अापिशलि and others have their own gaṇapāthās. The gaṇapāthā is traditionally ascrib- ed to Pāṇini; the issue is question-


ed, however, by modern scholars. The text of the gaṇapāṭha is metrically arranged by some scholars. The most scholarly and authoritative treatise on gaṇapā- ṭha is the Gaṇaratnamahodadhī of Vardhamāna.

गणरत्नमहोदधि a grammar work, consi- sting of a metrical enumeration of the words in the Gaṇapāṭha of Pāṇini, written by Vardhamāna, a Jain grammarian of the 12th century, who is believed to have been one of the six gems at the court of Lakṣmaṇasena of Bengal. Vardhamāna has written a commentary also, on his Gaṇa- ratnamahodadhi. Besides Vardha- māna's commentary, there are other commentaries written by गोवर्धन and गङ्गाधर.

गणरत्नमहोदधिटीका also called गणरत्न- महोदधिवृति, a commentary on the गणरत्नमहोदधि of Vardhamāna written by the author himself. See गणरत्नमहोदधि.

गणरत्नमहोदध्यवचूरि a metrical com- mentary on Vardhamāna's Gaṇa- ratnamahodadhi. The name of the author is not available.

गणसूत्र a statement of the type of a Sūtra in the Gaṇapāṭha of Pāṇini where mention of a word or words in the Gaṇapāṭha is made along with certain conditions; e. g. पूर्वपुरावरo, स्वमज्ञातिधनाख्यायाम् , in the सर्वादिगण, and क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः, तसिलादय: प्राक्पाशपः in the स्वरादिगण. Some of the gaṇasūtras are found incorpo- rated in the Sūtrapāṭha itself Many later grammarians have appended their own gaṇapāṭha to their Sūtrapāṭha.

गणसूत्रविचार a commentary on the Gaṇapāṭha of Pāṇini written by 17

Mannudeva who flourished in the nineteenth century.

गति (1) lit. motion; stretching out, lengthening of a syllable. The word is explained in the Prātiśakhya works which define it as the lengthening of a Stobha vowel with the utterance of the vowel इ or उ after it, e.g. हाइ or हायि for हा; simi- larly आ-इ or अा -यि ; (2) a tech- nical term used by Pāṇini in con- nection with prefixes and certain indeclinables which are called गति, cf. P.I.4.60-79. The words called gati can be compounded with the following word provided the latter is not a verb, the compound being named tatpuruṣa e.g, प्रकृतम् , ऊरीकृत्य cf. P.II.2.18; the word गति is used by Pāṇini in the masculine gender as seen in the Sūtra गतिरनन्तरः P.VI. 2.49 and hence explained as form- ed by the addition of the affix क्तिच् to गम्, the word being used as a technical term by the rule क्तिच्क्तौ च संज्ञायाम् P.III.3.174; (3) realization, understanding; cf. उभयगतिरिह भवति Par. Śek. Pari.9; सांप्रतिकाभावे भूतपूर्वगतिः Par. Śek. Pari 76; अगत्या हि परिभाषा अाश्रीयते Puruṣottamadeva Pari. Pāṭha 119.

गतिकारकपरिभाषा a popular name given to the maxim गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पतेः; cf. Par. Śek. Pari. 75.

गतिनिघात the grave ( अनुदात्त ) accent of the गति word before a verb with an acute ( उदात्त ) accent; cf. तिङि- चोदात्तवति P. VIII.1.71.

गतिसमास a compound with the prece- ding gati word prescribed by the rule कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18; cf. गति- समास । निष्कौशाम्बिः, निर्वाराणसि: M.Bh. on II. 4. 26 . गत्यर्थ a root denoting motion; the

word frequently occurs in the

Sūtras of Pāṇini and the Mahābhā- ṣya in connection with some special operations prescribed for roots which are गत्यर्थ. There is also a conventional expression सर्वे गत्यर्था ज्ञानार्था: meaning 'roots denoting motion denote also knowledge'; cf. Hem. Pari. 121 .

गदा a popular name given to the scholarly commentary written by Vaidyanātha Pāyaguṇḍe on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara. The comm- entary is called काशिका also, as it was written in the town of Kāśī (Vārāṇasī).

गदाधरचक्रवर्तिन् the reputed Naiyā- yika who wrote numerous works on the Navyanyaya; he has written a few works like व्युत्पत्तिवाद, उपसर्ग- विचार, कारकनिर्णय, सर्वनामविचार, प्रत्ययविचार on Vyākaraṇa themes although the treatment, as also the style, is logical.

गन्तव्य that which should be under- stood; the word is used in the sense of अवगन्तव्य; cf. तत्र संबन्धादेतद्ग- न्तव्यम् M. Bh. on I. 1.9.

गमक capable of conveying the sense; intelligible; the word is often used in grammatical works; cf. सापेक्षत्वेपि गमकत्वात्समास:; cf. also अवश्यं कस्याचिन्नञ्स- मासस्य असमर्थसमासस्य गमकस्य साधुत्वं वक्तव्यम् । असूर्यपश्यानि मुखानि M. Bh. on II. 1. 1.

गम्य to be understood, not expressed; cf. यस्यार्थो गम्यते न च शब्दः प्रयुज्यते स गम्यः। com. on Hem. II. 2. 62.

गम्यादि a class of words headed by the word गमी which are formed by the application of unādi affixes in the sense of future time; e. g. गमी ग्रामम्, अागामी, प्रस्थायी etc. cf. Kāś. on P. III. 3. 3.

गरीयस् involving a special effort.The word is frequently used by the Vārttikakāra and old grammari-

ans in connection with some- thing, which involves greater effort and longer expression and, hence, not commendable in rules of the Shastra works where brevity is the soul of 'wit'; cf. पदगौरवाद्योगवेिभागो गरीयान् Par. Śek. Pari. 121. The word गुरु is also sometimes used in a similar sense; cf. तद् गुरु भवति M. Bh. I.1 Āhn. l Vārt. 2.

गरीयस्त्व greater effort or prolixity of expression which is looked upon as a fault in connection with grammar-works of the sūtra type where every care is taken to make the expression as brief as possible; cf. अर्धमात्रालाघवेन पुत्रोत्सवं मन्यन्ते वैयाकरणाः Par. Śek. Pari. 122. The word गौरव is often used for गरीयस्त्व.

गर्गादिगण a class of words headed by गर्ग to which the affix यञ्, ( य ) causing Vṛddhi to the first vowel of the word, is added in the sense of a descendant barring the son or daughter; cf. गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् P. IV. 1.105 and the instances गार्ग्यः, वात्स्यः, वैयाघ्रपद्यः, पौलस्यः cf. Kāś. on P. IV. 1. 105.

गर्भवत् lit. just like a foetus. The word is used in connection with affixes that are placed like a foetus in the midst of a word in spite of the rule that affixes are to be placed after; cf. परश्च P. III. 1. 2. The affixes अकच् , टाप् etc. are of this kind; cf. गर्भवट्टाबादयो भवन्ति । यथा मध्ये गर्भस्तथा टाबादयः स्त्रीप्रत्ययाः प्रातिपदि- कस्वाद्योर्मध्ये भवन्ति Sīradeva Par. Vṛ. Pari. 91.

गलत्पद the word occurs in the Prātiś- ākhya works in connection with the definition of संक्रम, in the krama- pātha. The word संक्रम means bring- ing together two words when they are combined according to rules


of Samdhi. (See the word संक्रम). In the Kramapātha, where each word occurs twice by repeti- tion, a word occurring twice in a hymn or a sentence is not to be repeated for Kramapātha, but it is to be passed over. The word which is passed over in the Kramapātha is called गलत्पद; e. g. दिशां च पतये नमो नमो वृक्षेभ्यो हरिकेशेभ्यः पशूनां पतये नमो नमः सस्पिञ्जराय त्विषीमतॆ पथीनां पतये नमः । In the Kramapā- tha पतये नमः and नमः are passed over and पशूनां is to be connected with सस्पिञ्जराय. The words पतये नमः and नमः are called galatpada; cf. गलत्पदमतिक्रम्य अगलता सह संधानं संक्रम; V. Pr. IV. 197. There is no गलत्पद in पदपाठ.

गवादि a class of words headed by the word गो to which the affix यत् is affixed in the senses men- tioned in rules from P. V. 1, 5. to V. 1. 36; e. g. गव्यम् , हविष्यम् युग्यम् , मेध्यम् etc.; cf. Kas. on P. V.1,2.

गवाश्वप्रभृति the dvandva compound words गवाश्व, गवाविक गवैडक, अजाविक, कुब्जमाणवक, पुत्रपौत्र मांसशोणित and others which are to be declined in the neuter gender and singular number; cf. P. II. 4.11.

गहादि a class of words headed by the word गह to which the tad- dhita affix ईय (छ) is added in the Saisika or miscellaneous senses; e. g. गहीयम् , अन्तस्थीयम्; this class called 'gahiya' is looked upon as अाकृतिगण, and hence the words वैणुकीयम् वैत्रकीयम् and the like could be explained as correct; cf Kas. on P. IV. 2.138.

गार्ग्य an ancient reputed grammarian and possibly a writer of a Niru- kta work, whose views, especially in.connection with accents are

given in the Pratisakhya works, the Nirukta and Panini's Asta- dhyayi. Although belonging to the Nirukta school, he upheld the view of the Vaiyakaranas that all words cannot be derived, but only some of them: cf Nir. I. 12.3. cf, also V. Pr. IV. 167, Nir. I. 3.5, III. 14.22: R. Pr. I. 13; XIII. 12: P. VII. 3.99, VIII. 3.20, VIII. 4.69.

गालव an ancient grammarian and niruktakara quoted by Panini; cf. P. VI 3.60, VII. I.74, VII. 3,99, VIII. 4.67, cf. also Nir. IV. 3.

गाव a technical term for the term अाङ्ग (pertaining to the base in the grammar of Panini); cf. वार्णात् गावं बलीयः Kat. Pari. 72.

गिa conventional term for उपसर्ग in the Jeinendra Vyākarana.

गित् marked with the mute letter ग्; affixes that are गित् prevent guna or vrddhi in the preceding word; cf. क्क्ङिति च P. I. 1.5; cf. also M. Bh. I. 3.10; III. 2.I39: cf. also गकारोप्यत्र चर्त्वभूतो निर्दिश्यते Kas. on P. I. 1.5.

गिरिधर writer of विभक्त्यर्थनिर्णय, a work on syntax.

गीर्वाणपदमञ्जरी a grammatical work written by वरदराज, pupil of Bha- ttoji Diksita in the 17th century who wrote many works on gram- mar such as मध्यकौमुदी, लघुकौमुदी etc.

गुडादि a class of words headed by the word गुड to which the taddhita affix इक ( ठञ् ) is added in the sense of 'good therein'; e.g. गौडिकः इक्षुः, कौल्माषिको मुद्गः; cf. Kas. on p. IV. 4.103.

गुण (1) degree of a vowel; vocalic degree, the second out of the three degrees of a vowel viz. primary


degree, guna degree and vrddhi degree e.g. इ, ए and ऐ or उ, ओ and औ. अ is given as a guna of अ; but regarding अ also,three degrees can be stated अ, अ and आ. In the Pratisakhya and Nirukta ए is called गुण or even गुणागम but no definiti6n is given ; cf. गुणागमादेतन- भावि चेतन R.Pr.XI.6;शेवम् इति विभीषि- तगुणः। शेवमित्यपि भवति Nir.X.17: (2) the properties of phonetic elements or letters such as श्वास,नाद etc.: cf.R. Pr. Ch.XIII : (3) secondary, sub- ordinate;cf. शेषः,अङ्गं, गुणः इति समानार्थाः Durgācārya on Nir. I.12: (4) pro- perties residing in a substance just as whiteness, etc. in a garment which are different from the sub- stance ( द्रव्य ). The word गुण is explained by quotations from ancient grammarians in the Maha bhasya as सत्वे निविशतेsपैति पृथग्जातिषु दृश्यते । अाघेयश्चाक्रियाजश्च सोSसत्त्वप्रकृतिर्गुणः ॥ अपर आह । उपैत्यन्यज्जहात्यन्यद् दृष्टो द्रव्यान्तरेष्वपि। वाचकः सर्वलिङ्गानां द्रव्यादन्यो गुणः स्मृतः ; M. Bh. on IV.1.44;cf also शब्दस्पर्श- रूपरसगन्धा गुणास्ततोन्यद् द्रव्यम् ,M.Bh.on V.1.119 (5) properties of letters like उदात्तत्व, अनुदात्तत्व, स्वरितत्व, ह्र्स्व- त्व, दीर्घत्व, प्लुतत्व, अानुनासिक्य etc.; cf. भेदकत्वाद् गुणस्य । आनुनासिक्यं नाम गुणः M. Bh. on I.1.1.. Vart, 13: (6) determinant cf भवति बहुव्रीहौ तद्गुणसंवि- ज्ञानमपि M. Bh. on P. I. 1.27; (7) technical term in Panini's grarn- mar standing for the vowels अ, ए and ओ, cf. अदेङ्गुणः P.I.1.2. For the various shades of the meaning of the word गुण, see Mahabhasya on V.1.119. " गुणशब्दोयं बह्वर्थः । अस्त्येव समेष्ववयवेषु वर्तते ।...... चर्चागुणांश्च ।

गुणकर्मन् a term used by the an- cient grammarians for the गौणकर्मन् or indirect object of a verb. having two objects.The word is found quoted in the Mahabha- ya; cf. कथिते लादयश्चेत्स्युः षष्टीं कुर्यात्तदा

गुणे । गुणे गुणकर्मणि । cf. also गुणकर्मणि लादिविधि: सपरे M.Bh. on I. 4.51.

गुणकीर्ति a Jain writer of the thir- teenth century who wrote a com- mentary named कातन्त्रवृत्तिटिप्पणी on दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति.

गुणभाविन् a vowel, liable to take the guna substitute e. g. इ, उ, ऋ, लृ and the penultimate अ; cf. यत्र क्ङित्यनन्तरो गुणभाव्यस्ति तत्रैव स्यात् । चितम् । स्तुतम् । इह तु न स्याद्भिन्नः भिन्नवानिति । M. Bh. on I. 1.5.

गुणभेद difference in properties; cf. एकोयमात्मा उदकं नाम तस्य गुणभेदादन्यत्वं भवति । अन्यदिदं शीतमन्यदिदमुष्णमिति । M. Bh. on I, 1.2.

गुणवचन lit. expressing quality; words expressing quality such as शुक्ल, नील, etc.; cf. गुणवचनब्राह्मणादिभ्यः कर्मणि च P.V. 1.124. See page 369 Vyāka- rana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. D.E. Society edition, Poona.

गुणादि a class of words headed by the word गुण, which, when pre- ceded by the word बहु in a Bahuvrihi compound, do not have their last vowel acute; e. g. बहुगुणा रज्जुः; बह्वक्षरं पदम् , etc. This class of गुणादि words is considered as आकृतिगण; cf. Kas, on P. VI. 2.176.

गुणिन् possessed of a quality ; cf इह कदाचिद् गुणो गुणिविशेपको भवति । तद्यथा पट: शुक्ल इति । कदाचिच्च गुणिना गुणो व्यपदिश्यते। पटस्य शुक्ल इति। M. Bh. on I.4.21.

गुणीभूत subordinate, lit. which has become subordinated, which has become submerged, and therefore has formed an integral part of another; e. g. an augment ( अागम ) with respect to the word to which it has been added;cf.यदागमास्तद्गुणी भूतास्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यन्ते । M. Bh. I.1.20 Vart. 5; Par. Sek. Pari. 11.

गुरु (1) possessed of a special effort as opposed to लघु; cf. तद् गुरु भवति M. Bh. Ahnika 1। (2) heavy, a


technical term including दीर्घ (long) vowel as also a ह्रस्व (short) vowel when it is followed by a conjunct consonant, (cf. संयोगे गुरु । दीर्घ च। P. I. 4.11, 12) or a consonant after which the word terminates or when it (the vowel) is nasalized; cf. Tai. Pr. XXII. 14, cf. also R. Pr. I. 5.

गुरुमत् a word containing a गुरु vowel in it cf. इजादेश्च गुरुमतोनृच्छः P.III.1.36.

गुरुलघुता consideration of prolixity and brevity of expression; cf. तत्राप्ययं नावश्यं गुरुलघुतामेवोपलक्षायितुमर्हति . M. Bh. on I.1.1.

गुरुलाघव the same as गुरुलघुता which see above; cf पर्यायशव्दानां गुरुलाघवचर्चा नाद्रियते Siradeva Pari. 125

गूढ held up or caught between two words with which it is connected; e.g. the word असि in इयं ते राट् यन्ता असि यमनः ध्रुव: धरुणः। cf. V. Pr. IV. 176.

गूढफक्किकाप्रकाश a short gloss on the Siddhāntakaumudi of Bhattoji Diksita, by Indradatta,

गूढभाववृत्ति a commentary on Rama- candra's Prakriya Kaumudi by Krsnasesa of the famous Sesa family of grammarians. The date of this Krsnasesa is the middle of the sixteenth century. For details about Krsnasesa and the Sesa family see introduction to Prakriyakaumudi B. S. S. No. 78.

गूढार्थदीपिनी a commentary ( वृत्ति ) on the sutras of Panini by Sadasiva Misra who lived in the seven- teenth century.

गूढार्थप्रकाश a commentary on the Laghusabdendusekhara by M. M. Vasudeva Shastri Abhyankar (1863-1942).

गृष्ट्यादि a class of words headed by the word गृष्टि to which the taddhita

affix एय (ढञ्) is affixed in the sense off 'an offspring' ( अपत्य): e g. गार्ष्टेयः, हालेयः etc.; cf. Kas. on P. IV.1.136.

गृहीत included; cf. भ्राजादिसूत्र एव गृहीतत्वात् Kas. on P. III. 2.178.

गोणिकापुत्र a grammarian whose wiew in connection with the correct- ness of the expressions नेताश्वस्य स्त्रुघ्नं and नेताश्वस्य स्त्रुघ्नस्य is given by the Mahabhasyakara in the words 'both expressions are justified' ( उभयथा गेणिकापुत्रः ). Nagesa has observed that गेोणिकापुत्र is nobody else but the Mahabhasyakara himself; cf. गोणिकापुत्रः भाष्यकार इत्याहुः । NageSa's Uddyota on Mahabha- syapradipa on P. I. 4.5I.

गोत्र lit. family. The word is used by Panini in the technical sense of a descendant except the son or a daughter; cf. अपत्यं पौत्रप्रभृति गोत्रम् P. IV. 1.162. The word गोत्रापत्य is also used in the same sense. The affix, which is found many times in the sense of gotra, barring the usual अण् , is यञ् ; cf. गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् P. IV. 1.105.

गोत्रप्रत्यय affix in the sense of गोत्र; cf. यश्चासौ गोत्रप्रत्ययः प्राप्नोति स एकः स्यात् M. Bh.on IV. 1.93.

गोनर्दीय lit. inhabitant of Gonarda which was the name of a district. in the province of Oudh in the days of the Mahabhasyakara according to some scholars. Others believe that Gonarda was the name of the district named Gonda at present The expression गोनर्दीय अाह occurs four times in the Mahabhasya where it refers to a scholar of grammar in Patafijali's time; cf M.Bh. on I. 1.21 ; I. 1.29; III. I.92; VII. 2.101. As Kaiyata paraphrases the words गेानर्दीयस्त्वाह as भाष्यकारस्त्वाह, scholars say that गेीनर्दीय was the name taken by the


Mahabhasyakara himself who was a resident of Gonarda. Hari Diksita, however, holds that गोनर्दीय was the term used for the author of the . Varttikas; cf. Brhacchabdaratna.

गोपवनादि a class of eight words head- ed by the word गोपवन, the taddhita affix in the sense of गोत्र ( i. e. a descendant excepting a son or a daughter) such as the affix यञ् or अञू after which, is not elided in the plural number; c. g. गौपवना:, शौग्रवा: etc.; cf. Kas. on P. II. 4.67.

गोपाल ( देव ) known more by the nickname of मन्नुदेव or मन्तुदेव who lived in the eighteenth century and wrote several commentary works on well-known grammatical treatises such as the Vaiyakarana- bhusanasara, Laghusabdenduse- khara, Paribhasendusekhara etc. He is believed to have written a treatise on Ganasutras also; (2) a grammarian different from the above मन्नुदेव who has written an explanatory work on the Prati- sakhyas;.(3) a scholar of grammar, different from the above who is believed to have written a gloss named Visamarthadipika on the Sarasvata Vyakarana at the end of the sixteenth century.

गोपीचन्द्र known also by the name गेयींचन्द्र who .has written several commentary works on the gram- matical treatises of the Samksipa- tasara or Jaumāra school of Vya- karana founded by Kramdisvara and Jumaranandin in the 12th century, the well-known among them being the संक्षिप्तसाटीका, संक्षित- सारपरिभात्रासूत्रटीका and तद्धितपरिशिष्टटीका. He is believed to have lived in the thirteenth century A. D.

गोपीनाथ a Bengali scholar of Katan- sutra Grammar who is believed to

have written Katantraparisista- praddyota.

गोयीचन्द्र see गोपीचन्द्र.

गोयुगच् a tad. affix applied to nouns like अश्व, उष्ट्र, etc. in the sense of a pair e. g. उष्ट्रगोयुगम्, अश्वयोयुगम्: cf. द्वित्वे गोयुगच् Kas on P. V. 2.29.

गोल्ड्स्ट्यूकर a well known German scholar who made a sound study of Paini's Sanskrit Vyakarana and wrote a very informative trea- tise entitled 'Panini, his place in Sanskrit Literature.' He lived in the latter half of the 19th century.

गोवर्धन a grammarian who has writ- ten a work on Katantra Grammar called कातन्त्रकौमुदी and also a com- mentary on the Ganaratnamaho- dadhi of Vardhamana. A gloss on the Unadisutras is also assigned to Govardhana who is likely to be the same as above.

गोविन्द writer of a commentary known - as अम्बाकर्त्री by reason of that work beginning with the stanza अम्बा कर्त्रींó, on the Paribhasendusekhara of Nagesa.

गोत्रिन्द ( चक्रवर्तिन् ) writer of Samasa- vada, a short treatise on the sense conveyed by compound words.

गोविन्दराम writer of 'Sabdadipika,' a commentary on the Mugdha- bodha Vyakarana of Bopadeva.

गोषदादि a class of words to which the taddhita affix अक ( वुन् ) is added in the sense of possession provided the word so formed refers to a chapter ( अध्याय ) or a section ( अनुवाक ) c. दैवासुरः, वैमुक्तः etc.; cf. Kas. on P. V. 2.62.

गोष्ठच् a tad.affix applied to words like गो and others in the sense of 'a pla- ce'; cf. गेष्ठजादयः स्थानादिषु पशुनाम। पशुना- मादिभ्य उपसंख्यानम् | गवां स्थानं गोगोष्ठम्, अश्वगोष्ठम्: महिषीगोष्ठम् Kas.on P.v.2.29


It is very likely that words like गोष्ठ, दघ्न and others were treated as pratyayas by Panini and katyayana who followed Panini, because they were found always associated with a noun preceding them and never independently.

गौण (l) a word subordinate in syntax or sense to another; adjectival; उपसर्जनीभूतः (2) possessing a second- ary sense, e. g the word गो in the sense of 'a dull man';cf.गौणमुख्ययेार्मुख्ये कार्यसम्प्रत्ययः, M. Bh. on I.1.15, I.4. 108, VI. 3. 46. See also Par. Sek Pari. 15; (3) secondary, as opposed to primary; cf. गौणे कर्मणि दुह्यादे; प्रधाने नीहृकृष्वहाम् ।.

गौणमुख्यन्याय the maxim that the primary sense occurs to the mind earlier than the secondary sense, and hence words used in the pri- mary sense should be always taken for grammatical operations in preference to words in a secon- dary sense. See the word गेोण.

गौतम an ancient sage referred to in the Pratisakhya works as a Prati- sakhyakara; cf. T.Pr. V.38.

गौरव greatness of effort; prolixity as opposed to लाघव; cf. पर्यायशब्दानां लाघवगौरवचर्चा नाद्रियते Par.Sek.Par.115; cf. also पदगौरवाद्योगविभागो गरीयान् Par. Sek. Pari. 121.

गौरादि a class of words to which the affix ई ( ङीष्) is added to form the feminine base; e.g. गौरी, मत्सी, हयी, हरिणी; the class contains a large number of words exceeding 150; for details see Kasika on P.IV.1. 41; (2) a small class of eleven words, headed by the word गौर which do not have the acute accent on the last syllable in a tatpurusa compound when they are placed after the preposition उप; cf. P. VI.2.194.

ग्मिन् tad. affix in the sense of posses- sion; cf. वाचो ग्मिनिः। वाग्मी । P.I.2.124.

ग्रस्त a fault of pronunciation due to the utterance of a letter hindered or held back at the throat; cf. जिह्वामूलनिग्रहे ग्रस्तमेतत् R.Pr.XIV.3; cf. also ग्रस्तं निरस्तमवलम्बितम् । ग्रस्तः जिह्वामूले गृहीतः । अव्यक्त इत्यपरे । Pradipa on M. Bh. Ahnika 1.

ग्रहण (1) technical term for a word or प्रातिपदिक in Veda; cf. ग्रहणस्य च । गृह्यते इति ग्रहणं वेदस्थः इाब्दः । तत् त्रिविधम् । कार्यभाक्, निमित्तम्, उपबन्ध इति । तस्यापि स्वरूपपूर्वकः अकारः आख्या भवति । Com. on T.Pr.I.22; (2) citing, quoting; cf. ग्रहणवता प्रातिपादिकेन न तदन्तविधिः Par.Sek. Pari. 3I ; cf. also गृह्णन्तीति ग्रहणाानि Com. on T.Pr.I.24. (3) mention, inclusion; (4) employment in a rule of grammar; cf. प्रातिपादिकग्रहणे लिङ्गविशिष्टस्यापि ग्रहणम्. Par. Sek.Pari.71.

ग्रहणक citing or instructing the inclu- sion ( ग्रहण) of certain other things by the mention of a particular thing; e. g. the rule अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः is a ग्रहणक rule as it advises that the citing of the letters अ, इ, उ, ऋ etc. includes the long and protracted forms of अ, इ, उ etc; cf. also ग्रहणकशास्त्रस्य सावर्ण्यविधिनिषेधाभ्यां प्रागनिष्पत्ते; Sid. Kau. on अकः सवर्णे दीर्धः V1. 1. 101.

ग्रहणवत् specifically mentioned in a rule, individually mentioned; cf. ग्रहणवता प्रातिपदिकेन तदन्तविधिर्नास्ति Par. Sek.Pari.31. See the word ग्रहण.

ग्रहादि a class of roots headed by the root ग्रह् to which the affix इन् (णिनि), causing vrddhi to the preceding vowel of the root, is added in the sense of an agent: e.g. ग्राही, उत्साही, स्थायी, मन्त्री etc.; cf Kas. on P.III. 1.134.

ग्रास a fault in the utterance of a letter which makes it indistinct by being held up at the throat.Seeग्रस्त.


ग्स्नु krt affix स्नु applied to the roots ग्लै, जि and स्था in the sense of an agent: cf. ग्लाजिस्थश्व क्स्नुः P.III.1.139.

घ् (1) fourth consonant of the gut- tural class of consonants having the properties कण्ठसंवृतत्व, घोष, नादानुप्रदानत्व and महाप्राणत्व; (2)the con- sonant घ at the beginning of a tad. affix which is always chang- ed into इय्; cf. P. VII. 1. 9; (3) substitute for ह् at the end of roots beginning with द्, as also of the root नह् under certain conditions; cf. P.VIII.2.32,33,34; (4) substitute for the consonant व् of मतुव् placed after the pronouns किम् and इदम् which again is changed into इय् by VII.1.9: e.g. कियान्, इयान्: cf. P.V. 2.40.

(l) consonant घ्, अ being added at the end for facility of pronuncia- tion; cf.Tai. Pr.I.21; (2) technical term for the tad. affixes तरप् and तमप्, cf. P.I.1.22, causing the short- ening of ई at the end of bases before it, under certain conditions, cf. P. VI. 3.43-45, and liable to be changed into तराम् and तमाम् after किम्, verbs ending in ए, and indeclinables; cf. P.V.4.11; (3) tad. affix घ ( इय) in the sense of 'a descendant' applied to क्षत्र, and in the sense of 'having that as a deity' applied to अपोनप्तृ अपांनप्तृ and also to महेन्द्र and to the words राष्ट्र etc., e.g. क्षत्रियः, अपोनाप्त्रिय:, अपांनप्त्रियः, महेन्द्रियम्,राष्ट्रियः etc.; cf. P. IV.1.138, IV.2.27, 29, 93; (4) tad. affix घ, applied to अग्र, समुद्र and अभ्र in the sense of 'present there', to सहस्र in the sense of 'possession', to, नक्षत्र without any change of sense, and to यज्ञ and ऋत्विज् in the sense of 'deserving'; cf. P.IV.4.117,118,135,

136,141, V.1.71 ; (5) krt affix अ when the word to which it has been applied becomes a proper noun i.e.a noun in a specific sense or a technical term; cf. III.3. 118, 119,125.

घकार the consonant घ; see घ् .

घच् tad. affix इय, as found in the word क्षेत्रिय; cf. क्षेत्रियच् परक्षेत्रे चिाकत्स्यः P.V.2.92 and Kāsikā thereon.

घञ् krt affix अ causing the substitu- tion of vrddhi for the preceding vowel applied in various senses as specified in P.III.3. 16-42, III.3. 45-55,III.3.120-125, e.g. पाद:, रोग:, आयः, भावः, अवग्राहृः प्रावारः, अवतारः, लेखः रागः etc

घन् tad. affix अ applied to the words शुक्र, तुग्र, पात्र, and to multisyllabic words in specified senses, causing the acute accent on the first vowel of the word so formed; cf.IV.2.26, IV.4. 115, V.1.68, V.3.79, 80.

घन a variety of the क्रमपाठ or recital of the Vedic hymns to show the serial order of words there; one of the eight vikrtis of the padapātha.

घस् tad, affix इय, occurring in Vedic Literature,applied to the word ऋतु, e.g. अयं ते योनिऋत्वीयः; cf. Kās on P. V.1.106.

घि (1) a tech. term applied to noun bases or Prātipadikas ending in इ and उ excepting the words सखि and पति and those which are term- ed नदी; cf. P. I. 4.79; (2) a conven- tional term for लधु ( a short vowel) found used in the Jainendra Vyakarana.

घित् affixes having the mute letter घ्, as for instance, घञ् घ, घच् etc.which cause the substitution of a guttu- ral in the place of the palatal letter च् or ज् before it: e.g. त्याग: राग: cf. P.VII.3.52.


घिनुण् krt affix इन् causing the subs- titution of Vrddhi for the preced- ing vowel, as also to the penulti- mate vowel अ, applied to the eight roots शम्,तम्, दम् etc., as also to संपृच्, अनुरुध् etc. and कस्, लष् लप्, etc.. e. g. शमी,तमी, दमी, संपर्की, संज्वारी, प्रलापी etc.; cf. P. III.2.141-145.

घिसंज्ञ (noun bases or Pratipadikas) called or termed घि. See घि.

घु a tech. term applied to the roots दा and धा, as also to those like दे or दो which become दा by the substi- tution of अा for the final diphthong vowel, barring the root दाप् (to cut) and दैप् (to purify): दाधा ध्वदाप् P.I. 1.20.

घुट् a conventional term for the first five case-affixes; cf. घुटि च Kat. II. 1.68. The term घुट् is used in the Katantra Vyakarana and cor- responds to the term सर्वनामस्थान of Panini.

धुरच् krt affix उर applied to the roots भञ्ज् ,भास् and भिद् in the sense of habit; e.g. भङ्गुरं काष्ठम्,भासुरं ज्योतिः, मेदुर: पशुः: cf. Kas on P.III.2.161.

घोष an external effort in the pronun- ciation of a sonant or a soft con- sonant which causes depth of the tone: cf. अन्ये तु घोषाः स्युः संवृताः etc., Sid. Kau. on VIII. 2. 1 .

घोषवत् a consonant characterized by the property घोष, at the time of its utterance; cf. तृतीयचतुर्थाः संवृतकण्ठाः नादानुप्रदाना घोषवन्तः M.Bh. on P,I.1.9.

ङ् (1) fifth letter of the guttural class of consonants having the properties कण्ठसंवृतत्व, घोष, नादानुप्रदान, अल्पप्राणत्व and अानुनासिक्य; (2) the consonant ङ् getting the letter ,क as an aug- 18

ment added to it, if standing at the end of a word and followed by a sibilant, e. g. प्राङ्कूशेते cf. ङ्णो: कुक् टुक् शरि P. VIII. 3.28; (3) the consonant ङ् which, standing at the end of a word and preceded by a short vowel, causes the vowel following it to get the augment ङ् prefixed to it; e. g, प्रत्यङ्ङास्ते cf. ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण् नित्यम् P. VIII.3.32.

(1) fifth consonant of the guttural class of consonants which is a nasal ( अनुनासिक ) consonant; the vowel अ being added at the end for facility of pronunciation; cf. T. Pr. I.21; (2) a conventional term used for all the nasal consonants in the Jainendra Vyakarana.

ङञ् a short term or Pratyahara standing for the letters ङ्, ण्, न् , झ् , and भू , casually mentioned in the Mahabhasya; cf. एतदप्यस्तु ञकारेण ङञो ह्र्स्वादचि ङञुण्नित्यमिति । M. Bh. on Mahesvara Sutras 8, 9.

ङम् a short term or Pratyahara for the consonants ङ्, ण्, and न्. See ङ् (3).

ङमुद् augment ङम् i. e. ङ्, ण् or न् prefixed to a vowel at the beginn- ing of a word provided that vowel is preceded by ङ्, ण् or न् standing at the end of the preceding word. See ङ् (3).

ङस् ending of the genitive case sing- ular; स्य is substituted for ङस् after bases ending in अ; cf P. IV. l . 2 and VII. 1. 12.

ङसि case-ending of the ablative case, changed into अात् after bases ending in अ and into स्मात् after pronouns; cf.P.IV.1.2,VII.1.12,15.

ङि case-ending of the locative case, changed into (a) अाम् after bases termed Nadi, fem. bases ending in अा and the word नी, (b) into औ after bases ending in इ and उ, and (c) into स्मिन् after bases of pronouns;cf.


P.IV. 1. 2, VII. 3. 116, 117, 118, 119 and VII. 1. 15, 16.

ङित् (l) affixes with the mute letter ङ् attached to them either before or after, with a view to preventing the guna and vrddhi substitutes for the preceding इ, उ, ऋ, or लृ, as for example, the affixes चङ्, अङ् and others (2) affixes con- ventionally called ङित् after certain bases under certain conditions; cf. गाङ्कुटादिम्यो ञ्णिन्ङित् P. I. 2. 1-4; (3) roots marked with the mute letter ङ् signifying the application of the Atmanepada terminations to them: (4) substitutes marked with mute ङ् which are put in the place of the last letter of the word for which they are prescribed as sub- stitutes; (5) case affixes marked with mute letter ङ् which cause the substitution of guna to the last vowel इ or उ of words termed घि.

ङी common term for the fem. affix ई, mentioned as ङीप्, ङीष् or ङीन् by Panini; cf P. IV. I. 5-8; IV. 1. I5-39,40-65 and IV.1. 73.

डींन् fem. affix ई added to words in the class headed by शार्ङ्गरव: cf. P. IV. 1. 73. Words ending with this affix ङीन् have their first vowel accented acute.

ङीप् fem. affix ई which is anudatta (grave) added (a) to words ending in the vowel ऋ or the consonant न् (cf.P.IV.1.5), (b) to words ending with affixes marked with mute उ,ऋ or लृ; cf.P.IV.1.6 (c) to words end- ing with affixes marked with mute ट् as also ending with the affixes ढ, अण्, अञ्, द्वयसच् दघ्नच्,मात्रच्, तयप्, ठक्, ठञ्, कञ् and क्वरप् (cf.P.IV.1.15) and to certain other words under certain conditions; cf. P. IV. 1.16-24.

ङीष् fem. afix ई, which is udatta, applied to words in the class of

words headed by गौर, as also to noun bases ending in affixes marked with.mute ष्, as also to words mentioned in the class headed by बहुः cf. P.IV.1.41-46.It is also added in the sense of 'wife of' to any word denoting a male person; cf. P. IV. 1. 48, and together with the augment आनुक् (आन्) to the words इन्द्र, वरुण etc e.g. इन्द्राणी, वरुणानि, यवनानि meaning 'the script of the Yavanas' cf. P. IV. 1.49. It is also added words ending in क्रीत and words ending in क्त and also to words expressive of ' limbs of body ' under certain conditions; cf. P.IV.1. 50-59 and IV. 1.61-65.

ङुट् augment ङ् mentioned as ङुठ्, in Kasika, added to the vowel follow- ing the consonant ङ् at the end of a word. See ङमुट्.

ङे dative case termination changed into य after bases ending in short अ and into स्मै after pronouns; cf. P.IV.1.2, VII, 1.13, 14.

ङ्यन्त noun bases ending with the fem. affix ङी (ङीप्, ङीत्र्, or ङीन्); cf. ङ्यन्तादित्येवं भविष्यति M.Bh. on P.I. 1.89 Vart. 16.

ङ्याप्पाद् a popular name given by grammarians to the first pada of the fourth adhyaya of Panini's Astadyayi as the pada begins with the rule ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात् IV. I.I.

ङ्वनिप् krt affix वन् in the sense of an agent referring to an activity of past time, added to the roots सु and यज्; e. g. सुत्वा, सुत्वानौ;यज्वा यज्वानौ CF. P.III 2.103.

च् first consonant of palatal class of consonants, possessed of


the properties, श्वास, अघोष, अल्पप्राण and कण्ठविवृतत्व. च् at the beginning of an affix is mute e. g. च्फञ्, cf. चुट् P. I. 3.7; words, having the mute letter च् (dropped), have their last vowel accented acute e. g. भङ्गुरम् । भासुरम् । cf. चित: VI. 1.163.

(l) the letter च्, the vowel अ being added for facility of utter- ance, cf T. Pr. I. 21; (2) a Bra- tyahara or short term standing for the palatal class of consonants च्, छ्, ज्,झ् and ञ्; cf इचशेयास्तालौ V. Pr. I. 66; (3) indeclinable च call- ed Nipata by Panini; cf. चादयोSसत्त्वे P. I. 4.57, च possesses four senses समुच्चय, अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार cf. Kas. on II. 2.29. See also M. Bh. on II. 2.29 Vart. 15 for a detailed explanation of the four senses. The indeclinable च is sometimes used in the sense of 'a determined mention' or ava- dharana; cf. Kas. on II. 1.48 and 72. It is also used for the pur- pose of अनुवृत्ति or अनुकर्षण i. e. drawing a word from the previous rule to the next rule; (cf. M. Bh. on P. VI. 1.90) with a convention that a word drawn thus, does not proceed to the next rule; cf. चानुकृष्टं नोत्तरत्र Par. Sek Pari. 78; (4) a conventional term for अभ्यास (reduplicative syllable) used in the Jainendra Vyakarana; cf. चविकारेषु अपवादा उत्सर्गान्न बाधन्ते Kat. Pari. 75.

चकार the consonant च् , the vowel अ being added for facility of utter- ance and कार as an affix to show that only the consonant च् is meant there; cf. T. Pr. I. 16, 2l.

चकोर a grammarian who .wrote a commentary on the 'Sabdalin- garthacandrika of Sujanapandita.

चक्कनशर्मा a grammarian who is said to have written a work named Dhatusamgraha.

चक्रक a kind of fault in the appli- cation of operations, resulting in confusion; a fault in which one returns to the same place not immediately as in Anavastha but after several steps; cf. पुनर्ऋच्छिभावः पुनराट् इति चक्रकमव्यवस्था प्राप्नोति । M. Bh. on I. 3.60 Vart 5.

चक्रकारक known by the name कारक- चक्र also, a small work on syntax attributed to वररुचि.

चक्रपाणि ( शेष ) a grammarian of the Sesa family of the latter half of the 17th century who held views against Bhattoji Diksita and wrote प्रौढमनोरमाखण्डन, कारकतत्व and कारकविचार.

चक्रिन् a grammarian who has written a small disquisition on the correctness of the form जाग्रहीता. See जाग्रहीतेतिवाद.

चङ् a Vikarana affix of the aorist substituted for च्लि after roots ending in the causal sign णि, as also after the roots श्रि, द्रु and others; this चङ् causes reduplication of the preceding root form; cf. P. III 1.48-50, e. g. अचूचुरत्, अशिश्रियत्; cf. also P. VII. 4.93.

चङ्गदास a grammarian who has written a work on the topic of the five vrttis. The work is named चङ्गवृति.

चङ्गवृत्ति a short treatise written by वङ्गदास, dealing with the topic of the five compact expressions or Vrttis viz. कृत्, तद्वित, समास, एकशेष, and सनादिधातु.

चङ्गुदास or चाड्गुदास a scholar of grammar who has written an inde- pendent work on Sanskrit Vyaka- ana called वैयाकरणजीवातु. The trea-


tise is also known as चाङ्गुसूत्र or चाङ्गु-व्याकरण.

चण् the indeclinable च (with ण् as a mute letter added to it which of course disappears) possessing the sense of चेत् or condition. e.g. अयं च मरिष्यति cf. Kas, on P. VIII. 1.30.

चणप् tad. affix चण in the sense of वित्त (known by) applied to a word which refers to that thing by which a person is known. e. g. विद्याचणः, केशचण:; cf. P. V. 2.26.

चण्डपण्डित writer of a Prakrta gram- mar.He was known also as चन्द्र and hence identified by some with Candragomin.

चतुर्थ a term used by ancient gram- marians for the fourth consonants which are sonant aspirates, termed झष् by Panini; cf. R. Pr. IV. 2. T. Pr. I. 18, V. Pr. 1 54. R. T. 176.

वतुर्थी a term used by ancient gra- mmarians for the dative case; cf. उतो त्वस्मै तन्वं विसस्रे इति चतुर्थ्याम्; Nir. I. 9.३.

चतुर्थीसमास the tatpurusa compound with the first word in the dative case in its dissolution; cf. वतुर्थीसमासे सति पूर्वपदकृतिस्वरत्वेन भवितव्यम् M. Bh. on II. 1.36.

चतुर्मात्र consisting of four matras or moras, a short vowel consisting of one matra, a long vowel of two matras, and a protracted vowel of three matras; cf. आन्तर्यतस्त्रिमात्र- चतुर्मात्राणां स्थानिनां त्रिमात्रचतुर्मात्रा आदेशा मा भूवन्निति । M. Bh. on Siva sutra 3.4.

चन्द्र a famous Buddhist Sanskrit grammarian whose grammar existing in the Tibetan script, is now available in the Devana- gar script. The work consists of six chapters or Adhyayas in which no technical terms or sanjnas like

टि, घु are found. There is no section on Vedic Grammar and accents. The work is based on Panini's grammar and is believed to have been written by Candra or Candragomin in the 5th cen- tnry A. D. Bhartrhari in his Vakyapadiya refers to him; cf. स नीतो बहुशाखत्वं चन्द्राचार्यादिभिः पुनः Vakyapadiya II. 489. A summary of the work is found in the Agni- purana, ch. 248-258.

चन्द्रकला, called also कला, a well- known commentary on Nagesa's Laghusabdendusekhara by Bhai- ravamisra who lived in the latter half of the 18th century and the first half of the nineteenth century.

चन्द्रकीर्ति a Jain grammarian of the twelfth century A.D. who has written a commentary named Subodhini on the Sarasvata Vya- karaha.

चन्द्रगोमिन् named also चन्द्र, a Bud- dhist scholar who has written an easy Sanskrit Grammar based on the Astadhyayi of Panini. He is believed to have lived in North India in the fifth century A.D. See चन्द्र.

चन्द्राचार्य a grammarian mentioned by Bhartrhari in his Vakyapadiya as one who took a leading part in restoring the traditional explana- tion of Panini's Vyakarana which, by the spread of rival easy trea- tises on grammar, had become almost lost: cf. यः पतञ्जलिशिष्येभ्यो भ्रष्टो ब्याकरणागमः । काले स दाक्षिणात्येषु ग्रन्थमात्रे व्यवस्थित: ॥ पर्वतादागमं लब्ध्वा भाष्यबीजानुसा- रिभि: । स नीतो बहुशाखत्वं चन्द्राचार्यादिभिः पुनः ॥ Vakyapadiya II. 488-489. See चन्द्र and चन्द्रगोमिन्.

चय् a short term (Pratyahara) for the first letters ( क् , च् , ट् त्, and प्र) of the five classes. Sometimes as


opined by पौष्करसादि, second letters are substituted for these if a sibi- lant follows them, e. g,अफ्सराः, वध्सरः । cf. चयो द्वितीयाः शरि पौप्करसांद- रिति वाच्यम् cf. S.K. on ङूणोः कुक्टुक् शरि P. VIII.3.28.

चर् a short term (Pratyahara) for the hard unaspirated surds and श्, ष्, स्. The change of the second, third and fourth letters into the first is called चर्त्व: cf. अभ्यासे चर्च । खरि च । वावसाने । Pan. VIII.4.54-56.

चरद् tad. affix चर in the sense of 'being (so and so) in the past'. e.g. आढ्यचरः, fem. आढ्यचरी; cf. भूतपूर्वे चरट् P.V.3.53.

चरण explained as a synonym of the word शाखा which means a branch or a school of Vedic Learning; cf. चरण- शब्दाः कठकलापादय:: Kas. on P.IV.2.46.

चरितक्रिय having kriya or verb- activity hidden in it. The term is used by Bhartrhari in connec- tion with a solitary noun-word or a substantive having the force of a sentence, and hence which can be termed a sentence on account of the verbal activity dormant in it. e.g. पिण्डीम्; cf. वाक्यं तदपि मन्यन्ते यत्पदं वरितक्रियम् Vakyapad.II. 326, and चरिता गर्भीकृता आख्यातक्रिया यस्य तद्गर्भीकृतक्रि- यापदं नामपदं वाक्यं प्रयुञ्जते ! Com. on Vakyapadya II.326.

चरितार्थ which has got already a scope of application; the term is used by commentators in connec- tion with a rule or a word forming a part of a rule which applies in the case of some instances and hence which cannot be said to be ब्यर्थ (superfluous) or without any utility and as a result cannot be said to be capable of allowing some conclusion to be drawn from it ac- cording to the dictum ब्यर्थं सज्ज्ञापयति

cf. अपवादो यद्यन्यत्र चरितार्थस्तर्ह्यन्तरङ्गेण बाध्यते Par. Sek. Pari. 65.

चर्करीत a term used by the ancient grammarians in connection with a secondary root in the sense of frequency; the term यङ्लुगन्त is used by comparatively modern gramm- arians in the same sense. The चर्क- रीत roots are treated as roots of the adadi class or second conjugation and hence the general Vikarana अ ( शप् ) is omitted after them.The word is based on the 3rd pers. sing form चर्करीति from .the root कृ in the sense of frequency; e.g. चर्करीति, चर्कर्ति, बोभवीति बोभोति; cf. चर्क- रीतं च a gana-sutra in the gana named ’adadi’ given by Panini in connection with अदिप्रभृतिभ्य; शपः Pan. II.4.72; cf. also चर्करीतमिति यङ्लुकः प्राचां संज्ञा Bhasa Vr. on P. II. 4.72, The word चेक्रीयित is simi- larly used for the frequentative when the sign of the frequen- tative viz. य ( यङ् ) is not elided. See चेक्रीयित.

चर्करीतवृत्त a form of the frequenta- tive or intensive. e.g. अापनीफणत् , चोष्कूयमाणः cf. अपनीफणदिति फणतेश्चर्करी- तवृत्तम् । Nir. II. 28; चोष्कूयमाण इति चोष्कूयतेश्चर्करीतवृत्तम् Nir.VI.22. See the word चर्करीत.

चर्चा (1) splitting up of a word into its component parts, which is gen- eralty shown in the Padaptha by अवग्रहं (S). The word, hence means पदपाठ or recital by showing separa- tely the constitutent words of the Samhita or the running text of the Veda. The word is used almost in the same sense in the Mahabhasya in respect of showing the words of a sutra separately; cf. न केवलानि चर्चापदानि व्याख्यानं वृद्धिः आत् ऐजिति । किं तर्हि । उदाहरणं प्रत्युदाहरणं वाक्याध्याहारः इत्येतत्समुदितं व्याख्यानं भवति M.Bh. on Mahesvara Sutra 1 Wart. 6l ; (2) a


repeated word; cf. इतिकरणात् पुरतो यत् पुनः पदवचनं तत् चर्चाशब्देनोच्यते. Uvvata on V. Pr. III.20; (3) a discussion or a debate where consideration is given to each single word; cf. प्रर्यायशब्दानां लाघवगौरवचर्चा नाद्रियते Par. Sek. Pari. 115.

चर्चागुण repetition of a word in the पद्पाठ, क्रमपाठ, जटापाठ etc. where the several Pathas appear to be called चर्चा.In the पदपाठ a word in a comp- ound is repeated twice, in the क्रमपाठ every word is repeated twice, in the जटापाठ, six times.

चंर्चापद component words of a runn- ing text or of a compound word.

चर्त्व substitution of a hard consonant or श्, ष्, स्, for soft consonants and aspirates. See the word चर्.

चर्मशिरस् name of a Nirukta writer quoted by Yaska; cf. Nir.III.15.

चवर्ग the group of consonants of the palatal class,.wiz.च् , छ् , ज् , झ् , and ञ्. The word च is used in the same sense in the Pratisakhya works.See the word च.

चाक्रवर्मण an ancient grammarian whose view is quoted by Panini in his Sutra ई 3 चाक्रवर्मणस्य P.VI.1.130.

चाङ्गुदास the same as चङ्गु or चाङ्गु or चङ्गुदास,a grammarian who compo- sed a compendium on grammar called वैयाकरणजीवातु and also a com- mentary on it.

चाङ्गुसूत्र a treatise on the grammar Written by चाडगुदास in the Sutra form,which was named वैयाकरणजीवातु by him.

चाङ्गुव्याकरण the same as चाङ्गुसूत्र.

चातुःस्वार्य the view that there are four accents-the udatta, the anudatta, the svarita and the pracaya - held by the Khandikya and the Aukhiya Schools.

चातुरर्थ a tad- affix prescribed in the

four senses-तदस्मिन्नस्ति, तेन निवृत्तम् , तस्य निवासः and अदूरभवः mentioned by Panini in IV.2.67-70; cf.अपत्यादि- भ्यश्चातुरर्थपर्यन्तेभ्यः येन्येर्थाः स शेष: M.Bh. on IV.2.92.

चातुरर्थिक the affixes prescribed in the four senses mentioned in P. IV.2.67-70. These taddhita affixes are given in the Sutras IV.2.71 to IV.2.91. The term चातुरर्थिक is used for these afixes by commen- tators on Panini sutras.

चातुर्वर्ण्यादि words mentioned in the class headed by चातुर्वर्ण्य where the tad. affix ष्यञ् is applied although the words चतुर्वर्ण, चतुर्वेद and others are not गुणवचन words to which ष्यञ् is regularly applied by P. V-1-124. cf. ब्राह्मणादिषु चातुर्वर्ण्यादीनामुप- संख्यानम् P. V. I. 124 Vart. 1.

चादि a class of words headed by च which are termed निपात by Panini e g- च,वा,ह, एवम् नूनम्, चेत्, माङ् etc.; cf. चादयोSसत्वे. P. I.4.57. For the meaning of the word असत्त्व see p.370 Vyakaranamahabhasya. Vol. VII. published by the D. E. Society, Poona.

चानश् krt affix अान applied to a root, to signify habit, age or strength; e. g. आत्मानं भूषयमाणाः । कवचं बिभ्राणाः । शत्रून्निघ्राना: cf. P. III. 2. 129.

चान्द्र name of a treatise on grammar written by Candra, who is believed to have been the same as Can- dragomin. The Grammar is based upon that of Panini, but it does not treat Vedic forms and accents. See the word चन्द्र above. For details see pp. 375- 376 Patanjali Mahabhasya. Vol. VII, D.E. Society's Edition.

चान्द्रव्याकरणपद्धति name of a con- mentary on the चान्द्रव्याकरण written by अानन्ददत्त.

चाप् the fem. affix आ, applied to


words ending in the tad. affixes ञ्यङ् and ष्यङ्; e. g. कौसल्या, वाराह्या, गौकक्ष्या; cf Kas, on P. IV. 1. 74.

चारायण an ancient grammarian re- ferred to by Patanjali in the Ma- habhasya as a scholar who had a line of pupils named after him; cf. कम्बलचारायणीयाः M. Bh. on P.I. 1.73

चारितार्थ्य fulfilment of the object or the Purpose. The word is used in connection with a rule of grammar. See चरितार्थ.

चार्थ the meaning of the indeclinable च to convey which, as existing in different individuals, the dvandva compound is prescribed.Out of the four senses possessed by the inde clinable च, the Dvandva com- pound is prescribed in two senses viz.इतरेतरयोग and समाहार out of the four समुच्चय, अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार: cf. कः पुनश्चेन कृतोर्थः समुच्चयो- न्वाचय इतरेतरयोगः समाहार इति M. Bh. on P.II.2.29; cf. also Candra Vyakarana II.2.48

चालु tad. affix ( आलु ) applied to the word हृदय, in the sense of posses- sion, optionally along with the affixes वत् इन् and इक. e.g. हृदयालुः, हृदयवान् , हृदयी and हृदयिकः; cf. Kas: on V.2. 122.

चिकीर्षित desiderative formation; a term used by ancient grammarians for the term सन्नन्त of Panini on the analogy of the terms भवन्ती, वर्तमाना etc. cf. अा इत्याकांर उपसर्ग; पुरस्तात्, चिकी- र्षितज उत्तरः, अाशु शोचयतीति आशुशुक्षणिः Nir. VI. 1.

चिकीर्षितज in the sense of the desiderative; cf. चिकीर्षितादर्थाज्जातः सन्नन्तादित्यर्थः Durgacarya on Nir. VI.1.

चिच्चन्द्रिका name of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara writ- ten by Vishnu Shastri Bhat, in

reply to the treatise named दूषकरदो- द्भेदः See विष्णुशास्त्रिन्. For details see pp. 39, 40 of Vyakarana Maha- bhasya Vol. VII. published by the D.E. Society, Poona.

चिण् substitute इ causing vrddhi, in the place of the aorist vikarana affix च्लि, prescribed in the case of all roots in the passive voice and in the case of the roots पद्, दीप्, जन् etc. in the active voice before the affix त of the third pers. sing. in the Atmanepada, which in its turn is elided by P. VI. 4. 104. cf P. III. 1.60-66.

चित् affixes or substitutes or bases marked with the mute letter च् sig- nifying the acute accent for the last vowel; e. g. अथुच्, धुरच्, कुण्डिनच् etc. cf P. VI. 1. 163, 164.

चित्करण marking with the mute letter च्, signifying the acute accent of the last vowel; cf. चापि चित्करणसाम- र्थ्यादन्तोदात्तत्वं भविष्यति: M. Bh. on P. III. 1.3 Vart, 16.

चित्प्रभा name of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara by ब्रह्मानन्दसरस्वती.

चिदस्थिमाला name of a commentary on the Laghusabdendusekhara by Vaidyanatha Payagunde,one of the distinguished disciples of Nagesa- bhatta.

चिद्रूपाश्रय named also चिद्रूपाश्रम who wrote a learned commentary named विषमी on the Paribhasen- dusekhara of Nagesa- bhatta

चिन्ता (1) view; theory. e.g. बाध्यसामान्य- चिन्ता, बाध्यविशेषचिन्ता cf. इयमेव बाध्य- सामान्यचिन्तेति व्यवह्रियते Par. Sek. Pari. 58; (2) a matter of scrutiny on a suspicion; cf. चिन्ता च-मयतेरिदन्य- तरस्याम् इत्यतोन्यतरस्यांग्रहणस्य सिंहावलोकन- न्यायादनुव्रुत्तेः; Durghata Vr. on VI.4.69.

चिन्तामणि name of a commentary


on the Sutras of the Sakatayana Vyakarana written by यक्षवर्मन्, It is also called लधुवृत्ति.

चिन्तामणिप्रकाशिका a commentary on the चिन्तामाणि of यक्षवर्मन्, written by अाजतसेन in the twelfth century. See विन्तामणि.

चिन्त्य questionable; contestable: which cannot be easily admitted. The word is used in connection with a statement made by a sound scholar which cannot be easily brushed aside; cf. एतेन यत्कैयटे केचि- दित्यादिना अस्यैव वाग्रहृणस्य तदनित्यत्वज्ञाप- कतोक्ता सापि चिन्त्या, Par. Sekh. Pari. 93. 5.

चु the group of palatal consonants viz. च्,छ्,ज्,झ् and ञ्; cf चुट् P. I. 3. 7, चोः कुः VIII. 2. 30, कुहोश्चु: VII. 4 62.

चुञ्चुप् tad.. affix चुञ्चु applied to a word in the sense of 'well-known by'; e. g. विद्याचुञ्चु:; cf. P.V. 2.26.

चुरादि a class or group of roots headed by the root चुर्, familiarly known as the tenth conjugation.

चुल्लिभट्टि a grammarian who is suppo- sed to have written a gloss ( वृत्ति ) on the Sutras of Panini; cf. तत्र च वृतिः पाणिनिप्रणीतानां सूत्राणां विवरणं चुल्लिभट्टि- नल्लूरादि- ( V. 1. निर्लूरादि-) विरचितम् , Nyasa, on the benedictory verse of Kasika: वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा घातुनामपारायणा- दिषु at the very beginning.

चूर्णि a gloss on the Sutras of Panini referred to by Itsing and Sripati- datta, Some scholars believe that Patanjali's Mahabhasya is referred to here by the word चूर्णि, as it fully discusses all the knotty points. Others believe that चूर्णि,stands for the Vrtti of चुल्लिभाट्टि. In Jain Reli- gious Literature there are some brief comments on the Sutras which are called चूर्णि and there possibly

was a similar चूर्णि on the sutras of Panini.

चेकीयित the sign य ( यङ् of Panini ) of the frequentative or intensive. The word is mostly used in the Katantra Grammar works cf. धातोर्यशब्दश्चेक्रीयितं क्रियासमभिहारे, Kat. III. 2. 14. The word चेक्रीयित is used in the Mahabhasya in the sense of यङन्त where Kaiyata remarks थडः पूर्वाचार्यसंज्ञा चेकीयितमिति cf. प्रदीप on M.Bh. on P. IV.1.78 Vartika. The word चेकीयितान्त means यङन्त in Panini’s terminology meaning a secondary root derived from the primary root in the sense of in- tensity. The word चर्करीतान्त is used for the frequentative bases in which य, the sign of the frequentative, is omitted. See चर्करीत।

चेलु tad. affix एलु applied to the word हिंम in the sense of 'unable to bear ' e. g, हिमेलुः, cf. P. V. 2. 122 Vart. 7.

चोक्कनाथ a southern grammarian of the seventeenth century who has composed in 430 stanzas a short list of the important roots with their meaning. The work is called धातुरत्नावली.

चोदक (1) an objector; the word is co- mmon in the Commentary Litera- ture where likely objections to a particular statement are raised, without specific reference to any individual objector, and replies are given, simply with a view to mak- ing matters clear; (2) repetition of a word with इति interposed: cf. चेदकः परिग्रहः इत्यनर्थान्तरम्. See अदृष्टवर्ण and परिग्रह.

चोरद् the crude form of the word चोर with the mute consonant ट् added to signify the addition of ङीप् to form the feminine base e. g. चोरी; cf. P. IV. 1. 15.


चौरादिक a root belonging to the tenth conjugation of roots ( चुरादिगण ) ; cf. अामः इति चौरादिकस्य णिचि वृद्धौ सत्यां भवति । Kas. on P. VII. 3. 34.

च्छ् the consonant छ् with च् prefixed, for which श् is substituted by च्छ्घोः शूडनुनासिके च P. VI. 4. 19.

च्फञ् tad. affix अायन causing a vrddhi substitute for the first vowel of the word to which it is added, The affix ( च्फञ् ) is added in the sense of 'a descendant except the direct son or daughter’ to words कुञ्ज and others; cf. P. IV. I. 98.

चिल the sign of the aorist ( लुड् ) for which generally सिच् and अङ्, क्स, चङ् and चिण् are substituted in specified cases; cf. P. III. 1. 43-66.

च्वि tad. affix ( of which nothing re- mains ) to signify the taking place of something which was not so before; after the word ending in च्वि the forms of the root कृ, भू or असू have to be placed; e. g. शुक्ली- करोति; cf. P. V. 4. 50

च्व्यर्थ possessing the sense of च्वि. See च्वि cf. P. III. 2. 56 also P. III. 3. 127 Vart. 1.

छ् the second consonant of the palatal class of consonants ( चवर्ग ), which is possessed of the properties श्वास, अघोष, मह्याप्राण and कण्ठविवृतकारित्व. छ् , placed at the beginning of affixes, is mute; while ईय् is substi- tuted for छ् standing at the begi- nning of taddhita affixes; cf. P. I. 3.7 and VII. 1.2. छ् at the end of roots has got ष्, substituted for it: cf. P. VIII. 2.36.

tad. affix ईय, added ( 1 ) to the words स्वसृ, भ्रातृ and to words end- ing with the tad. affix फिञ्: cf. P. 19

IV. 1.143,144 and 149; (2) to the dvandva compound of words meaning constellations,to the words अपोनप्तृ, अपांनप्तृ, महेन्द्र, द्यावापृथिवी, शुनासीर etc. as also to शर्करा, उत्कर , नड etc. in certain specified senses, cf. P. IV. 2.6, 28, 29, 32, 48, 84, 90 &91 ;(3) to words beginning with the vowel called Vrddhi (आ,ऐ or औ),to words ending with गर्त, to words of the गह class, and to युष्मद् and अस्मद् in the शैषिक senses, cf. P. IV. 3.114, 137-45 and IV. 3.1 ; (4) to the words जिह्वामूल, अङ्गुलि, as also to words ending in वर्ग in the sense of 'present there '; cf. P.IV.3.62-64; (5) to the words शिशुक्रन्द, यमसम, dvandva compounds, इन्द्रजनन and others in the sense of 'a book composed in respect of', cf. P.IV. 3.88; (6)to words meaning warrior tribes, to words रैवतिक etc, as also अायुध, and अग्र, in some specifi- ed senses: cf P.IV. 3.91, 131, IV. 4.14, 117; (7) to all words barring those given as exceptions in the general senses mentioned in the sec. V.I.1-37; (8) to the words पुत्र, कडङ्कर, दक्षिण, words ending in वत्सर, अनुप्रवचन etc. होत्रा, अभ्यमित्र and कुशाग्र in specified senses; cf. P. V. 1. 40, 69,70,91,92, 111,112,135, V. 2.17, V.3.105; (9) to compound words in the sense of इव; e. g. काकतालीयम् , अजाकृपाणीयम् etc. cf. V. 3. 106;and (10) to words ending in जति and स्थान in specified senses; cf. P. V.4, 9,10.

छकार the letter छ, the word कार being looked upon as an affix added to the consonant छ् which, by the addition of अ, is made a complete syllable; cf. T. Pr. I. 16, 21.

छण् tad. affix ईय causing the vrddhi substitute for the first vowel of the word to which it is added. छण् is added (1) to the words पितृत्वसृ and


मातृप्वसृ in the sense of अपत्य; cf. P IV. 1.132, 134; (2) to the words कृशाश्व,अरिष्ट and others as a चातुरर्थिक affix: cf. P. IV. 2.80; (3) to the words तित्तिरि, वरतन्तु, खण्डिक and उख in the sense of 'instructed by', cf. P.IV.3.102; and (4) to the word शलातुर in the sense of 'being a national of' or 'having as a domi- cile.' e. g. शालातुरीयः

cf. P. IV. 3.94,

छन्दस् (1) Vedic Literature in general as found in the rule बहुलं छन्दसि which has occurred several times in the Sutras of Panini, cf. छन्दो- वत्सूत्राणि भवन्ति M. Bh. on I.1.1, and I.4.3; cf. also V. Pr. I. 1, 4; (2) Vedic Samhita texts as contrasted with the Brahmana texts; cf.छन्दो- ब्राह्मणानि च तद्विषयाणि P, IV.2.66; () metre, metrical portion of the Veda.

छन्दोभाषा Vedic language as contrast- ed with भाषा (ordinary language in use); cf. गुरुत्वं लघुता साम्यं ह्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतानि च...एतत्सर्व तु विज्ञेयं छन्दोभाषां विजानता T. Pr. XXIV. 5.

छ्पाद a popular name given by gra- mmarians to the first pada of the fifth Adhyaya of Painis Asta- dhyayi as the pada begins with the rule प्राक् क्रीताच्छः P. V. 1.1.

छव्' a short term or Pratyahara stand- ing for छ्, ठ्, थ्, च्, ट् and त्: cf. नश्र्छन्यप्रशान् P. VIII.3.7.

छस् tad. affix ईय added to the word भवत् in the general शैषिक senses, e. g. भवदीयः; cf P. IV.2.115. The mute letter स् has been attached to the affix छस् So that the base भवत् before it could be termed pada (cf. सिति च P, I.4.16) and as a result have the consonant त् chang- ed into द् by P. VIII.2.39.

छान्दस found in the Vedic Literature; Vedic; cf छान्दसा अपि क्वचिद् भाषायां प्रयुज्यन्ते Bhasavrtti on P. IV.4.143;

cf. also छान्दसमेतत् । दृष्टानुविधिश्च च्छन्दसि भवति; M. Bh. on I.1.5.

छाया a learned commentary on Na- gesa's Mahabhasyapradipoddyota written by his pupil बाळंभट्ट (possibly the same as, or the son of, वैद्यनाथ पायगुण्डे) who lived in the eighteenth century.

छुच्छुकभट्ट a grammarian who wrote a short gloss called कातन्त्रलघुवृत्ति on the Katantrasutras.

ज् third consonant of the palatal class of consonants, possessed of the properties नाद, घोष, अल्पप्राण and कण्ठ- संवृत्तकारित्व. ज् at the beginning of affixes is mute in Panini's grammar.

the consonant ज् with अ added to it for facility of pronunciation; cf. T. Pr. I..21. See ज्.

जगद्धर a poet and grammarian of Kasmira of the fourteenth century who wrote a commentary named बालबोधिनी on the Katantra Sutras.

जगन्नाथ (1) the well-known poet and scholar of Vyakarana and Alam kara who wrote many excellent poetical works. He lived in the sixteenth century. He was a pupil of कृष्णशेष and he severely criticised the views of Appaya Diksita and Bhattoji Diksita. He wrote a sort of refutation of Bhattoji's commen- tary Praudha-Manorama on the Siddhānta Kaumudi, which he named प्रौढमनेारमाखण्डन but which is popularly termed मनोरमाकुचमर्दन. His famous work is the Rasaganga- dhara on Alankrasastra; (2) writer of a commentary on the Rk-Pratisakhya by name Varna- kramalaksana; (3) writer of Sara- pradipika, a commentary on the Sarasvata Vyakarana.


जटा a kind of Vedic recital wherein each word is repeated six times. जटा is called one of the 8 kinds ( अष्टविकृति) of the Kramapatha, which in its turn is based on the Padapatha; cf. जटा माला शिखा रेखा ध्वजो दण्डो रथो घनः। अष्टौ बिकृतय: प्रोक्ताः क्रमपूर्वा मनीषिभिः । जटा is defined as अनुलोमविलोमाभ्यां त्रिवारं हि पठेत् क्रमम् । विलोमे पदवत्संधिः अनुलोमे यथाक्रमम् । The recital of ओषधयः संवदन्ते संवदन्ते सोमेन can be illustrated as ओषधयः सं, समोषधयः, ओषधयः सं, सं वदन्ते, वदन्ते सं, सेवदन्ते, वदन्ते सोमेन,सोमेन वदन्ते , वदन्ते सोमेन ।

जयकृष्ण a famous grammarian of the Mauni family who lived in Vara- nasi in the seventeenth century. He wrote विभक्त्यर्थनिर्णय, स्फोटचन्द्रिका, a commentary on the Siddhanta- kaumudi called सुबोधिनी and a commentary on the Madhya Kau- mudi named विलास. He wrote a commentary on the Laghukau- mudi also.

जयदेव a grammarian, ( of course different from well-known poet), to whom a small treatise on grammar by name इष्टतन्त्रव्याकरण is attributed.

जयन्त (1) author of तत्वचन्द्र a commen- tary on पाणिनिसूत्रवृत्ति written by Vitthala; (2) writer of a commen- tary named Vadighatamudgara on the Sarasvataprakriya.

जयरामभट्टाचार्य a famous Bengalee scholar of Vyakarana and Nyaya who has written a small treatise dealing with syntax. The treatise is named कारकवाद.

जयादित्य one of the famous joint authors ( जयादित्य and वामन ) of the well-known gloss ( वृत्ति ) on the Sutras of Panini, popularly called काशिकावृत्ति. As the काशिकावृत्ति is men- tioned by It-sing, who has also mentioned Bhartrhari's Vakya-

padiya, as a grammer treatise Written some 40 years before his visit, the time of काशिकावृत्ति is fixed as the middle of the 7th century A.D. Some scholars believe that जयादित्य was the same as जयापीड a king of Kasmira and बामन was his minister. For details, see pp. 386- 388 of the Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII published by the D.E. Society, Poona. See काशिका.

जयानन्द a Jain grammarian of the fourteenth century who wrote a commentary named उद्धार on the लिङ्गानुशासन of Hemacandra

जश् a short term ( प्रत्याहार ) signifying the soft inaspirate class consonants ज्,ब्,ग्,ड् and द्.

जश्त्व substitution of a जश् consonant prescribed by Panini for any con- sonant excepting a semi-vowel or a nasal, if followed by any fourth or third consonant out of the class consonants, or if it is at the end of a pada; cf. P.VIII. 2.39, VIII.4. 53.

जश्भाव the same as जश्त्व, which see above. जस् case termination अस् of the nom. plural: cf.P. IV. 1.2.

जसि case termination अस् of the nom. plural mentioned as जस् by Panini in IV. 1.2, but referred to as जसि by him; cf. P.IV.1.31 and VII.1.50.

जहत्स्वार्था ( वृत्ति ) a composite ex- pression where the constituent members give up their individual sense. In compound words such as राजपुरुष in the sentence राजपुरुषमा- नय the word राजन् gives up its sense in as much as he, the king,- is not brought; पुरुष also gives up its sense as every man is not brought. It is of course to be noted that although the sense is


given up by cach word, it is not completely given up: cf जहदप्यसेो स्वार्थ नात्यन्ताय जहाति; M. Bh. on P. II. 1.1. Vart. 2. For detailed explanation see Mahabhasya on P. II. I. I. Vart. 2.

जहद्धर्मत्व abandonment or giving up of properties in the case of a word included in a वृत्ति or compo- site expression; cf. जहद्धर्मत्वाच्छब्दप्रवृत्तेः Durghata Vrtti on P. II. 2.6.

जाग्रहितेतिवाद a short disguisition on the correctness of the word जाग्रहीता, written by a grammarian named Cakrin; cf. भट्टोजिदीक्षितग्राहग्रस्तं माधव- दिग्गजम्। अमूमुचत् सत्यवर्यश्चक्री चक्रिप्रसादभाक्, colophon.

जात born or produced there or then; one of the senses in which the tad. affixes, called जातार्थक, are prescribed by Panini in the sutra तत्र जातः and the following; cf. P. IV. 3.25-37.

जातबहिरङ्गासिद्धत्व invalidity of a Ba- hiranga operation that has al- ready taken place by virtue of the Antaranga-paribhasa-असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्ङ्गे- that which is ' bahi- ranga' is regarded as not having taken effect when that which is 'antarahga' is to take effect. For details see Par. Sek. Paribhasa 50.

जाताभीयासिद्धत्व invalidity of a gra- mmatical operation prescribed by a rule in the अाभीय section (P. VI. 4.22 upto the end of the fourth pada ) which, although it has taken place, is to be looked upon as not having taken place when any other operation in the same section is to take effect. See आभीयासिद्व.

जाति genus; class;universal;the notion of generality which is present in the several individual objects of the same kind. The biggest or widest notion of the universal or genus is

सत्ता which, according to the gra- mmarians, exists in every object or substance, and hence, it is the denotation or denoted sense of every substantive or Pratipadika, although on many an occasion vyakti or an individual object is required for daily affairs and is actually referred to in ordinary talks. In the Mahabhasya a learned discussion is held regard- ing whether जाति is the denotation or व्यक्ति is the denotation. The word जाति is defined in the Maha- bhasya as follows:- आकृतिग्रहणा जातिर्लिङ्गानां च न सर्वभाक् । सकृदाख्यातनि- र्गाह्या गोत्रं च चरणैः सह ॥ अपर आह । ग्रादुभीवविनाशाभ्यां सत्त्वस्य युगपद्गुणैः । असर्व- लिङ्गां बह्वर्थो तां जातिं कवयो विदुः M. Bh. on IV. 1.63. For details see Bhartphari's Vakyapadiya.

जातिपक्ष the view that जाति, or genus only, is the denotation of every word. The view was first advo- cated by Vajapyayana which was later on held by many, the Mima- msakas being the chief supporters of the view. See Mahabhasya on P. I. 2.64. See Par. Sek. Pari. 40.

जातिपदार्थवाद see जातिपक्ष.

जातिस्वर the acute accent for the last vowel of a word ending with क्त of the p.p.p. denoting a genus; cf. P. VI. 2.170.

जातीयर् tad. affix जातीय in the sense of प्रकार or variety; e. g. पटुजातीयः, मृदुजातीयः; cf Kas. on P. V. 3.69. Originally जातीय was possibly an independent word, but as its use, especially as a noun, was found restricted, it came to be looked upon as an affix on the analogy of the affixes कल्प, देश्य, देशीय and others.

जात्य name of a variety of the Sva-


rita or circumflex accent; the original svarita accent as contra- sted with the svarita for the grave which follows upon an acute as prescribed by P. in VIII. 4.67, and which is found in the words इन्द्रः, होता etc. The jatya svarita is noticed in the words स्वः, क्व, न्यक्, कन्या etc.; .cf. उदात्तपूर्वं स्वरितमनुदात्तं पदेक्षरम्। अतोन्यत् स्वरितं स्वारं जात्यमाचक्षते पदे॥ जात्या स्वभावेनैव उदात्तानुदात्तसंगतिं विना जातो जात्यः । तं जात्यमाचक्षतै व्याडिप्रभृयः R. Pr. and com. III. 4.

जामि tautologous, unnecessarily repeated; the word is defined and illustrated by Yaska as;-तद्यत्समान्या- मृचि समानाभिव्याहारं भवति तज्जामि भवतीत्येकं । मधुमन्तं मधुश्चुतमिति यथा Nir.x.16.2. For other definitions of the word जामि conveying practically the same idea, cf. Nir.X. 16. 3 and 4.

जाहच् tad. affix added in the sense of 'a root' to the words कर्ण, अक्षि, नख, मुख and others; e. g. कर्णजाहम् cf. P. V.2.24.

जि a conventional term for संप्रसारण used in the Jainendra Vyakarana.

जित् (l) lit. affix marked with the mute letter ज्; e. g. जस्, जसि, जुस्. the word जित् is not however found used in this sense; (2) a word supposed to be marked with the mute indicatory letter ज्.The word is used in this sense by the Vartti- kakara saying that such a word does not denote itself but its syno- nyms; cf. जित् पर्यायवचनस्यैव राजांद्यर्थम् P.I.1.68 Vart. 7. In the Sutra सभा राजामनुष्यपूर्वा P.II. 4. 23, the word राजन् is supposed to be जित् and hence it denotes इन्, ईश्वर etc.; but not the word राजन् itself; (3) In the Pratisakhya works जित् means the first two consonants of each class (वर्ग); e.g. क्, ख्,च्, छ्. etc. which are the same as खय् letters in Panini's

terminology; cf. द्वौ द्वौ प्रथमौ जित्, V. Pr.I.50;III.13.

जिनचन्द्र author of the Siddhantaratna, a commentary on the Sarasvata Sutras,

जिनेन्द्रबुद्धि a reputed Buddhist Gra- mmarian of the eighth century who wrote a scholarly comment- ary on the Kasikavrtti ofJayaditya and Vamana. The commentary is called न्यास or काशिकाविवरणपञ्जिका and the writer is referred to as न्यासकार in many later grammar works Some scholars identify him with पूज्यपाददेवनन्दिन् the writer of the जैनेन्द्र- व्याकरण, but this is not possible as पूज्यपाददेवनन्दिन् was a Jain Gramma- rian who flourished much earlier.

जिन्निर्देश mention as जित्: cf. जिन्निर्देशः कर्तव्यः M.Bh. on I.1.68 Vart. 7.See जित्.

जिह्वा used in the sense of जिह्वाग्र, the tip of the tongue.

जिह्वामूलस्थान (l)having the root of the tongue as the place of its produc- tion;the phonetic element or letter called जिह्वामूलीय; (2) name given to that phonetic element into which a visarga is changed when follow- ed by क् or ख्; cf X क इति जिह्वामूलीयः V.Pr.VIII.19. The जिह्वामूलीय letter is called जिह्व्य also; see Nyasa on I. 1.9. The Rk. Pratisakhya looks upon ऋ, लृ, जिह्वामूलीय, and the gut- tural letters as जिह्वामूलस्थान.

जिह्वामूलीय produced at the root of the tongue the same as जिह्वामूलस्थान, which see above.

जुक् augment ज् added to the root वा before the causal sign णिच् when the root means shaking;cf.वो विधूनने जुक् P. VII. 3.38.

जुमरनन्दिन् a grammarian of the fourteenth century A. D. who ' revised and rewrote the.grammar संक्षिप्तसार and the commentary named


रसवती on it, which were composed by क्रमदीश्वर in the thirteenth century. The work of जुमरनन्दिन् is known as जौमारव्याकरण.

जुस् verbal termination उस् substitut- ed for the original झि of the third pers. pl, in certain cases mentioned inP.III.4.108,109,110,111, and 112.

जुस्भाव the transformation of झि into जुस् ; the substitution of जुस् for झि. The term is often used in the Mahabhasya; cf. M. Bh. on I. 1.57, I.1.63, III.1.43 etc. See जुस्.

जुहोत्यादिगण the class of roots headed by हु after which the vikarana Sap is elided and the root is reduplica- ted in the four conjugational tenses; third conjugation of roots.

जैनेन्द्रव्याकरण name of a grammar work written by Pujyapada Deva- nandin, also called Siddhanandin, in the fifth century A.D. The grammar is based on the Astadh- yay of Panini,the section on Vedic accent and the rules of Panini exp- laining Vedic forms being,of course, neglected. The grammar is called Jainendra Vyakarana or Jainendra Sabdanusasana. The work is avail- able in two versions, one consisting of 3000 sutras and the other of 3700 sutras. it has got many comment- aries, of which the Mahavrtti written by Abhayanandin is the principal one. For details see Jainendra Vyakarana, introduction published by the Bharatiya Jnana- pitha Varadasi.

जैनेन्द्रव्याकरणमहावृत्ति name of a com- mentary on the Jainendra Vyaka- rana, written by Abhayanandin in the ninth century A. D. see जैनेन्द्र- व्याकरण above.

जौमार ( व्याकरण ) a treatise on vya- 'karana written by Jumaranandin. See जुमरनन्दिन् above The Jaumara

Vyakarana has no Vedic section dealing with Vedic forms or ac- cents,but it has added a section on Prakrita just as the Haima Vya- karaha.

जौमारपरिशिष्ट a supplement to the Jaumara Vyakarana written by Goyicandra. See गीयीचन्द्र.

जौमारसंस्करण the revised version by Jumuranandin of the original grammar treatise in verse called संक्षिप्तसार written by KramadiSvara, The Jaumarasamskarana is the samc as.jaumara Vyakarana, which see above.

जौहोत्यादिक a root belonging to the जुहोत्यादिगण or the third conjugation. ज्ञानदीपिका name of a commentary on Amarasimha’s Amarakosa written by Sripati (Chakravartin) in the 14th century.

ज्ञापक lit.indirect or implicit revealer; a word very commonly used in the sense of an indicatory state- ment. The Sutras, especially those of Pinini, are very laconic and it is believed that not a single word in the Sutras is devoid of purpose. If it is claimed that a particular word is without any purpose, the object of it being achieved in some other way, the commenta- tors always try to assign some pur- pose or the other for the use of the word in the Sutra. Such a word or words or sometimes even the whole Sutra is called ज्ञापक or indi- cator of a particular thing. The Paribhasas or rules of interpreta- tion are mostly derived by indica- tion(ज्ञापकसिद्ध) from a word or words in a Sutra which apparently appear to be व्यर्थ or without purpose, and which are shown as सार्थक after the particular indication ( ज्ञापन ) is drawn from them. The ज्ञापक is


shown to be constituted of four parts, वैयर्थ्य, ज्ञापन, स्वस्मिञ्चारितार्थ्य and अन्यत्रफल. For the instances of Jñāpakas, see Paribhāșenduśekhara. Purușottamadeva in his Jñāpaka- samuccaya has drawn numerous conclusions of the type of ज्ञापन from the wording of Pāņini Sūtras. The word ज्ञापक and ज्ञापन are used many times as synonyms although ज्ञापन sometimes refers to the conclusions drawn from a wording which is ज्ञापक or indica- tor. For instances of ज्ञापक, cf.M.Bh. on Māheśvara Sūtras 1, 3, 5, P. Ι.1. 3, 11, 18, 23, 51 etc. The word ऊठ् in the rule वाह ऊठ् is a well known ज्ञापक of the अन्तरङ्गपरिभाषा. The earliest use of the word ज्ञापक in the sense given above, is found in the Paribhāșāsūcana of Vyādi. The Paribhāșā works on other systems of grammar such as the Kātantra; the Jainendra and others have drawn similar Jñāpakas from the wording of the Sūtras in their systems. Sometimes a Jñāpaka is not regularly constituted of the four parts given above;it is a mere indicator and is called बोधक instead of ज्ञापक्र.

ज्ञापकसमुच्चय a work giving a collection of about 400 Jñāpakas or indicatory wordings found in the Sūtras of Pānini and the conclusions drawn from them. It was written by Purușottamadeva, a Buddhist scholar of Pāņini's grammar in the twelfth century A. D., who was probably the same as the famous great Vaiyākaraņa patronized by Lakșmaņasena.See पुरुषेत्तमदेव.

ज्ञापकसाध्य realizable, or possible to be drawn, from a wording in the Sūtra of Pāņini in the manner shown above. See ज्ञापक.

ज्ञापकसिद्ध realized from the ज्ञापक wording; the conclusion drawn from an indicatory. word in the form of Paribhāșās and the like. Such conclusions are not said to be universally valid; cf. ज्ञापकसिद्धं न सर्वत्र Par. Śek. Pari, 110.7.

ज्ञापन a conclusion or inference, drawn from a word or words in a Sūtra, with a view to assign a purpose to that or to those words which otherwise would have been without a purpose. The word is sometimes used in the sense of ज्ञापक, and refers to the word or words supposed to be without any purpose and therefore looked upon as a reason or हेतु for the desired conclusion to be drawn. The words किमेतस्य ज्ञापने प्रयोजनम् occur very frequently in the Mahābhāșya: cf, M.Bh. on P. Ι. I. 11, 14,19, 55, 68, Ι. 2.41 etc. etc.

ज्ञापित concluded or proved by means of a ज्ञापक word or wording: cf. हन्तेः पूर्वत्रप्रतिषेधो वार्तिकेनैव ज्ञापितः M.Bh. on ΙΙΙ. 4.37 Vārt. 3.

ज्ञाप्य a conclusion or formula to be drawn from a Jñāpaka word or words; cf. the usual expression यावता विनानुपपत्तिस्तावतो ज्ञाप्यत्वम् stating that only so much, as is absolutely necessary, is to be inferred.

ज्ञाप्यमान indicated or suggested: cf. उत्पातेन ज्ञाप्यमाने ( चतुर्थी वाच्या )। वाताय कपिला विद्युत् etc. M.Bh. on ΙΙ. 3.13 Vārt. 3.

ज्योत्स्ना (Ι) name of a commentary by Rāmacandra possibly belonging to the 18th century on the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya; (2) name of a commentary on Nāgeśa's 'Laghuśabdenduśekhara by Uda- yaṃakara Pāṭhaka of Vārāṇasi in the 18th century.

ज्वलिति standing for ज्वलादि, name of


a class of 30 roots headed by the root ज्वल दीप्तौ and given as चल कम्पने, जल घातने etc; cf: ज्वलितिकसन्तेभ्यो णः P. III. 1.140.

झ्fourth consonant of the palatal class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व, and महाप्राणत्व; झ् at the beginning of an affix in Panini Sutras is mute; e. g. the affixes झि, झ etc.; cf चुटूं P. I. 3.7.

a verbal ending of the 3rd pers. Atm. for ल ( i.e. लकार ); cf P.III.4. 78;for the letter झ् , अन्त् is substitu- ted; cf. झोन्तः P. VIII.1.3, but ईरे in the perfect tense; cf. P. III. 4.81 and रन् in the potential and bene- dictive moods; cf. P. III. 4.85.

झच् wording of the affix झ (see above) suggested by the Varttikakara to have the last vowel of अन्त acute, by चितः (P.VI.1.163) the property चित्व being transferred from the original झ to अन्त; cf. Kas. तथा च झचश्चित्करणमर्थवद् भवति on P.VII.1.3.

झय् a short term ( प्रत्याहार ) for the fourth, third, second and first con- sonants of the five classes, after which ह् is changed into the cog- nate of the preceding consonant while श्, is changed into छ् option- ally; cf. P. VIII. 4.62, 63.

झर् a short term ( प्रत्याहार ) for any consonant except semi-vowels, nasals and ह्; cf. P. VIII.4.65.

झल् a short term (प्रत्याहार ) for conso- nants excepting semi-vowels and nasals; cf. P.I.2.9, VI.1.58, VI.4. 15, VII.1.60, VIII. 2.39 and VIII.4.53.

झश् short term ( प्रत्याहार ) for the fourth and the third of the class consonants; cf. P, VIII. 4.53, 54.

झष्short term ( प्रत्याहार ) for the fourth ( झ, भ, घ, ढ and ध) of the class consonants; cf. P.VIII. 2.37, 40.

झि (1) verb-ending of the 3rd pers. pl. Parasmaipada, substituted for the लकार of the ten lakaras, chang- ed to जुस in the potential and the benedictive moods, and optionally so in the imperfect and after the sign स् of the aorist; cf.P,III. 4. 82, 83, 84, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112: (2) a conventional term for अव्यय (in- declinable) used in the Jainendra Vyakaraha.

झित् a term, meaning 'having झ् as इत्' used by the Varttikakra in con- nection with those words in the rules of Panini which themselves as well as words referring to their special kinds, are liable to under- go the prescribed operation; cf. झित् तस्य च तद्विशेषाणां च मत्स्याद्यर्थम्। पक्षिमत्स्यमृगान् हन्ति। मात्त्प्यिक;। तद्विशेषाणाम्। शाफरिकः शाकुलिकः । M.Bh.on P.I. 1. 68 Vart. 8.

ञ् (1) the nasal (fifth consonant) of the palatal class of consonants possess- ed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, कण्टसंवृतत्व, अल्पप्राण and अानुनासिक्य; (2) mute letter, characterized by which an affix signifies वृद्धि for the pre- ceding vowel; ञ् of a taddhita affix, however, signifies वृद्धि for the first vowel of the word to which the affix is added; (3) a mute letter added to a root at the end to signify that the root takes verb-endings of both the padas.

tad. affix अ; cf. P. IV. 2. 58, 106, 107 and IV.4.129.

ञम् a short term (प्रत्याहार ) for the five nasal consonants ङ् ,ञ्, ण्, न्, and म् .


ञि a mute syllable prefixed to a root in the Dhatuptha of Panini' signifying the addition of the affix त (क्त) to the root, in the sense of the present time; e.g. क्ष्विण्णः, धृष्ट: etc.; cf. Kas. on P. III. 2.187.

ञिठ tad. affix इक added to words headed by काशी as also to words meaning a village in the Vahika country optionally with the affix ठञ् in the Saisika senses;e.g. काशिका, काशिकी, बैदिका, बेदिकी, शाकलिकां, शाक- लिकी. The affixes ठञ् and ञिठ are added to the word काल preceded by आपद् as also by some other words; e. g. आपत्कालिका, अापत्कालिकी तात्कालिका, तात्कालिकी etc.; cf. P. IV.2. 116,117,118 and Varttika on IV. 2.116.

ञित् (1) an afix marked with the mute letter ञ्; causing the substi- tution of vrddhi for the preceding vowel and acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is added, but, causing vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is added in case the affix is a tad. affix: cf. P.VII.2, 115, 116, 117; (2) a root marked with the conso- nant ञ् , taking verb-endings of both the Parasmaipada and the Atmanepada kinds; e.g. करोति, कुरुते, बिभर्ति, बिभृते, क्रीणाति, क्रीणीते elc.; cf. स्वरितञितः कत्राभिप्राये, क्रियाफले P.I.3.72.

ञीत् a root marked with the mute syllable ञि prefixed to it, signifying the addition of the affix क्त in the present tense. See ञि.

ञ्य taddhita affix य signifying the substitution of vrddhi as also the acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is added. It is added (1) to words headed by प्रगदिन् in the four senses termed वंतुरर्थ e.g.प्रागृद्यम्, शारद्यम् etc.;cf.P.IV. 2.80; (2).to 20

the word गम्भीर and अव्ययीभाव com- pounds in the sense of present there', e.g. गाम्भीर्यम् , पारिमुख्यम् etc. cf. P.IV.3.58, 59 (3) to the word विदूर e.g. वैदुर्य; cf. P. IV.3.84;.(4) to the words headed by शण्डिक in the sense of 'domicile of', e.g. शाण्डिक्यः ; cf. P. IV.3.92; (5) to the words छन्दोग, औक्थिक, नट etc. in the sense of duty (धर्म) or scripture (अाम्नाय) e. g. छान्दोग्यम् , औविथक्यम् नाट्यम् etc.; cf. P. IV. 3.129; (6) to the word गृहपति in the sense of ’associated with'; e.g. गार्हपत्यः (अग्निः);cf.P.IV.4.90;(7) to the words ऋषभ and उपानह् ; cf. P. V.1.14; .(8) to the words अनन्त, आवसथ etc.,cf. P. V.4.23; (9) to the word अतिथि; cf. P.V.4.26; and (10) to the words in the sense of पूग(wandering tribes for earning money), as also to the words meaning व्रात (kinds of tribes) as also to words ending with the affix च्फञ् under certain conditions; cf. P.V.3. 112, 113.

ञ्यङ् tad. affix in the sense of 'a des- cendant' added to words beginn- ing with अा, ऐ, ओ or ending with इ, as also to the words कौसल and अजाद् provided they mean a coun- try and a Ksatriya too; e.g. सौवीर्यः, आवन्त्यः, कौन्त्यः कौसल्यः, अाजाद्यः; cf. P. IV.1.171.

ञ्यट् tad. affix य .causing वृद्धि to the first vowel of the word to which it is added and the addition of ई ( ङीप् ) in the sense of feminine gender, added to words meaning warrior tribes of the Vahika coun- try but not Brahmanas or Ksatri- yas. e.g. क्षौद्रक्यः, क्षौद्रक्री etc.; cf P. V. 3. 114.

ञ्युट् krt affix added to the root वह् in Vedic Literature preceded by the words कव्य, पुरीष, पुरीष्य or हव्य, e.g. कव्यवाहनः, पुरीषवाहनः, हव्यवाहनः cf. P. III,2.65, 66.. .


ट् the first consonant of the lingual class ( टवर्ग ) possessed of the pro- perties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्ठत्व and अल्पप्राणत्व. When prefixed or affixed to an affix as an indica- tory letter, it signifies the addition of the fem. affix ङीप् ( ई ); cf. P. IV. 1.15, When added to the conjuga- tional affixes ( लकार ) it shows that in the Atmanepada the vowel of the last syllable is changed to ए. cf. P. III. 4.79. When added to an augment ( अागम ), it shows that the augment marked with it is to be prefixed and not to be affixed; e. g. नुट्, तुट् etc.; cf P. I. 1.46.

(1) the consonant ट्, the vowel अ being added for facility of utterance; cf. अकारो व्यञ्जनानाम्, T. Pr. I. 21; (2) short term, (प्रत्याहार) standing for टवगे or the lingual class of consonants, found used mostly in the Pratisakhya works; cf. RT. 13, V. Pr. I. 64, T. Pr. I. 27: (3) tad. affix ( अ ) added to the word फल्गुनी in the sense ' तत्र जातः' e. g. फल्गुनी, cf. P. IV. 3.34, Vart. 2; (4) krt affix ( अ ) added to the root चर्, सृ and कृ under certain conditions; e. g. कुरुचर:, अग्रेसुर:, यशस्करी ( विद्या ) दिवाकरः, वेिभकरः कर्मकरः etc. cf. P. III. 2.16-23.

टक् krt affix अ, not admitting गुण or वृद्धि to the preceding vowel and causing ङीप् in the feminine ( by P.IV. 1.15), added to the roots गा, पा and हन् under certain condi- tions; e. g. समग;, सुरापः, पतिघ्नी etc.; cf. P. IV. 2.8, 52, 53, 54, 55.

टकार the consonant ट्, कार being added for facility of utterance; cf. वर्णात्कारः P. III. 3.108 Vart. 3; cf. also V. Pr, I.17.

टच् the samasanta affix अ added to certain specified words at the end of the tatpurusa and other com- pounds e.g. राजसखः, पञ्चगवम्, महानसम्, समक्षम् , अध्यात्मम् etc. cf P.V.4.91-112.

टवर्ग the class of lingual consonants; the same as टु in Panini.

टा case ending of the third case (तृतीया) sing. number; cf. P. IV.1.2,

टाङ् short term for affixes beginning with टाप् in P. IV. 1.4 and ending with ष्यङ् in P. IV. 1.78: cf. टाङिति प्रत्याहारग्रहणम् । टापः प्रभृति आ ष्यङो ङकारात् M. Bh. on I. 2.48 V. 2.

टाप् feminine affix अा added to mas- culine nouns ending in अ by the rule अजाद्यतष्टाप् IV. 1.4 excepting those nouns where any other affix prescribed by subsequent rules becomes applicable.

टि the final syllable beginning with a vowel; part of a word consisting of the final vowel in a word and the consonants following the final vowel; cf अचेन्त्यादि टि P. I. 1.64.

टिठन् (l) tad. affix इक added to the words श्राणा, मांस and ओदन in the sense of ' something given as wages' e. g. श्राणिकः श्राणिकी; cf. P. IV. 4.67; (2) tad. affix इक added to कंस and शूर्प in the अार्हीय senses e. g. कंसिक:, कांसिक्री; cf. P. V.1.25,26.

टित् marked or characterized by the mute letter ट्. For the significance of the addition of ट्, see ट्.

टिलोप deletion or elision of the final

syllable beginning with a vowel, as prescribed by Panini in certain rules; cf. भस्य टेर्लोपः VII. 1.88, टे: P. VI, 4.143, 155 नस्तद्धिते P. VI. 4.144 and अह्नष्टखोरेव P. VI. 4.145.

टीटच् tad. affix टीट added to the preposition अच in the sense of


'lowering of the nose' ( नासिकाया: नतम् ) e. g. अवटीटम्: cf. P. V. 2.31

टु(1) mute syllable टु prefixed to roots to signify the addition of the affix अथुच् in the sense of ver- bal activity; e. g. वेपथुः, श्वयथु:, cf. P.III. 3.89; (2) the class of lingual consonants ट्, ठ्, ड्, ढ् and ण्; cf चुटू P. I. 3.7.

टुक् augment ट् added to that in connection with which it is pres- cribed; it is prescribed in connec- tion with ङ् and ण् followed by a sibilant, e. g. सुगण्+षष्ठः = सुगण्ट्षष्ट:; cf. P, VIII. 3.28.

टेण्यण् tad. affix एण्य added to word वृक meaning 'a warrior tribe not of a Brahmana nor of a Ksatriya caste in the sense of the word ( वृक ) itself; e. g. वार्केण्यः, cf. P. V. 3.115

ट्यण् tad. affix य, causing वृद्धि for the initial vowel and the addition of the fem. affix ई, applied to the word सोम in the sense of 'having that as a deity,' e. g. सौम्यं हविः, सौमी ऋक्: cf. P.IV. 2.30.

ट्यु tad. affix अन to which the aug- ment त्, is prefixed, making the affix तन, applicable to the words सायं, चिरं, प्राह्वे, प्रगे ,and indeclinable words in the Saisika or misce- llaneous senses; e. g. सायंतन:, चिरंतनः दिवातनम् etc.; cf. P. IV. 3.23, 24.

टयुल् tad. affix added in the same way as टयु above, making only a difference in the accent. When the affix टयुल् is added, the acute accent is given to the last vowel of the word preceding the affix.

ट्लञ् tad. affix ल, causing vrddhi for the initial vowel of the word to which it is added and also the addition of the fem.affix ई,applied to the word शमी in the sense

of 'विकार,' e. g. शामीली स्रुक्; cf. Kas. on P. IV. 3.142.

द्वित् having दु as इत्: roots, that have टु as इत् or mute, take the affix अथुच् in the sense of verbal activity. See टु.

ठ् the second consonant of the ling- ual class possessed of the proper- ties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्टत्व and महाप्राणत्व. For the syllable ठ at the beginning of taddhita affixes, the syllable इक is substituted; if however the affix (beginning with ठ ) follows upon a word ending in इस्, उस्, उ, ऋ, लृ and त् then क is added instead of इक; e. g. धानुष्क:, औदश्वित्कः etc.; cf. टस्येकः, इसुसुक्तान्तात् कः, P. VII. 3.50, 51. Some scholars say that इक् and क् are substituted for ठ् by the sutras quoted above; cf. KS. on VII. 3.50.

(l) tad. affix ठ; see ठ् above for the substitution of इक and क for ठ. ठ stands as a common term for ठक् , ठन् , ठञ्, and ठच् as also for ष्ठल्,ष्ठन् , and प्ठच्;(2) the consonant ठ, the vowel अ being added for facitity of pronunciation, cf. T. Pr. I.21.

ठक् a very common tad. affix इक, or क in case it is added to words ending in इस् , उस् , उ, ऋ, ल् and त् according to P. VII. 3. 51, causing the substitution of vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is added. ठक् is added to (1) रेवती and other words in the sense of descendant ( अपत्य ) e. g. रैवतिकः:, दाण्डग्राहिकः, गार्गिकः, भागवित्तिकः यामुन्दायनिकः, cf. P. IV. 1.146-149; (2) to the words लाक्षा,रोचना etc. in the sense of 'dyed in', e. g.


लाक्षिकम्, रौचनिकम् ; cf. P. IV. 2.2; (3) to the words दधि and उदश्वित् in the sense of संस्कृत 'made better ', e. g. दाधिकम् , औदश्वित्कम् ( क instead of इक substituted for टक् ), cf. P. IV.2. 18, 19; (4) to the words अाग्रहायुणी, अश्वत्थ etc.; cf. P. IV. 2. 22, 23; (5) to words expressive of inanimate objects, to the words हस्ति and धेनु, as also to the words केश and अश्व in the sense of 'multitude '; cf. P. IV. 2. 47, 48; (6) to the words क्रतु, उक्थ and words ending in सूत्र, वसन्त etc., in the sense of 'students of' ( तदधीते तद्वेद ), cf. P. IV. 2.59, 60, 63; (7) to the words कुमुद and others as also to शर्करा as a चातुरर्थिक affix; cf. P. IV. 2.80, 84; (8) to the words कन्था, भवत् and वर्षा in the Saisika senses; cf. P. IV. 2.102, 115, IV. 3.18; (9) to the words उपजानु and others in the sense 'generally present '; cf. P. IV. 3. 40; (10) to the words consisting of two syllables, and the words ऋक्, ब्राह्मण etc.in the sense of 'explanatory literary work'; cf. P. IV.3.72: ( 11) to words meaning 'sources of in- come ' in the sense of 'accruing from’; cf. P. IV. 3.75; (12) to words denoting inanimate things excepting words showing time or place in the sense of ' भक्ति ', cf P. IV. 8.96; and (13) to the words हल् and सीर in the sense of 'belong- ing to', cf. P. IV. 3.124. The tad. affix ठक् is added as a general termination, excepting in such cases where other affixes are pre- scribed, in specified senses like 'तेन दीव्यति, ' 'तेन खनति,' 'तेन संस्कृतम्' etc.; cf P. IV. 4.1-75, as also to words हल, सीर, कथा, विकथा, वितण्डा etc. in specified senses, cf. P. IV.4. 81, 102 ठक् is also added as a general tad. affix or अधिकारविहितप्रत्यय, in various specified senses, as pre-

scribed by P. V.1.19-63,and to the words उदर, अयःशूल,दण्ड, अजिन, अङ्गुली, मण्डल, etc. and to the word एकशाला, in the prescribed senses; cf. P. V. 2.67,76, V. 3.108,109; while, with- out making any change in sense it is added to अनुगादिन् , विनय, समय, उपाय ( औपयिक being the word formed), अकस्मात्, कथंचित्; (cf.आकस्मिक काथंचित्क), समूह,विशेष, अत्यय and others, and to the word वाक् in the sense of 'expressed'; cf. P. V. 4.13, 34, 35. The fem. affix ङीप् ( ई ) is added to words ending in the affix टक् to form fem. bases.

ठक्पाद a popular name given to the fourth pada of the fourth adhyaya of Panini's Astadhyayi.The pada be- gins with the rule प्राग्वहतेष्ठक् P.IV.4.1 prescribing the taddhita affix ठक् in the senses prescribed in rules be- . ginning with the next rule ' तेन दीव्यति खनति जयति जितम् ' and ending with the rule 'निकटे वसति' P.IV.4.73.

ठच tad. affix इक or क (by P.VII.3.51) with the vowel अ accented acute applied to (1) कुमुद and others as a Caturarthika affix; cf. P. IV.2.80; (2) to multisyllabic words and words beginning with उप which are proper nouns for persons; cf. P. V.3.78, 80; and (3) to the word एकशाला in the sense of इव; cf. P. V.3.109. The base, to which टच् is added, retains generally two sylla- bles or sometimes three, the rest being elided before the affix ठच् e. g. देविकः, वायुकः, पितृकः शेबलिकः etc. from the words देवदत्त, वायुदत्त, पितृ- दत्त, शेवलदत्त etc.; cf. P. V,3.83, 84.

ठञ् tad. affix इक or क (by P.VII.3.51) causing Vrddhi and acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is added, applied (1) to महृाराज, प्रोष्ठपद and क्वाचिन् in the specified.senses, cf. P. IV.2.35, 4l


e. g. माहृाराजिक, प्रौष्ठपदिक etc.; (2) to words काशि, चेदि, संज्ञा and others, along with ञिठ, e. g. काशिकी, काशिका, also with ञिठ to words denoting villages in the Vahika country e.g. शाकलिकी शाकलिका; as also to words ending in उ forming names of countries in all the Saisika senses cf. P. IV.2.116-120; (3) to com- pound words having a word show- ing direction as their first member, to words denoting time, as also to the words शरद्, निशा and प्रदोष in the Saisika senses; cf P. IV.3.6, 7, 11- 15; (4) to the words वर्षा (1n Vedic Literature), and to हेमन्त and वसन्त in the Saisika senses; cf. P.IV.3.19- 21; (5) to संवत्सर, अाग्रहायणी, words having अन्तः as the first member, to the word ग्राम preceded by परि or अनु, to multisyllabic words having their last vowel accented acute, to words denoting sacrifices, to words forming names of sages, to words ending in ऋ and to the word महाराज in the specific senses which are mentioned; cf. P. IV.3.50, 60, 61, 67, 68, 69, 78, 79, 97; (6) to the words गोपुच्छ, श्वगण, आक्रन्द, लवण, परश्वध, compound words having a multi- syllabic words as their first mem- ber, and to the words गुड etc. in the specified senses;cf.P.IV.4.6,II, 38, 52, 58, 64, 103;(7) to any word as a general tad. affix (अधिकारविहित), unless any other affix has been specified in the specified senses ' तेन क्रीतम् ' ' तस्य निमित्तम्' ... ' तदर्हम्' mentioned in the section of sutras V. 1. 18. to 117; (8) to the words अय:शूल, दण्ड, अजिन, compound words having एक or गो as their first mem- ber as also to the words निष्कशत and निष्कसहस्र; cf. P.V.2.76, 118,119.

ठन् tad. affix इक or क (according to P. VII.3.51), causing the addition of आ, and not ई,..for forming the

feminine base, applied (1) to the word नौ and words with two syllables in the sense of 'crossing' or 'swimming' over; cf. P.IV.4. 7; e.g. नाविकः नाविका, बाहुकः बाहुक्रा; (2) to the words वस्र, क्रय, and विक्रय and optionally with छ to अायुघ in the sense of maintaining (तेन जीवति) ; cf. P. IV. 4.13, 14; (3) to the word प्रतिपथ, words ending with अगार, to the word शत, to words showing completion ( पूरणवाचिन् ), to the words अर्ध, भाग, वस्त्र, द्रव्य, षण्मास and. श्राद्ध in specified senses; cf. P. IV 4.42, 70, V. 1.21, 48, 49, 51, 84, V. 2, 85, and 109; (4) to words ending in अ as also to the words headed by व्रीहि, and optionally with the affix इल्च् to तुन्द and with the affix व to केशin the sense of मतुप्(pos- session); cf P.V. 2. 115, 116, 117 and 109.

ठित् marked with the mute letter ठ्. There is no affix or word marked with mute ठ् (at the end) in Pani- ni's grammar, but to avoid cer- tain technical difficulties, the Mahabhasyakara has proposed mute ठ् instead of 'ट् in the' case of the affix इट् of the first pers. sing. perf Atm. and ऊठ् prescribed as Samprasarana substitute by P. VI. 4.132 e: g. प्रष्ठौहः, प्रष्ठौहा; cf. M.Bh. on III.4.79 and VI.4.19.

ड् ( 1 ) third letter of the lingual class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व, and अल्पप्राण; (2) mute letter ap- plied to affixes by Panini to show the elision of the टि part (cf. P. 1. 1.64.) of the preceding word viz. the penultimate vowel and the consonant or consonants follow- ing it; cf, टेः ; ( लोप: डिति प्रत्यये परे )


VI.4.143. The syllable ति of विंशति is also elided before an affix mark- with the mute letter ड्.

ड (1) krt affix अ applied to the root गम् preceded by अन्त, अत्यन्त, अध्वन् etc., as also to the roots हन् and जन् under certain conditions; cf. P. III.2,48,49, 50, 97-101 and to the root क्रन् to form the word नक्र cf. P. VI. 3.75; (2) tad. affix अ applied to words ending in दशन्, words ending in शत् and the word विंशति in the sense of 'more than' e.g. एकादशं शतम्, एकत्रिंशम्, एकविंशम्, cf P.V.2.45, 46.

डच samasanta (अ) added to a Bahu vrihi compound meaning a nume- ral e.g. उपदशाः उपविंशाः cf. P.V.474.

डट् tad. अ, affix in the sense of पूरण applied to a numeral to form an ordinal numeral; e. g. एकादशः, त्रयोदशः, cf. P.V.2.48

डण् tad. affix अ, causing vrddhi and टिलोप, applied to त्रिंशत् and चत्वारिंंशत् to show the परिमाण i.e. measure- ment or extent of a Brahmana work; e.g. त्रैंशानि ब्राह्मणानि, चात्वरिंशानि cf. P. V. I.62

डतमच् tad. affix अतम in the sense of determination or selection of one out of many, applied to the pro- nouns किं, यत् and तत्; e,g. कतमः cf. P.V.3.93,as also to एक according to Eastern Grammarians; e.g. एकतमो भवतां देवदत्तः; cf. P.V.3.94.

डतरच् tad. affix अतर in the sense of 'selection out of two' applied to the words किं, यत् and तत् as also to the word एक; e. g. कतरो भवतोः पटुः cf. P. V. 3.92, एकतरो भवतोर्देवदत्तः cf. P.V.3.94.

डतरांदि a class of words headed by the word डतर which stands for डतरान्त i.e. words ending with the affix डतर; similarly the word डतम which follows डतर stands for डतमान्त.

This class डतरादि is a subdivision of the bigger class called सर्वादि. and it consists of only five words viz. डतरान्त, डतमान्त, अन्य, अन्यतर and इतरः cf P. VII.1.25 and I.1.27.

डति tad. affix अति affixed to the word किम् to show number or measurement; e.g. कति ब्राह्मणाः, cf. P.V.2.41. The words ending with the affix डति are termed संख्या and षट् for purposes of declension etc.; cf. P.I.1.23,25

डर krt affix अर added to the root खन् in the sense of 'instrument' or 'location' e.g. आखरः, cf. P.III.3. 125 Vartika.

डस् affix अस् applied to the word श्वेतवाह and others at the end of a pada i.e when the word श्वेतवाह has got the पदसंज्ञा. e.g. श्वेतवाः इन्द्रः । श्वेतवोभ्याम् cf.P.III.2.71 Vārt,1 and 2.

डा (1) verb-ending आ, causing elision of the penultimate vowel as also of the following consonant, substituted for the 3rd pers. sing, affix तिप् of the first future; e.g. क्रर्ता ; cf. P.II.4.85; (2) case ending आ substituted in Vedic Literature for any case affix as noticed in Vedic usages; e.g. नाभा पृथिव्याम्: cf. P. VII.1.39

डाच् tad. affix आ applied to dissylla- bic words, used as imitation of sounds, or used as onomatopoe- tic, when connected with the root कृ or भू or अम्. The word to which डाच् is applied becomes generally doubled; c. g पटपटाकरोति, पटपटाभवति पटपटास्यात्; cf. P.V.4.57. The affix डाच् is also applied to द्वितीय, तृतीय, to compound words formed of a numeral and the word गुण, as also to the words सपत्र, निष्पत्र, सुख, प्रिच etc when these words are connected with the root कृ;e.g. द्वितीयाकरोति,तृतीया करोति, द्विगुणाकरोति, सपत्राकरोति, सुखाकरोति etc.; cf.P.V.4. 58 to 67.


डाप् fem. affix आ added optionally to words ending in मन् and to Bahu- vrihi compounds ending in अन् to show feminine gender, the words remaining as they are when the optional affix डाप् is not applied; e.g. दामा, सीमा, सुपर्वा; cf. P. IV. I.l l, 12, 13.

डामहच् tad. affix अामह added to the words मातृ and पितृ in the sense of 'father'; e.g. मातामहः, पितामहः; cf. P. IV. 2.36 Vart, 2.

डित् possessed of the mute letter ड् added for the purpose of the eli- sion of डि (last vowel and the conso- nant or consonants after it) of the preceding word. See ड.

डिनि (l) tad. affix applied to अवान्तर- दीक्षा, तिलव्रत etc. in the sense of चरति (observing); e.g. तिलव्रती, cf. P. V. 1. 94 Vart 3; (2) applied in the sense of 'having as measurement'applied to numeral words ending in शत् or शिन् and the word विंशति; e.g. त्रिंशिनो मासाः, विंशिनोङ्गिरसः; cf. M. Bh. on P. V. 2.37.

डिमच् tad. affix इम applied to the words अग्र, अादि, पश्चात् and अन्त in the Saisika senses; e.g. अग्रिमम्, अादि- मम् , पश्चिमम् , अन्तिमम्: cf. M. Bh. on P.IV.3.23.

डियाच् case affix इया for Inst.sing.seen in Vedic Literature: e.g. सुक्षेत्रिया, सुगात्रिया; cf Kas. on P.VII.1.39.

डुपच् tad affix उप added to the word कुतू in the sense of diminutive: e.g. कुतुपः a small oil-pot ( कुतू );cf. V.3. 89.

डुम्सुन् Unadi affix उम्स् added to the root पा to form the word पुंंस्: cf. पांते डेम्सुन् Unadi Sutra IV.177.

डुलच् tad. affix उल in the sense of 'brother' applied to the word मातृ; e.g. मातुलः; cf. P. IV. 2.36 Vart 1.

ड्भतुप् tad. affix मत् as a चातुरर्थिक affix applied to the words कुमुद, नड and वेतत; e.g. कुमुद्वान् , नड्वान, वेतस्वान्: cf.P. IV. 2.87.

ड्य tad. affix य (1) added in the sense of ' Sama introduced by' ( दृष्टं साम ) to the word वामदेव ; e. g. वामदेव्यं साम ; cf P. IV. 2.9; (2) added to the word स्रोत्स optionally with यत् in the sense of ’present there ' ( तत्र भवः ) ; e. g.स्त्रोतस्यः, cf. P. IV. 4.I 13.

ड्यण् tad. affix य added to the words पाथस् and नदी in the sense of ’pre- sent there ’ ( तत्र भवः ), e. g, पाथ्यः नाद्यः; cf. P. IV. 4.111.

ड्यत् tad. affix य added along with डय to the same words to which the affix डय is added as also in the same sense, the vowel अ of डयत् being स्वरित. See the word डघ above.

ड्या case affix या seen in vedic Lite- rature e. g. अनुष्ठथा उच्च्यावयतात् cf. S. K. on P. VII. 1.39.

ड्रट् krt affix र with fem. affix ई added to it, applied to the root रुत्यै. e.g. स्त्री cf. संस्त्र्याने स्त्यायतेर्ड्रट् स्त्री M. Bh. on IV. 1.3.

ड्बवलच् tad.affix वल, in the four senses, added to the words नड and शाद; e. g. नड्वलम्, शाद्वलम्; cf. P. IV. 2.88.

ड्वित् a root marked with the mute syllable डु (at the beginning) to Signify the application of the krt affix त्रि which is invariably followed by the addition of म ( मप् ), in the sense of 'achieved by' e. g. पक्त्रिमम् ; कृत्रिमम्: cf. P. III. 3.88 ; and IV. 4.20.

ड्वुन् tad. affix अक added to the words विंशति and त्रिंशत् in the tetrad of tad. senses; e. g. विंशक:, त्रिंशक: cf. P. V. 1.24.


ड् (1) fourth consonant of the lingual class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व and महृाप्राणत्व; (2) the consonant ढ् which is elided when followed by ढ् and the preceding vowel is lengthened; e. g. गाढा, cf. P. VIII. 3.13 and VI. 3.111 ; (3) substitute ढ् for ह् at the end of a पद, or, if followed by any consonant excepting a semivowel or a nasal excepting in the cases of roots beginning with द् or the roots द्रुह्, मुह् etc. as also वह् and अाह् cf. P. VIII. 2.31, 32, 33, 34; (4) ढ् at the beginning of a tad. affix which has got एय् substituted for it; cf. गाङ्गेय:, वैनतेयः ; cf. P. V. 3.102.

tad. affix ढ (1) applied to the word सभा in the sense of 'fit for' ( तत्र साधुः ) in Vedic literature;. e. g. सभेयः; cf. IV. 4.106; (2) applied to the word शिला in the sense of इव; e. g. शिलेयं दधि ; cf. P. V. 3.102; (3) common term ( ढ ) for the affixes ढक्, ढञ् and ढ also, after the application of which the affix ङीप् (ई) is , added in the sense of feminine gender; cf. P. IV. 1.15.

ढक् tad. affix एय causing the substitu- tion of vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is added. ढक् is added in the sense of अपत्य (descendant) (I) to words ending in feminine affixes, to words end- ing in the vowel इ, excepting इ of the tad. afix इञ्, to words of the class headed by शुभ्र, to words मण्डूक, विकर्ण, कुषीतक, भ्रू , .कुलटा and to words headed by कल्याणी which get इन substituted for its !ast vowel; e.g. सौपर्णेयः, दात्तेयः शौभ्रेय, माण्डूकेयः, , वैकर्णेयः, कौषीतकेयः, भ्रौवेयः,.कौलटेयः, काल्याणिनेयः etc: cf Kas on P. IV.I. 1 19-127;

(2) to the words पितृष्वसृ and मातृष्वसृ with the vowel ऋ elided and to the word . दुष्कुल, पितृष्वसेय:, मातृष्वसेयः, दौष्कुलेयः, cf. Kas. on P. IV. 1.133, 134, 142: (3) to the word कलि in the sense of Sama, to the word अग्नि in the sense of 'dedicated to a deity' ( सास्य देवता ) as also to the words नदी, मही, वाराणसी, श्रावस्ती and others in the Saisika senses; e. g. कालेयं साम, आग्नेयः, नादेयम् महियम् etc. cf Kas. on P. IV. 2.8, 33, 97: (4) to the words तूदी, धुर् , कपि, ज्ञाति, व्रीहि and शालि in the specified senses; cf. P. IV. 3.94, IV. 4.77, V. 1.127, V. 2.2.

ढकञ् tad. affix एयक applied (1) to the word कुल optionally along with यत् and ख, when it is not a member of a compound;.e. g. कौलेयकः, कुल्यः, कुलीनः; cf. P.'IV. 1. 140; (2) to the words कत्त्रि and others in the Saisika senses as also to the words कुल, कुक्षि and ग्रीवा, if the words formed with the affix added, respectively mean dog, sword and ornament : e. g. कात्त्रेयकः कौलेयक: (श्वा), कौक्षेयकः (असिः), ग्रैवेयकः (अलंकारः): cf.Kas. on P.IV 2.95,96.

ढञ् tad. affix एय causing Vrddhi substituted for the first vowel of the base and the addition of the fem. affix ङीप् (इ), applied (1) to words meaning quadrupeds and words in the class of words headed by गृष्टि in the sense of अपत्य; e. g. कामण्ड- लेयः, गार्ष्टेयः, हालेय:, बालेयः etc; cf. P. IV.1.135,136; (2) to the word क्षीर, words of the class headed by सखि, the words कोश, दृति, कुक्षि, कलशि, अस्ति, अहि,ग्रीवा,वर्मती,एणी,पथि,अतिथि,वसति,स्वपति, पुरुष, छदि्स, उपधि, बलि, परिखा, and वस्ति in the various senses mention- ed in connection with these words; e.g.क्षेरेयः, .साखेयम् कौशेयम् दात्र्ऱेयम् ,


कौक्षेयम् etc, cf Kas'. on P. IV. 2. 20, 80, IV. 3. 42, 56, 57, 94, 159, IV.4.1 04, V.1.10,13,17, V.3.101.

ढिनुक् tad. affix एयिन् applied to the word छगलिन् in the sense of 'stude- nts following the text of ' e. g. छागलेयिनः in the sense छगलिना प्रोक्त- मधीयते ते; cf. Kas. on P. IV.3.109.

ढ्रक् tad. affix एर ( एय् + र ) applied in the sense of offspring to the word गोधा and optionally with ढक् to words meaning persons having a bodily defect or a low social status; e. g. गौधेरः, काणेरः दासेरः; काणेयः, दासेयः, cf Kas. on P. IV. 1. 129, 131.

ण् (l) fifth consonant of the lingual class of consonants possessed of the properties, नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतक- ण्ठत्व, अल्पप्राण and अानुनासिक्यः (2) the mute letter ण् indicating the substitution of vrddhi ( cf. P. VII. 2. 115-117) when attached to affixes; (3) the consonant ण् at the beginn- ing of roots which is changed into न्; the roots, having ण् at the begi- nning changeable to न्, being call- ed णोपदेशः (4) ण् as a substitute for न् following the letters ऋ, ॠ, र्, and ष् directly, or with the intervention of consonants of the guttural and labial classes, but occurring in the same word, Such a substitution of ण् for न् is called णत्व;

cf. P.VIII.4.

I-39. For णत्व in Vedic Literature; cf. R. Pr.V.20-28, T.Pr.VII.1-12. V.Pr.III.84-88;(5) the consonant ण् added as an augment to a vowel at the beginning of a word when it follows the consonant ण् at the end of the previous word; cf. P. VIII. 3. 32. In the Vedic Pratisa- khyas this augment ण् is added to the preceding ण् and looked upon as a part of the previous word. 21

(1) krt affix अ, added optionally to the roots headed by ज्वल् and end- ing with कस् in the first conjuga- tion (see ज्वलिति above) in the sense of agent, and necessarily to the root श्यै, roots ending with अा and the roots व्यध्, आस्रु, संस्रु, इ with अति, सो with अव, हृ with अव, लिह्, श्लिष् and श्वस्, to the roots दु and नी with- out any prefix and optionally to ग्रह्: e. g. ज्वालः or ज्वलः, अवश्यायः, दायः, धायः, व्याधः, अास्त्रावः, संस्त्रवः, अत्यायः, अवसायः, अवहार:, लेहः, श्लेष:, श्वास:, दावः, नाय:, ग्रहः or ग्राहः: ; in the case of the root ग्रह् the affix ण is applied by ब्यवस्थितविभाषा, the word ग्रहः meaning a planet and the word ग्राहः meaning a crocodile; cf Kas. on P. III. 1.140-143; (2) krt affix अ in the sense of verbal activity ( भाव ) applied along with the affix अप् to the root अद् with नि; e.g.न्यादः निघसः; cf. P. III.3.60; (3) krt affix ण prescribed by the Varttikakara after the roots तन्, शील्. काम, भक्ष् and चर् with आ; cf. P.III.1.140 Vart 1, and III. 2.l Vart. 7; (4) tad. affix अ in the sense of अपत्य added along with टक् also, to a word referring to a female descendant (गेीत्रस्त्री) if the resultant word indicates censure ; e. g. गार्भ्यः गार्गिकः cf. P. IV.1.147, 150; (5) tad. affix अ in the sense of अपत्य added also with the affix फिञ्, to the word फाण्टाहृति: (6) tad. affix अ in the sense of 'a game' added to a word meaning 'an instrument in the game'; e.g. दाण्डा, मौष्टा: cf. P. IV.2.57: {7) tad. affix अ added to the word छत्त्र and others in the sense of 'habi- tuated to' e.g. छात्र:, शैक्षः, पौरोहः चौर:: cf. P.IV. 4.62: (8) tad. affix अ added to the words अन्न, भक्त, सर्व, पथिन् , यथाकथाच, प्रज्ञा, श्रद्धा, अर्चा, वृत्तिं and अरण्य in the senses specified

with respect to each ; e.g. आन्नः

(मनुष्यः) भाक्तः ( शालिः ), सार्वे ( सर्वस्मै हितम् ), पान्थः, याथाकथाचं (कार्यम्), प्राज्ञः or प्रज्ञावान् , श्राद्धः or श्रद्धावान् , अार्चः or अर्चावान् , घार्त्तः or वृत्तिमान् and अारण्याः ( सुमनसः ); cf. Kas. on P.IV. 4.85, 100, V.1.10, 76, 98, V.2.101 and IV.2.104 Varttika.

णच् krt affix अ in the sense of reci- procal action, added to any root; the affix णच् is to get necessarily the affix अञ् added to it followed by the fem. affix ई e.g. व्यावकोशी, व्यावहासी; cf. Kas, on P.III.3.43 and P. V. 4.14.

णत्व cerebralization; lingualization ; the substitution of ण् for न् under certain conditions; cf. P. VIII.4. 1-39. See ण.

णत्वपाद a popular name given by grammarians to the fourth pada cf. Panini's Astadhyayi, as the pada be- gins with the rule रषाभ्यां नो णः समानपदे and mainly gives rules about णत्व i. e. the substitution of the consonant ण् for न्.

णमुल् krt affix अम्, causing vrddhi to the final vowel or to the penul- timate अ, (!) added to any root in the sense of the infinitive in Vedic Literature when the connected root is शक्: e.g. अग्निं वै देवा विभाजं नाशक्नुवन; cf Kas. on P. III. 4.14; (2) added to any root to show frequency of a past action, when the root form ending with णमुल् is repeated to convey the sense of frequency : e.g. भोजं भोजं व्रजति, पायंपायं व्रजति, cf. Kas on P. III. 4.22; (3) added to a root showing past action and preceded by the word अग्रे, प्रथम or पूर्व, optionally along with the krt affix क्त्वा; e.g. अग्रेभोजं or अग्रे भुक्त्वा व्रजति; cf Kas. on P.III.4.24;(4) added in general to a root specified in P.III.4.25 to 64, showing a subordinate action and having the same subject as the

root showing the main action, provided the root to which णमुल् is added is preceded by an antecedent or connected word, such as स्वादुम् or अन्यथा or एवम् or any other given in Panini's rules; cf. P. III.4.26 to III.4.64; e.g. स्वादुंकारं भुङ्क्ते, अन्यथाकारं भुङ्क्ते, एवंकारं भुङ्क्ते, ब्राह्मणवेदं भोजयति, यावज्जीवमधीते, समूलकाषं कषति, समूलघातं हन्ति, तैलपेषं पिनष्टि, अजकनाशं नष्टः etc.; cf Kas. on P.III.4.26-64. When णमुल् is added to the roots कष्, पिष्, हन् and others mentioned in P. III. 4. 34 to 45, the same root is repeat- ed to show the principal action. The word ending in णमुल् has the acute accent (उदात) on the first vowel (cf. P.VI.I. 94) or on the vowel preceding the affix; cf. P. VI.1.193.

णमुल्तत्पुरुष a term used in connec- tion with the compound of the णमुलन्त with its उपपदं which precedes; e.g. अग्रेभोजम् , मूलकोपदंशम् : cf. P. II. 2.20, 21.

णल् personal ending अ substituted for तिप् and मिप् in लिट् or the perfect, and in the case of विद् and ,ब्रू in लट् or the pres. tense optionally; cf P. III, 4. 82, 83, 84. The affix णल् on account of being marked by the mute letter ण् causes vrddhi to the preceding vowel; the vrddhi is, however, optional in the case of the 1st pers. ( मिप् ) cf. P. VII.1.91. अौ is substituted for णल् after roots ending in आ; cf. P. VII .1.34.

णस् tad. affix अस् applied to the word पर्शू in the sense of collection. The original Varttika is पर्श्वाः सण् P. IV. 2. 43 Vart. 3. Some scho- lars read णस् in the place of सण् in the Varttika which is read as पर्श्वा णम् वक्तव्यः by them.

णि common term for णिङ् ( signifying Atmanepada ) and णिच्: cf; णेरणौ


यस्कर्मं P. I. 3.67, णेरनिटि VI. 4.51 ; cf also P. I. 3.86, I. 4.52, II.4.46, 51: III. 2.137: VI. 1.31, 48, 54, VI. 4.90; VII. 2.26, VII. 3.36; VII.4.1, VIII. 4.80.

णिङ् affix इ causing vrddhi, prescribed after the root कम् , the base end- ing in इ i. e. कामि being called a root: cf. P. III. 1.30, 32. The mute letter ङ् signifies that the root कामि is to take only the Atmanepada affixes e. g. कामयते, अचीकमत.

णिच् affix इ causing Vrddhi (1) applied to roots of the tenth conju- gation ( चुरादिगण ) such as चुर् , चित् etc. e. g. चोरयति, चोरयते; cf. P. III. 1.25: (2) applied to any root to form a causal base from it, e. g. भावयति from भू, गमयति from गम्: cf. हेतुमति च P. III. 1.26: (3) applied to the words मुण्ड, मिश्र etc, in the sense of making, doing, practising etc. ( करण ); e. g. मुण्डं करोति मुण्डयति, व्रतयति (eats something or avoids it as an observance), हलं गृह्नाति हलयति etc.; cf P. III. 1.21; (4) applied to the words सत्य, पाश, रूप, वीणा, तूल, श्लोक, सेना, लोमन, त्वच्, वर्मन्, वर्ण and चूर्ण in the various senses given by the Varttikakara to form denominative roots ending in इ: e. g. सत्यापयति, पाशयति etc; cf. P. III.1.25: (5) applied to suitable words in the sense of composing, e.g. सूत्रं करोति सूत्रयति, etc.: (6)applied to a verbal noun ( कृदन्त ) in the sense of 'nar- rating' with the omission of the krt affix and the karaka of the verbal activity put in a suitable case; e. g. कंसं घातयति for the sen- tence कंसवधमाचष्टे or बलिं बन्धयति for बलिबन्धमाचष्टे,or रात्रिं विवासयति, सूर्यमुद्गमयति, पुष्येण योजयति etc.: cf. Kas. on P. III. 1.26. Roots ending in णिच् (णिजन्त) take the conjugational endings of both the Parasmaipada and the,

Atmanepada: cf. णिचश्च P. I. 3.74. They have perfect forms by the addition of अाम् with a suitable form of the perfect tense of the root कृ, भू or अस् placed after अाम्, the word ending with अाम् and the verbal form after it being looked upon as separate words e. g. कारयां चकार कारयां चक्रे etc.; cf P. III.1.35, 40. They have the aorist form, with the substitution of the Vika- rana चङ् ( अ ) for च्लि before which the root is reduplicated; e. g. अचीकरत्, अबीभवत् etc.: cf. P.III.1.48, VI.1.11 as also VII.4.93-97.

णिजन्त roots ending in णिच्; the term is generally applied to causal bases of roots. See णिच्.

णित् (1) an affix with the mute con- .sonant ण् added to it to signify the substitution of vrddhi for the pre- ceding vowel or for the penulti- mate अ or for the first vowel of the word if the affix applied is a taddhita affix; cf. P. VII.2.115- 117: e. g. अण्, ण, उण्, णि etc.: (2) an affix not actually marked with the mute letter ण् but looked upon as such for the purpose of vrddhi; e. g. the Sarvanamasthana affixes after the words गो and सखि, cf. P. VII.1.90, 92.

णित्त्व possession of ण् as a mute letter for the purpose of vrddhi. See the word णित् .

णिनि krt affix इन् signifying vrddhi (1) applied to the roots headed by ग्रह् ( i. e. the roots ग्रह्, उद्वस्, स्था etc. ) in the sense of an agent;e. g. ग्राही, उद्वासी, स्थायी. cf. P. III.1.134; (2) applied to the root हन् preceded by the word कुमार or शीर्ष as उपपद: e. g. कुमारघाती, शीर्षघाती, cf. P. III.2.51: (3) applied to any root preceded by a substantive as upapada in the sense of habit, or when compari


son or vow or frequency of action is conveyed, or to the root मन्, with a substantive as उपपद e. g- उष्णभोजी, शीतभोजी, उष्ट्रकोशी, ध्वाङ्क्षरावीः स्थण्डिलशायी, अश्राद्धभोजीः क्षीरपायिण उशीनराः; सौवीर- पायिणो वाह्रीकाः: दर्शनीयमानी, शोभनीयमानी, cf. P. III.2.78-82; (4) applied to the root यज् preceded by a word referring to the करण of यागफल as also to the root हन् preceded by a word forming the object ( कर्मन् ) of the root हन् , the words so formed re- ferring to the past tense: e. g. अग्निष्टो याजी, पितृव्याघाती, cf. P. III 2.85, 86; (5) applied to a root when the word so formed refers to a kind of necessary activity or to a debtor; cf. अवश्यंकारी, शतंदायी, सहस्रदायी cf. P. III.4. 169-170: (6) tad-affix इन् , causing vrddhi for the first vowel, applied to the words काश्यप and कौशिक referring to ancient sages named so, as also to words which are the names of the pupils of कलापि or of वैशम्पायन, as also to the words शुनक, वाजसनेय etc. in the sense of 'students learning what has been traditionally spoken by those sages' e. g. काश्यपिनः, ताण्डिनः, हरिद्रविणः शौनकिनः, वाजसनेयिनः etc.; cf P. IV.3, 103 104, 106; (7) applied to words forming the names of ancient sages who are the speakers of ancient Brahmana works in the sense of 'pupils studying those works' as also to words form- ing the names of sages who com- posed old Kalpa works in the sense of those कल्प works; e. g. भाल्लविनः, एतरेयिणः । पैङ्गी कल्पः अरुणपराजी कल्पः; cf Kas. on P. IV. 3.105: (8) applied to the words पाराशर्य and शिला- लिन् in the sense of 'students read- ing the Bhiksusutras (of पाराशार्य) and the Nata sutras ( of शिलालिन् ) res- pectively; e. g. पाराशरिणो भिक्षव:, शैला- लिनो नटाः: cf Kas. on P. IV.3.110.

णिलोप elision of the affix णि (णिच् or णिङ् see above ) before an ardhadh- tuka affix without the augrnent इ ( इट् ) prefixed to it; cf. णेरनिटि P. VI. 4.51, and VI.4.52, 53, 54 also.

णुट् augment ण्, prefixed to the ini- tial vowel when it follows upon the consonant ण् at the end of the preceding word; e. g. सुगण्णीशः for सुगण् + ईशः cf P. VIII. 3.82.

णोपदेश a root mentioned in the Dhatupatha by Panini as beginn- ing with ण् which subsequently is changed to न् ( by P. VI. 1.65) in all the forms derived from the root; e. g. the roots णम, णी and others. In the case of these roots the initial न् is again changed into ण् after a prefix like प्र or परा having the letter र् in it and having a vowel or a consonant of the guttural or labial class inter- vening between the letter र् and the letter न्; e. g. प्रणमति, प्रणयकः etc. cf. Kas. on P. VIII. 4.14.

णौपाद a popular name given to the fourth pada of the seventh Adhya- ya of Panini's Astadhyayi, which begins with the rule णौ चङ्युपघाया ह्रस्त्रः P. VII. 4.1.

ण्य tad.affix य (l) applied in the sense of 'descendant' as also in a few other senses, mentioned in rules from IV. 1. 92 to IV.3.168, applied to the words दिति, अदिति, अादित्य and word; with पति as the उत्तरपद in a compound, c. g. दैत्यः, आदित्यः, प्राजापत्यम् etc. cf.Kas.on P. IV.1 84; (2) applied in the sense of a descen- dant ( अपत्य ) applied to the words कुरु, गर्ग, रथकार, कवि, मति, दर्भ etc., e.g- कौरव्यः, गार्ग्यः etc. cf. Kas:, on P. IV. I.15I ; (3) applied in the sense of अपत्य or descendant to words end- ing in सेना,to the word लक्षण and to words in the sense of artisans, e.g-


कारिषेण्यः, लाक्षण्यः, तान्तुवाय्यः, कौम्भकार्यः; cf. Kas. on P.IV.1.152; (4) applied in the Catuararthika senses to the words संकाश, काम्पिल्थ, कश्मीर etc., e.g. साङ्काश्यम्, काम्पिल्यम् etc.; cf. Kas. on P. IV. 2.80; (5) applied to the word परिषद् and optionally with the affix ठक् to the word सेना in the specified senses; e. g. परिषदं समवैति, परिषदि साधुर्वा पारिषद्य्ः, सेनां समवेति सैन्यः सैनिको वा; cf. Kas on P. IV. 44, 45, 101 ; (6) applied as a tad. affix called ' tadraja , to the word कुरु and words beginning with न e. g. कौरव्यः नैषध्यः; cf. Kas on P. IV. 1.172; कुरवः, निषधाः etc. are the nom. pl. forms.

ण्यत् krtya affix य which causes vrddhi and which has the cir- curmflex accent (1) applied to a root ending with ऋ or any con- sonant to form the pot. pass.parti- ciple: e. g. कार्यम्, हार्यम् , वाक्यम् etc. cf. Kas on P. IV. 1.124; (2) applied to a root ending in उ if a necessity of the activity is to be indicated, e. g. अवश्यलाव्यम् , अवश्य- पान्यम् cf. Kas. on P. IV. 1.125; (3) tad. affix य applied to the word षण्मास्र optionally with यप् and ठञ् affixes: e. g. षाण्मास्यः, षण्मास्यः, षाण्मा- सिकः; cf Kas. on P. V. 1.84.

ण्युट् krt affix अन in the sense of ' skilled agent ' applied (1) to the root गै to sing. e.g. गायनः, गायनी, cf. Kas. on P. III 1.147, also गाथकः, गाथिका by P. III. 1.146: (2) to the root हा (III. P. and III.A. also) if ' rice ' or ' time ' be the sense conveyed: e. g. हायना व्रीहयः, हायनः संवत्सरः .cf. Kas. on P. III. 1.148.

ण्वि krt, affix ण्वि i. e. zero, causing vrddhi, applied to the root भज् and to सह् and वह् in Vedic Lite- rature if the root is preceded by

any preposition ( उपसर्ग ) or a substantive as the upapada ; e. g. अर्द्धभाक्, प्रभाक्, तुराषाट् , दित्यवाट्; cf. Kas. on P. III, 2.62, 63, 64.

ण्विन् krt affix व् or zero, seen applied in Vedic Literature to the root वह् preceded by श्वेत, to शंस् preced- ed by उक्थ, to दाश् preceded by पुरस् and to यज् preceded by अव. e. g. श्वेतवा इन्द्रः, उक्थशा यजमानः, पुरोडाः, अवयाः; cf Kas. on P. III. 2.71, 72.

ण्वुच्( krt affix अक seen always with the fem. affix अा applied to a root when the sense conveyed is ' a turn ' or ' a deserving thing ' or ' debt ' or ' occurrence;' e. g. भवतः शायिका, अर्हति भवान् इक्षुभक्षिकाम्, ओदनभोजिकां धारयसि, इक्षुभक्षिका उदपादि ; cf Kas. on P. III. 3.1 1 1. ण्वुल् (1) a very general krt affix अक, causing vrddhi and acute accent to the vowel preceding the affix, applied to a root optionally with तृ (i. e. तृच् ) in the sense of an agent e. g कारकः हारकः also कर्ता, हर्ता ; Cf P. III. 1.33; (2) krt. affix अक applied optionally with the affix तुम् to a root when it refers to an action for which another action is mentioned by the princi- pal verb; e. g. भोजको व्रजति or भोक्तुं व्रजति; cf. Kas. on तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम्; P. III. 3.10; (3) krt affix अक, necessarily accompanied by the fem. affix अा added to it, applied to a root if the sense given by the word so formed is the name of a disease or a proper noun or a narration or a query ; e. g. प्रवाहिका, प्रच्छर्दिका, शालभञ्जिका, तालभञ्जिका, कारिक, cf. Kas. on P. III. 3.108, 109, 110.

त् the first consonant of the


dental class of consonants which has got the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्ठत्व and अल्पप्राणत्व. When used as a mute letter by Panini, त् signifies the Svarita accent of the vowel of that affix or so, which is marked with it: e. g. कार्यम्, हार्यम्, पयस्यम् cf. P. VI.1.185. When appi- ed to a vowel at its end, त् signifi- es the vowel of that grade only, possessed by such of its vari- eties which require the same time for their utterance as the vowel marked with त् , e. g. अात् stands for अा with any of the three accents as also pure or nasalised; अात् does not include अं or अ 3 cf. तपरस्तत्कालस्य P. I. 1. 70. The use of the indi- catory mute त् for the above purpose is seen also in the Pratis akhya works; cf. V. Pr. I. 114 R. T. 234.

( 1) personal ending of the third pers sing. Atm: cf. P. III. 4.78, which is changed to ते in the per- fect tense and omitted after the substitute चिण् for च्लि in the aorist; cf. P.VI.4.04: (2) personal ending substituted for the affix थ of the Paras. 2nd pers. pl. in the im- perative, imperfect, potential, benedictive, aorist and condition- al for which, तात्, तन and थन are substituted in Vedic Literature, and also for हि in case a repetition of an action is meant; cf. P. III. 4. 85, 10l as also VII. 1. 44, 45 and III. 4. 2-5. cf P. III. 4. 85 and III. 4. 10I ; (3) tad. affix त applied to the words कम् and शम् e. g. कन्तः, शन्त:, cf. P. V. 2. 138: (4) tad. affix त applied to दशत् when दशत् is changed to श; cf. दशानां दशतां शभावः तश्च प्रत्ययः । दश दाशतः परिमाणमस्य संधस्य शतम्, Kas. on P. V. l. 59; (5) .general term for the affix क्त of the past pass. part, in

popular use: (6) a technical term for the past participle affixes (त) क्त and तवत् ( क्तवतु ) called निष्ठा by Panini; cf. P. I.1.26; the term त is used for निष्ठI in the Jainendra Vya- kararna.

तकार the consonant त्, the vowel अ and the word कार being placed af- ter it for facility in understanding; cf. T. Pr. I. 17, 21.

तक्षशिलादि a class of words headed by तक्षशिला to which the taddhita affix अ ( अञ् ) is added in the sense of 'a native place or a domi- cile'. The word so formed has the acute accent on its first vowel; e. g. ताक्षशिलः वात्सोद्वरणः; cf. Kas. on P. IV. 3.93.

तङ् (1) a short term used for the nine personal endings of the Atmane- pada viz. त,अाताम्...महिङ् which are themselves termed Atmanepada; cf. तङानौ अात्मनेपदम् P. 1.4. 100 (2) the personal-ending त of the 2nd pers. pl. (substituted for थ by III.4 101) looked upon as तङ् sometimes, when it is lengthened in the Vedic Literature: cf. तङिति थादेशस्य ङित्त्वपक्षे ग्रहणम् । भरता जातवेदसम् Kas. on P. VI. 3. 133.

तच्छीलादि the triad of senses तच्छील्, तद्धर्म and तत्साधुकारिन् possessed by the agent of an action, in connec- tion with which the affixes तृन् , इष्णुच् etc. are prescribed (cf P.III. 2.184 etc.) which (affixes) hence are called ताच्छीलिक; cf. अयं तच्छीला- दिष्वर्थेषु तृन् विधीयते, M. Bh. on P. III. 2.146, e. g. कर्ता कटान्.

तण् ancient term for संज्ञा and छन्दस् used by the Vartikakara: cf. बहुलं तणीति वक्तव्यम् । किमिदं तणीति । संज्ञाचन्दसो र्ग्रहणम् , M. Bh. on P. II. 4.54 Vart. 11: III. 2.8 Vart. 2; IV. 1.52. Vart. 3.


तत्काल requiring the same time for utterance as for example one matra for short vowels, two for long ones and three for protracted ones, although those vowels are nasalised or pure, or acute, grave or circumflex. See the word तपर.

तत्कालप्राप्तिक occurring or presenting itself at the same time or simul- taneously.

तत्त्वचन्द्र name of a commentary on Ramacandra's Prakriyakaumudi.

तत्त्वबोधिनी name of the well-known commentary on Bhattoji's Sidd- hnta Kaumudi written by his pupil Jnanendrasarasvati at Be- nares. Out of the several commen- taries on the Siddhantakaumudi, the Tattvabodhini is looked upon as the most authoritative and at the same time very scholarly.

तत्त्वविमर्शिनी name of a commentary on the Kasikavrtti by a gramma- rian named Upamanyu in the beginning of the nineteenth cen- tury A. D.

तत्त्वादर्श name of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara written by M. M. Vasudev Shastri Abh- yankar in 1889 A. D. The com- mentary is more critical than ex- planatory,wherein the author has given the purpose and the gist of the important Paribhasas and has brought out clearly the differences between the school of Bhattoji and the school of Nagesa in several important matters.

तत्पुरुष name of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष i.e. ( तस्य पुरुषः ), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by anci- ent grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such

compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mention- ed the term तत्पुरुष in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength dire- cted that all compounds mention- ed or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष. No definite number of the sub-divi- sions of तत्पुरुष is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार, the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष cf. P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष cf. P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय; acc.to P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (called द्विगु by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं cf. P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष cf. P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष cf. P.II.2.6, उपप- दतत्पुरुष cf. P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष cf. P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष cf.P.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the com- mentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास. Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः: cf. M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, etc., and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compo- und; cf. परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम्, M. Bh. on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; cf. P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are,


depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tat- purusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष or उपपदतत्पुरुष are called नित्य and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes appli- ed to them, are not noticed sepa- rately; cf. P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ as a compound-ending ( समासान्त ) is added: e.g. राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् ; cf. P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् ( अ ) is added: cf. P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् ( अ ) is added, the mute letter ट् signifying the addition of ङीप् ( ई) in the feminine gender; cf.P.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona.

तदन्तविधि a peculiar feature in the interpretation of the rules of Panini, laid down by the author of the Sutras himself by virtue of which an adjectival word, quali- fying its principal word, does not denote itself, but something end- ing with it also; cf. येन विधिस्तदन्तस्य P.I.1.72.This feature is principally noticed in the case of general words or adhikaras which are put in a particular rule, but which Occur in a large number of subsequent rules; for instance, the word प्राति- पदिकात्, put in P.IV.1.1, is valid in every rule upto the end of chapter V and the words अतः, उतः, यञः etc. mean अदन्ताद् , उदन्तात् , यञन्तात् etc. Similarly the words धातोः (P.III.1.91) and अङ्गस्य (P.VI. 4.1 ) occurring in a number of subsequent rules have the adjecti- val words to them, which are mentioned in subsequent rules, denoting not only those words,but words ending with them. In a large number of cases this feature

of तदन्तविधि is not desirable, as it, goes against arriving at the desired forms, and exceptions deduced from Panini's rules are laid down by the Varttikakara and later gram- marians; cf. Par. Sek. Pari. 16,23, 31 : also Mahabhasya on P.I.1.72.

तदादिविधि a convention similar to the तदन्तविधि of Panini,laid down by the Varttikakara laying down that in case an operation is prescribed for something followed by a single letter, that single letter should be taken to mean a word beginning with that single letter: cf. यस्मिन्विधि- स्तदादावल्ग्रहणे P.I.1.72 Vart. 29: Par. Sek. Pari. 33.

तद्गुणसंविज्ञान lit. connection with what is denoted by the constituent members; the word refers to a kind of Bahuvrihi compound where the object denoted by the compound includes also what is denoted by the constituent members of the compound; e g. the compound word सर्वादि in the rule सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि includes the word सर्व among the words विश्व, उभय and others, which alone form the अन्यपदार्थ or the external thing and not merely the external object as mentioned in Panini's rule अनेकमन्य- मपदार्थे (P.II. 2. 24): cf. भवति बहुर्वीहौ तद्गुणसंविज्ञानमपि । तद्यथा । चित्रवाससमानय। लोहितोष्णीषा ऋत्विजः प्रचरन्ति । तद्गुण आनीयते तद्गुणाश्च प्रचरन्ति M.Bh. on I.1.27. For details cf. Mahabhasya on P.1.1.27 as also Par. Sek. Pari. 77.

तद्गुणीभूत lit. made subordinated to (the principal factor); completely included so as to form a portion The word is used in connection with augments which, when added to.a word are completely included in that word, and, in fact, form a part of the word: cf यदागमास्तद्भुणी-


भूतास्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यन्ते Par. Sek. Pari. 11.

तद्धित a term of the ancient pre- Paninian grammarians used by Panini just like सर्वनामन् or अव्यय without giving any specific defini- tion of it. The term occurs in the Nirukta of Yaska and the Vaja- saneyi-Pratisakhya ; cf. अथ तद्वि- तसमासेषु एकपर्वसु चानेकपर्वसु पूर्वे पूर्वमपरमपरं प्रविभज्य निर्ब्रूयात् । द्ण्डय्ः पुरुषः । दण्डमर्ह- तीति वा, दण्डेन संपद्यते इति वा Nir. II.2; also cf. तिङ्कृत्तद्धितचतुथ्यसमासाः इाब्दमयम् Vaj Prati.I. 27. It is to be noted that the word तद्वित is used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of a word derived from a substan- tive ( प्रातिपादक ) by the application of suffixes like अ, यत् etc., and not in the sense of words derived from roots by affixes like अन, ति etc. which were termed नामकरण, as possibly contrasted with the word ताद्धित used by Yaska in II. 5. Panini has used the word तद्धित not for words, but for the suffixes which are add- ed to form such words at all places (e. g. in I. 1.38, IV.1.17, 76, VI.1.61 etc.). in fact, he has begun the enumeration of taddhita affixes with the rule तद्धिता: (P.IV.1. 76) by putting the term तद्धित for affixes such as ति, ष्यङ्, अण् etc. which are mentioned thereafter. In his rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and in the Varttika समासकृत्तद्धिताव्यय(I.4.1Vart. 41) which are similar to V.Pr.1. 27 quoted above the word तद्धित appears to be actually used for words derived from nouns by secondary affixes, along with the word कृत् which also means words derived from roots, although com- mentators have explained there the terms कृत् and तद्धित for कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त. The term तद्वित is evidently echoed in the Sutra तस्मै हितम् which, although it is not the first Sutra 22

of the taddhita section, may imply that there were possibly long lists of secondary nouns with the senses of secondary suffixes, and तद्धित was perhaps,the first sense given there. The number of taddhita suffixes mentioned by Panini is quite a large one; there are in fact 1110 rules given in the taddhita section covering almost two Adhyayas viz. from P. IV. 1.76 to the end of the fifth Adhyaya. The main sub-divisions of taddhita affixes mentioned by commentators are, Apatyadyarthaka (IV. 1.92 to 178), Raktadyarthaka (IV.2.1 to 91), Saisika {IV.2. 92 to IV.3.133), Pragdivyatiya (IV. 3 134 to 168), Pragvahatiya (IV.4.1 to IV.4.74), Pragghitiya (IV.4.75 to IV.4.109), Arhiya (V.1.1 to 71),Thanadhikara- stha (V. 1.72 to V. 1.1.114), Bhava- karmarthaka (V. 1.115 to V.1.136), Pancamika (V. 2.1 to V. 2.93), Matvarthiya (V. 2.94 to V. 2. 140), Vibhaktisamjaaka (V. 3.1 to V. 3.26) and Svarthika (V. 3.27 to V. 4.160). The samasanta affixes (V.4.68 to V.4.160) can be includ- ed in the Svarthika affixes.

तद्धितकोश a work on the taddhita section written by Siromani Bhatta- carya, who has also written तिङन्तशिरोमणि.

तद्भाव the essence, also called तत्व; cf. यस्य गुणान्तरेष्वपि प्रादुर्भवत्सु तत्त्वं न विहन्यते तद् द्रव्यम् । किं पुनस्तत्त्वम् । तद्भावस्तत्त्वम् M. Bh. on P.V.1.1 19.

तद्भावित produced or brought into being by some grammatical opera- tion such as the vowel आ in दाक्षि, कारक्र, अकार्षीत् etc. by the substitu- tion of वृद्धि, as contrasted with the original अा in ग्राम, विघान शाला, माला etc.; cf. किं पुनरिदं तद्भावितग्रहणं वृद्धिरित्येवं ये आकरैकारौकारा भाव्यन्ते तेषां ग्रहणमाहो- स्विदादैज्मात्रस्य M.Bh. on I. 1.1.


तद्राज the taddhita affixes अञ्,अण्,ञ्यङ, ण्य, as also इञ्, छ्, ञ्युट्, ण्य, टेण्यण् and यञ् given in the rules of Panini IV. 1.168-174 and V.3. 112-119. They are called तद्राज as they are applied to such words as mean both the country and the warrior race or clan ( क्षत्त्रिय ): cf. तद्राजमाचक्षाणः तद्राजः S. K. on P. IV.l.168. The pecu- liar feature of these tadraja affixes is that they are omitted when the word to which they have been app- lied is used in the plural number; e. g. ऐक्ष्वाकः, ऐक्ष्वाकौ, इक्ष्वाकवः; simi- larly इक्ष्वाकूणाम्; cf. P.II.4.62.

तद्वत् (l) as above,similarly;the words शेषं तद्वत् (the rest as above) are fre- quently seen used by commenta- tors; (2) the tad. affix वत् in the sense of possession and not in the sense of measure etc. cf. तद्वति तद्धिते न्यायसंहितं चेत् V.Pr.V.8.

तद्वदतिदेश treatment of something as that which is not that e. g. the treatment of affixes not marked with mute n or n as marked with n even though they are not actual- ly marked that way, cf. P. I. 2.1- 4; also cf तद्वदतिदेशेSकिद्विधिप्रसङ्गः P. I. 2.1 Vart 4.

तन (1) personal ending for त of the second pers. pl. Parasmaipada in the imperative in Vedic Litera- ture e.g जुजुष्टन for जुषत cf. Kas. On P VII. 1.45; (2) tad. affixes टयु and टयुल् i.e. अन which, with the augment त्, in effect becomes तन e.g. सायंतन, चिरंतन, etc.: cf. P. IV. 3.23.

तनप्' Personal ending for त of the Second Pers.. pl. e. g. दधातन for धत्त. Cf Kas on P. VII. 1.45. See तन.

तन्त्र a word frequently used in the Mahabhasya in the sense of 'in- tended ' or विवक्षित. The word is

used always in the neuter gender like प्रमाणम्; cf. तन्त्रं तरनिर्देशः M. Bh. on P. I. 2.33, II. 2.34, नात्र निर्दे- शस्तन्त्रम् On P. I. 2.39, III.3.38, III. 4.21,IV.1.92 etc. The word is also explained in the sense of 'impor. tant'.

तन्त्रप्रदीप name of the learned com- mentary_written by मैत्रेयरक्षित, a famous Buddhist grammarian of the 12th century A. D. on the काशिकाविवरणपञ्जिका ( न्यास ) of Jinen- drabuddhi। The work is available at Present only in a manuscript form, and that too in fragments. Many later scholars have copious- ly quoted from this work. The name of the work viz. तन्त्रप्रदीप is rarely mentioned; but the name of the author is mentioned as रक्षित, मैत्रेय or even मैत्रेयरक्षित. Ther are two commentaries on the तन्त्रप्रदीप named उद्द्योतनप्रभा and आलोक,

तनादि a class of roots headed by the root तन्, which is popularly caII- ed as the eighth conjugation to which the conjugational sign उ is added: e.g. तनोतेि, करोति, कुरुते cf. P. II. 4.79: III. 1.79.

तनोत्यादि a class of words which is the same as तनादि: cf. P. VI. 4.37. See तनादेि.

तन्नामिकाण् the tad. affix अण् prescrib- ed by the rule अवृद्धाभ्यो नदीमानुषी- भ्यस्तन्नामिकाभ्यः P. IV. 1.113: cf. M. Bh. on P. IV. 1.1I4,

तप् (I) tad. affix त added to the words पर्वन् and मरुत् to form the words पर्वतः and मरुत्तः; cf. P. V. 2.122 Vart. 10; (2) personal end- ing in Vedic Literature substitut- cd for त of the impera. sec. pers. pl. e. g. श्रुणोत ग्रावाणः cf. Kas. on P. VII. 1.45.

तपरकरण addition of the mute letter त् after a vowel to signify the in-


clusion of only such varieties of the vowel as take the same time for their utterance as the vowel marked with त्; cf. P. I. 1.70. See त्.

तम् personal ending तम् substituted for थम् in the impera. imperf. potential, benedictive, aorist and conditional; cf. P. III. 4.85, 101

तम common term for the tad. affixes तमट् and तमप्.

तमट् tad. affix तम added optionally with the affix डट् ( अ ) to विंशति, त्रिंशत् etc., as also to words ending with them, in the sense of पूरण (completion), and necessarily (नित्यं) to the words शत, सहस्र, षष्टि, सप्तति etc. e. g. एकविंशतितमः एकविंशः, त्रिंशत्तमः, त्रिंशः, शततमः, षष्टितम:, विंशी, त्रिंशी etc.; cf. Kas. on V. 2.56-58.

तमप् tad. affix तम added without a change of sense, i. e. in the sense of the base itself to noun bases possessing the sense of excellence, as also to verbal forms showing excellence: e. g. आढ्यतमः, दर्शनीयतमः, श्रेष्ठतमः, पचतितमाम् cf. Kas on P. V. 3.55-56. The affix तमप् is termed घ also; cf. P. I. 1.22.

तय tad. affix तयप् applied to a nu- meral ( संख्या ) in the sense of अवयविन् or 'possessed of parts'; e. g. पञ्च अवयवा अस्य पञ्चतयम् , दशतयम् , चतुष्टयी; cf. Kas. on P. V. 2.42. अय is substituted for तय optionally after the numerals द्वि and त्रि and necessarily after उभ; cf. P. V. 2.43-44.

तयप् tad. affix तय. See तय.

तर tad. affix तरप् added to bases showing excellence (अतिशायन ) when the excellence shown is between two persons; e. g. अनयोः सुकुमारतरः सुकुमारतरा, पचतितराम्; cf. Kas. on P. V.3.57. The affix तरप् is called घ just like तमप्; cf P.I. 1.22.

तरप् tad. affix तर. See तर.

तल् tad, affix त (l) added in the sense of collection (समूह) to the words ग्राम, जन, बन्धु and सहाय and गज also, e.g. ग्रामता, जनता etc.; (2) added in the sense of 'the nature of a thing' ( भाव ) along with the affix त्व optionally, as also option- ally along with the affixes इमन्, ष्यञ् etc. given in P. V. 1.122 to 136; e. g. अश्वत्वम्, अश्वता; अपतित्वम्, अपतिता; पृथुत्वम्, पृथुता, प्रथिमा; शुक्लता, शुक्लत्वम्, शौक्ल्यम्, शुक्लिमा; etc., cf Kas. on P.V.1.119 to 136. Words end- ing with the affix तल् are always declined in the feminine gender with the fem. affix अा ( टाप् ) add- ed to then; cf. तलन्तः (शब्दः स्त्रियाम् ), Linganusasana 17.

तवर्ग the class of dental consonants viz. त्, थ्, द्, ध् and न; cf. विभक्तौ तवर्गप्रतिषेधोऽतद्धिते P.I 3,4 Vart. 1.

तवेङ् krt affix तवे for the infinitive affix तुम् in Vedic Literature: e.g. दशमे मासि सूतवे; cf. P.III 4.9.

तवेन् krt affix तवे for the infinitive affix तुम् in Vedic Literature; e.g.गन्तवे, कर्तवे, हर्तवे; cf. P.III. 4.9.

तवै (1) krt affix तवै for the infinitive affix तुम् in Vedic Literature. The affix तवै has a peculiarity of accent, namely that the word ending in तवै has got both the initial and end- ing vowels accented acute (उदात्त); e.g. सोममिन्द्राय पातवै, हर्षसे दातवा उ; cf. P.III.4.9; and VI. 1.200; (2) krtya affix in Vedic Literature, e.g. परिघातवै for परिघातव्यम्; cf. Kas. on P. III. 4.14.

तव्य krtya affix applied to a root to form the pot.pass. part, e.g. कर्तव्यम्; cf. Kas. on P.III.1.96.

तव्यत् krtya affix तव्य applied to a root to form the pot. pass. part.; the affix तव्यत् has the circumflex


accent on the last syllable; e.g. कर्तव्यम् cf. Kas on P. III. 1 . 96.

तस् (1) personal ending of the third pers. dual Parasmaipada substitu- ted technically for ल् (लकार); cf P. III.4.78; (2) tad. affix तस् ( तसि or तसिल् ). See तसि and तसिल्.

तसि (1) tad.affix तस् showing direction by means of a thing e.g. वृक्षमूलतः, हिमवत्तः; cf. Kas on P.IV.3.114,115; (2) tad.affix तस् applied in the sense of the abl. case and substituted for the abl. case affix: e.g. ग्रामतः अाग- च्छति, चोरतो विभेति; sometimes the affix is applied instead of the instrumen- tal or the genitive case also. e. g. वृत्ततः न व्यथते for वृत्तेन न व्यथते; देवा अर्जुनतः अभवन्, for अर्जुनस्य पक्षे अभवन् cf. Kas, on P.V.4.44-49.

तसिल् (1) tad. affix तस् added to pro- nouns from सर्व upto द्वि, to the pronoun किम् and after परि and अभि; e.g. कुतः; यतः, ततः, अभितः; cf Kas. on P.V.3. 7 to 9.

तसिलादि a class of taddhita affixes headed by the affix तस् ( तसिल् ) as given by Panini in his sutras from पञ्चम्यास्तसिल् P. V. 3. 7. upto संख्यायाः क्रियाभ्यावृत्तिगणने कृत्वसुच् V.3.17; cf. P. VI.3.35. The words ending with the affixes from तसिल् in P.V.3.7 upto पाशप् in P.V.3.47 (excluding पाशप्) become indeclinables; cf. Kas on P.I.1.38.

ता (1) a technical term for the genitive case affix used in the Jainendra Vyakarana; (2) the tad. affix तल् which is popularly called ता as the nouns ending in तल् i.e. त are declined in the fem. gender with the fem. affix अा added to them.

ताच्छब्द्य (1) use of a word for that word (of which the sense has been conveyed); the expression तादर्थ्या - त्ताच्छब्द्यम् is often used by gramma- rians just like a Paribhasa; cf. अस्ति

तादर्थ्यात्ताच्छब्द्यम् । बहुव्रीह्यर्थानि पदानि बहुव्रीहि- रिति M. Bh. on P. I.1.29; similarly तृतीयासमास;for तृतीयार्थानि पदानि M.Bh. on P.I.1.30 or समासार्थे शास्त्रं समासः M. Bh. on P.I.2.43; (2) use of a word for that word of which there is the vicinity; cf. अथवा साहचर्यात् ताच्छब्द्यं भविष्यति। कालसहचरितो वर्णः। वर्णॊपि काल एव; M. Bh. on P.I.2.27 where the letter उ is taken in the sense of time required for its utterance, the reason being that sound and time go together; cf. also M.Bh. on P.I.2.70, IV.3.48, V.2.79; (3) use of a word for that which resi- des there; cf. तात्स्थ्यात्ताच्छब्द्यं भविष्यति M.Bh. on V.4.50 Vart. 3. At all the above places, the use of one word for another is by Laksana.

ताच्छीलिक prescribed in the sense of 'habituated'; a term used in con- nection with all affixes prescribed in the triad of senses viz. ताच्छील्य, ताद्धर्म्य, तत्साधुकारित्व in Sutras from P. III.2.134 to 180; cf. ताच्छीलिकेषु बासरूपविधिर्नास्ति P. III.2.146 Vart. 3, Par. Sek, Pari. 67.

तात् (1) the same as तातङ् substituted for तु and हि of the imperative sec. and third sing. Parasmaipada; cf. P.VII.1.35; (2) substitute तात् for त of the imperative 2nd pl. in Vedic Literature; e.g. गात्रं गात्रमस्यानूनं कृणुतात् cf. Kas on P.VII.1.44.

तातङ् the affix तात्. See तात् (1).

तातिल् tad. affix ताति in the very sense of the word to which it is applied occurring in Vedic Litera- ture after the words सर्व and देव, as also after शिव, शम् and अरिष्ट in the sense of 'bringing about' and in the sense of भाव (presence) after the same words शिव, शम् and अरिष्ट; e.g. सर्वतातिः, देवतातिः, शिवतातिः etc. cf. P.IV.4.142-144.


तात्पर्य (1) repetition of action; cf. तात्पर्यमाभीक्ष्ण्यं पौनःपुन्यमासेवा Kas. on III. 2.81 also तात्पर्यमासेवा । द्रव्ये व्याप्तिः, क्रियायामासेवा । (2) foremost considera- tion; cf. चतुर्ग्रहणे सति तात्पर्येण स्यन्दिः संनिधापितो भवति Kas. on P.VII.2.59; (3) purport (of a sentence), signi- ficance, intention; cf. सर्वशास्त्रोपकारक- मिति तत्तात्पर्यम् Par. Sek. Pari. 2, 3.

ताथाभाव्य name given to the grave (अनुदात्त) vowel which is अवग्रह i.e. which occurs at the end of the first member of a compound and which is placed between two acute vowels i.e. is preceded by and followed by an acute vowel; e.g. तनूSनप्त्रे, तनूSनपत्: cf. उदाद्यन्तो न्यवग्र- हस्ताथाभाव्यः । V.Pr.I.120. The tath- abhavya vowel is recited as a kampa ( कम्प ) ; cf. तथा चोक्तमौ- ज्जिहायनकैर्माध्यन्दिनमतानुसारिभिः- 'अवग्रहो यदा नीच उच्चयॊर्मध्यतः क्वचित् । ताथाभाव्यो भवेत्कम्पस्तनूनप्त्रे निदर्शनम्'. Some Vedic scholars hold the view that the ताथाभाव्य vowel is not a grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel, but it is a kind of स्वरित or circumflex vowel. Strictly according to Panini "an anudatta following upon an udatta becomes Svarita": cf. P.VIII.4.66, V.Pr. IV. 1.138: cf also R.Pr.III. 16.

तादर्थ्य (l) the nature of being meant for another ; cf. चतुर्थीविधाने तादर्थ्य उपसंख्यानम् । यूपाय दारु M. Bh. on P. II.3.13; (2) meant for another: cf. तदर्थे एव तादर्थ्यम् । चातुर्वण्यादित्वात् ष्यञ् । अग्निदेवतायै इदम् अग्निदेवत्यम् । तादर्थ्ये यत् । cf. Kas. on P. V. 4.24 (3) being possessed of the same sense: cf. तादर्थ्यात्ताच्छब्द्यम्. See ताच्छब्द्य.

तादात्म्य possession of the same nature; तत्स्वभावता; cf. सुबामन्त्रिते पराङ्गवत्स्वरे । तादात्म्यातिदेशोयम् Kas. on P.II.1.2.

ताद्धर्म्य being possessed of the same property; cf. चतुर्भिः प्रकारैरतस्मिन्स इत्ये- तद्भवति तात्स्थ्यात्ताद्धर्म्यात्तत्सामीप्यात्तत्साहवर्या-

दिति । M. Bh. on IV. 1.48 Vart. 3.

ताद्रूप्य restoration to, or resumption of the same form by the rule of Sthanivadbhava, prescribed in P.I. 1.56, called रूपातिदेश as contrasted with कार्यातिदेश; cf. नेह ताद्रूप्यमतिदिश्यते M. Bh. on VI. 1.85 Vart. 26.

तान one uniform accent or tone एकश्रुति, as observed at the time of sacrifices in the case of the recital of the hymns; cf. तानलक्षणमेकं स्वरमाहु- र्यज्ञकर्मणि V. Pr. I.130; cf. also P.I. 2.34.

तानादिक a root of the tanadi class of roots (8th conjugation).

ताम् personal ending substituted for तस् of the 3rd pers. dual in the imperative, imperfect, potential, benedictive, aorist and condi- tional; cf. P. III.4.85, 101.

तार (1) elevated, high; a place for the production of words; cf. T.Pr. XVII. 11; (2) recital in a high tone which is recommended in the evening time; cf. तारं तु विद्यात्सवने तृतीये, शिरोगतं तत्र सदा प्रयोज्यम् com. on T. Pr. XXIII. 12.

तारकादि a class of words headed by the word तारका and containing prominently the words पुष्प, कण्टक, मुकुल, कुसुम, पल्लव, बुभुक्षा, ज्वर and many others numbering more than ninety, to which the taddhita affix इत (इतच्) is added in the sense of 'containing'. As this class, called तारकादि, is looked upon as आकृतिगण, nouns with इत added at their end, are supposed to be included in it; cf. P. V. 2.36.

तारानाथ called तर्कवाचस्पति; a Bengali modern Sanskrit scholar and gra- mmarian of the nineteenth century who has written a commentary called Sarala on the Siddhanta Kaumudi. He has edited many


important Sanskrit works consist- ing of many kosas.

तालव्य lit. produced from तालु the part below the tongue; the vowel इ, चवर्ग, य and श् are called तालव्य, palatal letters; cf. इचशेयास्तालौ V.Pr. I. 66. These letters are formed upon the palate by the middle part of the tongue; cf. R.Pr. 1.42, R.Pr. II.36.

तालादि a small class of eight words to which the affix अ ( अण् ) is added in the sense of 'a product' or 'a part' e.g. तालं धनुः, बार्हिणम्, etc.; cf. Kas, on P.IV.3.152.

तालु palate; cf. तालुशब्देन जिह्वाया अधस्तन- प्रदेश उच्यते । स इवर्णस्य स्थानम् । जिह्वामध्यं करणम् । cf. T. Pr. II. 22.

तास् conjugational sign or Vikarana (तासि) added to a root in the first future before the personal endings which become accented grave (अनुदात्त); cf. P.VI.1.186; it has the augment इ prefixed, if the root, to which it is added, is सेट्, cf. P. VI. 4. 62.

तासि the Vikarana तास्. See तास्.

ति (l) personal ending तिप् of the 3rd pers. sing.; (2) common term for the krt affixes क्तिन् and क्तिच् as also for the unadi affix ति; see क्तिन् and क्तिच्; (3) fem. affix ति added to the word युवन्. e. g. युवतिः cf. P. IV. 1.77; (4) tad. affix ति as found in the words पङ्क्ति and विंशति cf. Kas. on P.V.1.59; (5) tad. affix added to the word पक्ष in the sense of 'a root,' and to the words कम् and शम् in the sense of posses- sion (मत्वर्थे ); e.g. पक्षतिः, कन्तिः, शान्तिः, cf. Kas, on P. V.2.25, 138; (6) a technical term for the term गति in Panini's grammar, cf. उपसर्गाः क्रिया- योगे; गतिश्च P. 1.4.59, 60. The term ति for गति is used in the Jainendra Vyakarana.

तिककितवादि a class of compound words headed by the dvandva compound तिककितव in which the taddhita affixes added to the con- stituent members of the com- pound are dropped when the dvandva compound is to be used in the plural number; तैकायनयश्च कैत- वायनयश्च तिककितवाः; cf. Kas. on P. II. 4.68.

तिकन् tad. affix तिक added to the word मृद् in the sense of the word itself ( स्वार्थे ) e. g. मृत्तिका cf.; P. V. 4.39.

तिकादि a class of words headed by the words तिक, केितव, संज्ञा and others to which the taddhita affix अायनि (फिञ्) causing the substitution of vrddhi is added in the sense of 'a descendant'; e.g. तैकायनि:, कैत- वायनि:; cf. Kas. on P. IV.1.154.

तिङ् (l) a brief term (प्रत्याहार) for the 18 personal endings. Out of these eighteen personal endings, which are common for all tenses and moods, the first nine तिप्, तस् etc. all called Parasmaipada, while the other nine त, अाताम् etc. are named Atmanepada and तङ् also; cf. तङानावात्मनेपदम्; (2) a verbal form called also अाख्यातक; cf. तिङ् खलु अाख्यातका भवान्ति । पचति पठति । V.Pr.I.27.

तिङन्त (l) a word ending in तिङ्; a Verb; (2) a popular name given to the section which deals with verbs in books on grammar as contrasted with the term सुबन्त which is used for the section deal- ing with nouns.

तिङन्तशिरोमणि a work dealing with verbal forms written by शिरोमणि- भट्टाचार्य.

तिङर्थ senses possessed by the person- al endings of verbs, viz. कारक ( कर्ता or कर्म ) संख्या and काल. For details see Vaiyakaranabhusanasara.


तिङ्निघात the grave accent for the whole word (सर्वेनिघात्) generally possessed by a verbal form when it is preceded by a word form which is not a verb; cf. तिङतिङ: P. VIII. 1.28.

तित् an affix to which the mute indicatory letter त् is added signi- fying the circumflex accent of that affix; e. g. the affixes यत्, ण्यत् etc.; cf. P. VI. 1.185.

तित्स्वर the circumflex accent possess- ed by an affix marked with the mute letter त्. See तित्.

तिथुक् the augment तिथ् added to the words बहु, पूप, गण and संघ when they are followed by the tad. affix अ ( ड ) e, g. बहुतिथः; cf. P. V. 2.52.

तिप् the personal ending of the 3rd pers. sing. substituted for ल (लकार) in the Parasmaipada. For sub- stitutes for तिप् in special cases, see P. VI.1.68, III.4.82, 83, 84.

तिमण्णा a southern grammarian who wrote a short treatise on the pratyaharas like अण्, इण् etc. in the grammar of Panini.

तिरुमल्ल a southern writer of the commentary named सुमनोरमा on the Siddhānta Kaumudi of Bhat- toji Diksita.

तिल् tad. affix ति added in Vedic Literature to the word वृक when superior quality is meant, e.g. वृकतिः cf. P. V. 4.41.

तिष्ठद्गुप्रभृति compound words headed by the word तिष्ठद्गु which are termed as avyayibhava com- pounds and treated as indeclin- ables; e.g. तिष्ठद्गु, वहद्गु असंप्रति, प्राह्णम् etc.; cf. Kas. on P.II. 1.17.

तीक्ष्ण utterance with a sharp tone characterizing the pronunciation of the Abhinihita kind of circum-

flex vowel as opposed to the utterance which is called मृदु when the circumflex, called पादवृत्त, is pronounced; cf. सर्वतीक्ष्णोऽभिनिहितः प्रश्लिष्टस्तदनन्तरम्, ततो मृदुतरौ स्वारौ जात्यक्षै- प्रावुभौ स्मृतौ । ततो मृदुतरः स्वारस्तैरोव्यञ्जन उच्यते । पादवृत्तो मृदुतमस्त्वेतत्स्वारबलाबलम् Uvvata on V. Pr. I. 125.

तीय tad. affix तीय in the sense of पूरण added to the words द्वि and त्रि before which त्रि is changed into तृ. e, g. द्वितीयः, तृतीयः cf. P. V. 2.54, 55; the tad. affix अन् ( अ ) is added to the words ending in तीय to mean a section e. g. द्वितीयॊ भागः cf. Kas. on P. V. 3.48.

तीव्रतर extreme sharpness of the nasalization at the time of pro- nouncing the anusvara and the fifth letters recommended by Sai- tyayana.e. g. अग्नीररप्सुषदः, वञ्चते परिवञ्चते. cf. T. Pr. XVII. 1.

तु (1) short term ( प्रत्याहार ) for the dental consonants त्, थ्, द्, ध् and न् cf. P. I. 1.69; (2) personal-end- ing substituted for ति in the 2nd pers. imper. sing. Parasmaipada cf. P. III, 4.86; (3) tad. affix तु in the sense of possession added in Vedic Literature to कम् and शम् e. g. क्रन्तुः, शन्तु: cf. P. V. 2.138; (4) unadi affix तु ( तुन्) prescribed by the rule सितनिगमिमसिसच्यविधाञ्कुशि- भ्यस्तुन् ( Unadi Sitra I.69 ) before which the augment इ is not added e.g. सेतुः सक्तुः etc. cf. P. VII. 2.9

तुक् augment त् added (1) to the root चि in the form चित्य, the pot. pass. part. of चि cf. P. III. 1.132; (2) to the short vowel at the end of a root before a krt affix marked with the mute letter प् e.g. अग्निचित्, प्रहृत्य cf. P. VI. 1.71 ; (3) to a short vowel before छ् if there be close proximity ( संहिता ) between the


two e. g. इच्छति, गच्छति; cf. P. VI. 1.73; (4) to the indeclinables अा and मा as also to a long vowel before छ, e. g. आच्छादयति, विचाच्छाद्यते: cf. P. VI. 1.74, 75; (5) to a long vowel optionally, if it is at the end of a word, e. g. लक्ष्मीच्छाया, लक्ष्मीछाया, cf. P. VI. 1.76; (7) to the letter न् at the end of a word before श्, e.g. भवाञ्च्छेते, cf. P. VIII. 3.31.

तुग्विधि a rule prescribing the addi- tion of the augment त् ; e. g. नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति P. VIII. 2. 2 See तुक्.

तुजादि roots such as the root तुज् and the like, which have their vowel of the reduplicative syllable leng- thened as seen mostly in Vedic Literature: e. g. तूतुजानः, मामहानः, दाधार etc.: cf. Kas. on P. VI.1.7.

तुट्augment त् (1) added to the affix अन substituted for the यु of ट्यु and ट्युल्; e. g. चिरंतनः, सायंतनः, cf. P. IV.3.23; (2) added to the tad. affix इक (ठक्) applied to the word श्वस् in the Saisika senses; e.g, शौव- स्तिकः cf. P. IV. 3.15.

तुदादि a class of roots headed by the root तुद् which take the conjuga- tional sign अ ( श ) and which are popularly called roots of the sixth conjugation, cf. P. III.1.77.

तुन् unadi affix तु, added to the roots सि, तन् , गम् etc. See तु (4).

तुन्दादि a very small class of words headed by the word तुन्द to which the taddhita affix इल ( इलच् ) is added in the sense of possession ( मत्वर्थ ). The affix इल is optional and the other affixes इन् , इक and मत् are also added; e.g. तुन्दिल, तुन्दी, तुन्दिकः, तुन्दवान् ; similarly उदरिलः etc.; cf. Kas. on P.V.2.117.

तुम् krt affix तुम् of the infinitive (1) added to a root optionally with

ण्वुल् when the root refers to an action for the purpose of which another action is mentioned by the principal verb ; e.g. भोक्तुं व्रजति or भोजको व्रजति्; cf. Kas. on P.III.3.11; (2) added to a root connected with ' another root in the sense of desire provided both have the same sub- ject; e.g. इच्छति भोक्तुम् ; cf. P. III. 3.158; (3) added to a root connec- ted with the words काल, समय or वेला; e.g. कालो भोक्तुम् etc. cf. P.III.3.167; (4) added to any root which is connected with the roots शक्, धृष्, ज्ञा, ग्लै, घट्, रभ्, लभ्, क्रम्, सह्, अर्ह् and अस् or its synonym, as also with अलम्, or its synonym; e.g. शक्नोति भोक्तुम्, भवति भोक्तुम्, वेला भोक्तुम्, अलं भोक्तुम्, पर्याप्तः कर्तुम् : cf. Kas. on P.III.4. 65, 66.

तुल्य similar in articulation; savarna; cf. R. T. 168.

तुल्याधिकरण having got the same sub- stratum; denoting ultimately the same object; expressed in the same case the same as samanadhikarana in the grammar of Panini, cf. Kat. II.5.5.

तृ (l) substitute prescribed for the last vowel of the word अर्वन् so as to make it declinable like words marked with the mute letter ऋ; (2) common term for the krt affixes तृन् and तृच् prescribed in the sense of the agent of a verbal activity; the tad. affixes ईयस्, and इष्ठ are seen placed after words ending in तृ in Vedic Literature before which the affix तृ is elided; e.g. करिष्ठः, दोहीयसी; cf. Kas. on P. V. 3.59.

तृच् tad. affix तृ, taking the fem. affix ई ( ङीप् ), (1) added to a root optionally with अक ( ण्वुल् ) in the sense of the agent of a verbal activity, the word so form-


ed having the last vowel acute; e.g. कर्ता कारक:; हर्ता हारकः; cf. P. III I.133; (2) prescribed in the sense of 'deserving one' optionally along with the pot. pass. part. affixes; e.g. भवान् खलु कन्यया वोढा, भवान् कन्यां वहेत्, भवता खलु कन्या वोढव्या, वाह्या, वहनीया वा; cf. Kas. on P. III. 3.169.

तृजन्त a word ending in the affix तृच् and hence getting the guna vowel (i. e. अ ) substituted for the final vowel ऋ before the Sarvana- masthana (i. e. the first five) case affixes; cf. तृजन्त आदेशॊ भविष्यति, M. Bh. on VII. 1.96.

तृज्वद्भाव treatment of a word as ending with the affix तृच् although, in fact, it does not so end; e. g. the word क्रोष्टु; cf. तृज्वत्क्रोष्टु:, P. VII. 1.95 ; cf. also तृज्वद्भावस्यावकाशः क्रोष्ट्रा क्रोष्टुना; M.Bh, on VII. 1.95 Vart. 10.

तृणादि a class of words to which the taddhita affix श is added in the four senses given in P. IV. 2.67 to 70; e. g. तृणशः, नडशः, पर्णशः etc.; cf. Kas. on P. IV. 3.80.

तृतीय the third consonants out of the class consonants; वर्गतृतीय; viz. ग्, ज्, ड्, द् and ब्; cf. यथा तृतीयास्तथा पञ्चमा अानुनासिक्यवर्जम् M.Bh. on P. I. 1.9.

तृतीया the third case; affixes of the third case ( instrumental case or तृतीयाविभक्ति ) which are placed (1) after nouns in the sense of an ins- trument or an agent provided the agent is not expressed by the personal-ending of the root; e. g. देवदत्तेन कृतम्, परशुना छिनत्ति: cf. P. III. 3.18; (2) after nouns connected with सह्, nouns meaning defective limbs, nouns forming the object of ज्ञा with सम् as also nouns meaning हेतु or a thing capable of produc ing a result: e. g. पुत्रेण सहागतः, अक्ष्णा 23

काणः, मात्रा संजानीते, विद्यया यशः; cf. Kas. on P. II.3.19,23; (3) optionally with the ablative after nouns meaning quality, and optionally with the genitive after pronouns in the sense of हेतु, when the word हेतु is actually used e. g. पाण्डित्येन मुक्तः or पाण्डित्यान्मुक्त:; केन हेतुना or कस्य हेतोर्वसति; it is observed by the Varttikakara that when the word हेतु or its synonym is used in a sen- tence, a pronoun is put in any case in apposition to that word i.e. हेतु or its synonym e.g, केन निमित्तेन, किं निमित्तम् etc.; cf. Kas. on P. II. 3. 25, 27; (4) optionally after nouns connected with the words पृथक्, विना, नाना, after the words स्तोक, अल्प, as also after दूर, अन्तिक and their synonyms; e.g. पृथग्देवदत्तेन etc. स्तोकेन मुक्तः, दूरेण ग्रामस्य, केशैः प्रसितः; cf. Kas. on P.II.3.32, 33, 35, 44; (5) optionally with the locative case after nouns meaning constellation when the tad. affix after them has been elided; e.g. पुष्येण संप्रयातोस्मि श्रवणे पुनरागतः Mahabharata; cf. P.II.3.45; (6) optionally with the genitive case after words connected with तुल्य or its synonyms; e.g.तुल्यो देवदत्तेन, तुल्यो देवदत्तस्य; cf. P. II.3.72.

तृतीयासमास called also तृतीयातत्पुरुषसमास as prescribed by P. II. I. 30-35; e.g. तृतीयासमासे P.I. 1.30 and the Mahabhasya thereon.

तृन् (1) krt affix तृ with the acute accent on the first vowel of the word formed by its application, applied to any root in the sense of 'an agent' provided the agent is habituated to do a thing, or has his nature to do it, or does it well; e.g. वदिता जनापवादान् , मुण्डयितारः श्राविष्ठायना -भवन्ति वधूमूढाम् , कर्ता कटम्; cf. Kas. on P. III.2.135; words ending with तृन् govern the noun connected with them in the accusative case;


(2) the term तृन् , used as a short term ( प्रत्याहार ) standing for krt affixes beginning with those pres- cribed by the rule लटः शतृशानचौ (P.III.2.124) and ending with the affix तृन् (in P.III.3.69); cf. Kas. on P.III.4.69.

तैत्तिरीयप्रातिशाख्य called also कृष्णयजुः- प्रातिशाख्य and hence representing possibly all the different branches or Sakhas of the कृष्णयजुर्वेद, which is not attributed definitely to a parti- cular author but is supposed to have been revised from time to time and taught by various acaryas who were the followers of the Taittiriya Sakha.The work is divid- ed into two main parts, each of which is further divided into twelve sections called adhyayas, and discusses the various topics such as letters and their properties, accen- ts, euphonic changes and the like, just as the other Pratisakhya works. It is believed that Vararuci, Mahiseya and Atreya wrote Bhas- yas on the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, but at present, only two important commentary works on it are avai- lable- (a) the 'Tribhasyaratna', based upon the three Bhasyas mentioned above as the title shows, written by Somayarya and (b) the 'Vaidikabharana' written by Gopalayajvan. For details see Introduction to 'Taittiriya Pratisakhya' ed. Govt Oriental Library Series, Mysore.

तैरोविराम a kind of स्वरित, or a vowel with a circumflex accent which follows an acute-accented vowel characterized by avagraha i. e. coming at the end of the first member of a compound; e.g. गेाप- ताविति गॊSपतौ यज्ञपतिमिति यज्ञSपतिं. Here the vowel अ of प following upon

the avagraha is called तैरोविरामस्वरित; cf. उदवग्रहस्तैरोविराम: V. Pr. I. 118,

तैरोव्यञ्जन a kind of svarita or circum- flex-accented vowel which follows an acute-accented vowel, with the intervention of a consonant between the acute accented vowel and the circumflex vowel which (vowel) originally was grave. e. g. इडे, रन्ते, हव्ये, काम्ये; here the vowel ए is तैरोव्यञ्जनस्वरित; cf. स्वरो व्यञ्जनयुतस्तैरो- व्यञ्जनः, V. Pr. I. 117.

तैलच् tad. affix तैल applied in the sense of oil to a word meaning the substance from which oil is extra- cted: e. g. तिलतैलं सर्षपतैलम् ; cf. विकारे सेनहने तैलच्, Kas on P. V. 2. 29.

तोलप्पदीक्षित a southern grammarian who has written a gloss called प्रकाश on the Siddhāntakaumudi of Bhattoji Diksita.

तोसुन् krt affix तोस् in the sense of the infinitive ( तुम् ) seen in Vedic Literature; e. g. ईश्वरोभिचरितो:. The word ending with तोसुन् becomes an indeclinable.

तौदादिक a root belonging to the तुदादि class of roots ( sixth conjugation ) which take the vikarana अ ( श ) causing no guna or vrddhi substi- tute for the vowel of the root.

तौल्वल्यादि a class of words headed by the word तौल्वलि, the taddhita affix in the sense of युवन् ( grand- child ) placed after which is not elided by P. II. 4. 60; e.g. तौल्वलिः पिता, तौल्वलायनः पुत्रः; cf. Kas. on P.II. 4.61.

त्न tad. affix त्न added to the words चिर, परुंत् and परारि showing time, as also to the word प्रग in Vedic Literature: e. g. चिरत्नम्, परुत्नम् , परारित्नम्, प्रत्नम् ( where ग is elided ); cf. Kas. on P. IV. 3. 23.

त्नप् tad. affix त्न, added to the word नव optionally with the affixes तनप्


and ख before which नव is changed to नू ; e. g. नूत्नम् , नूतनम्, नवीनम् ; cf. P. V. 4, 30 Vart. 6.

त्य (1) tad. affix त्य standing for त्यक् and त्यप् which see below; (2) a technical term for प्रत्यय ( a suffix or a termination ) in the Jainendra Vyakarana.

त्यक् tad. affix त्य added in the Saisika senses to the words दक्षिणा, प्रश्चात् and पुरस् ; e. g. दाक्षिणात्यः,पाश्चात्यः, पौरस्त्य:, दाक्षिणात्यिका cf. P. IV. 2. 98.

त्यकन् tad. affix त्यक added to the words उप and अधि in the senses 'near' and 'above' respectively; cf. पर्वतस्यासन्नमुपत्यका, तस्यैवारूढमधित्यका, cf. Kas. on P. V. 2.34.

त्यदादि a term used for the class of pronouns headed by त्यद् which are eight viz. त्यद्,तद्, यद्, एतद्, अदस्, इदम्, एक and द्वि; cf. P.I.1.74, I.2.72, III. 2. 60, VII. 2. 102.

त्यदादिविधि a specific operation pres- cribed for the pronouns headed by त्यद् e. g. the substitution of अ for the final letter; cf. त्यदादिविधौ च प्रयोजनम्, M. Bh. on P. I. 1. 27 Vart. 6.

त्यप् tad. affix त्य (1) added to a few specified indeclinables in the Saisi- ka senses; e. g. अमात्य:,इहत्यः etc.; cf. Kas. on IV. 2. 104; (2) added to the indeclinables ऐषमस्, ह्यस् and श्वस् optionally along with ट्यु and ठन् ; e.g. श्वस्त्यम्, श्वस्तनम्, शौवस्तिकम्; cf. Kas, on P. IV. 2.105.

त्र a common term for the krt affixes ष्ट्रन् and इत्र (P.III. 2. 181-186) in case the vowel इ of इत्र is look- ed upon as equivalent to an aug- ment, as also for the unadi affix ष्ट्रन् and the tad. affixes त्र and त्रल् (P. IV. 2.51 and V.3.10); the tad, affix त्र is added in the sense of समूह or collection to the word गॊ, e.g. गोत्रा; cf. Kas. on P.IV.2.51.

त्रल् tad. affix termed Vibhakti added to pronouns excepting द्वि and others, and to the words बहु and किम् when they end with the loc. case termination: e.g. कुत्र, तत्र, बहुत्र etc.; cf. Kas. on P.V. 1.10, 14.

त्रा tad. affix त्रा in the sense of some- thing donated, as also to the words देव, मनुष्य, पुरुष, पुरु and मर्त्य end- ing in the accusative or the loca- tive case; e. g. व्राह्मणत्रा करोति, देवत्रा वसतिः cf. Kas. on P. V.4.55,56. ’There is avagraha before the tad. affix त्रा. देवत्रेति देवSत्रा्; cf. V.Pr. V.9.

त्रि (1) krt affix क्त्रि, always having the tad. affix मप् ( म ) added to it, applied to the roots marked with the mute syllable डु prefixed to them in the Dhatupatha; e. g. कृत्रिमम्, पक्त्रिमम्; (2) a term signify- ing the plural number; cf. ना नौ मे मदर्थे त्रिद्व्येकेषु V.Pr.II.3.

त्रिक lit. triad; a term used in the Mahabhasya in connection with the Vibhakti affixes i.e. case end- ings and personal endings which are in groups of three; cf. त्रिकं पुनर्विभक्तिसंज्ञम् M.Bh. on P.I.1,38: cf. also कस्यचिदेव त्रिकस्य प्रथमसंज्ञा स्यात् M. Bh. om P.I.4.101 ; cf. also M. Bh. on II.2.23, V.1.52, V.1.58.

त्रिपथगा name of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara written by Raghavendracarya Gajendra- gadkar, a resident of Satara and a pupil of Nilakanthasastri Thatte. He lived in the second half of the eighteenth and first half of the nineteenth century and wrote com- entaries on important grammar works.

त्रिपद made up of a collection of three padas or words; the word is used in connection with a Rk or a por- tion of the kramapatha: cf. यथॊक्तं पुनरुक्तं त्रिपदप्रभृति T.Pr.I.61. The word


is found used in connection with a bahuvrihi compound made up of three words; cf. the term त्रिपद- बहुव्रीहि.

त्रिपादीa term usually used in conne- ction with the last three Padas (ch. VIII. 2, VIII. 3 and VIII. 4) of Panini’s Ashtadhyayi, the rules in which are not valid by convention to rules in the first seven chapters and a quarter, as also a later rule in which (the Tripadi) is not valid to an earlier one; cf. पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII.2.1; (2) name of a critical treatise on Panini's grammar ("The Tripadi") written by Dr. H. E. Buiskool recently.

त्रिभाष्यरत्न name of a commentary on the Taittiriya Pratisakhya written by Somayarya. The commentary is said to have been based on the three Bhasya works attributed to the three ancient Vedic scholars- Vararuci, Mahiseya and Atreya.

त्रिमात्र consisting of three moras or matras. The protracted or प्लुत vowels are said to consist of three matras as contrasted with the short and long vowels which respectively consist of one and two matras; cf. Kas. on P.I.2.27.

त्रिमुनि (1) the famous three ancient grammarians Panini (the author of the Sutras), Katyayana (the author of the Varttikas), and Patanjali (the author of the Mahabhasya;) (2) the grammar of Panini, called so, being the contribution of the reputed triad of Grammarians.

त्रिरुक्त repeated thrice, occurring thrice; a term used in the Prati- Sakhya works in respect of a word which is repeated in the krama and other artificial recitations.

त्रिलोकनाथ son of Vaidyanatha who wrote a small treatise on karakas

called षट्कारकनिरूपण.

त्रिलॊचन a scholar of grammar who has written a small work named अव्ययशब्दवृत्ति on the uses of indeclin- ables.

त्रिविक्रम pupil of Vardhamana who wrote a gloss called ’पञ्जिकॊद्द्यॊत’. on the Katantra-vrtti

त्रिशिखा name of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara written by Laksminrsimha in the 18th century.

त्रैकाल्य all the three times, past, present and future; cf. त्रयः काला: समाहृताः त्रिकालम्, त्रिकालमेव त्रैकाल्यम् । स्वार्थे ष्यञ् Uvvatabhasya on V. Pr. I. I5.

त्रैपादिक a rule or an operation pres- cribed by Panini in the last three quarters of his Astadhyayi. See त्रिपादी above.

त्रैशब्द्य a collection of three words (to express the same sense); cf. अपि च त्रैशब्द्यं न प्रकल्पते । अस्पृक्षत् अस्पार्क्षीत् अस्प्राक्षीदिति M. Bh. on III. 1.44; cf. also M. Bh. on P. I. 4.74, IV. 1. 88, IV. 2.60 etc.

त्रेस्वर्य (l) use of the three accents acute, grave and circumflex at the time of the recital of the Veda; त्रयः स्वरा एव त्रैस्वर्यम्; cf. चातुर्वर्ण्यादीनां स्वार्थॆ उपसंख्यानम् । त्रैलोक्यम् , त्रैस्यर्यम् Kas, on P. V. 1. 124. cf. also यद्येवं त्रैस्वर्ये न प्रकल्पते तत्र को दोषः। त्रैस्वर्येणाधीमहॆ इत्ये- तन्नोपपद्यते । M. Bh. on P. I. 2.31.

त्र्यक्षर (a word) having three vowels or syllables in it; त्र्यच् or त्र्यच्क; cf. द्व्यक्षरव्यक्षरेभ्य इति वक्तव्यम् cf. M. Bh. on VIII 4.6.

त्र्यम्बक a grammarian of the nine- teenth century, who resided at Wai in Satara District and wrote a commentary on the Paribhasen- dusekhara which is named त्र्यम्बकी after the writer.


त्र्यम्बकी a commentary on the Pari- bhasendusekhae by म्बव्यकः see त्र्यम्बक.

त्व tad. affix त्व in the sense of duty, nature or essence, prescribed optionally with the affix तल् ( ता ); e. g. अश्वत्वम्, गोत्वम् , अश्वता, गोता; cf तस्य भावस्त्वतलौ P. V. 1.119, also cf त्वतलोर्गुणवचनस्य P. VI. 3. 35 Vart.lo.

त्वत् krt affix त्च in the sense of the potential pass. part. in Vedic Literature; e. g. कर्त्वे हविः । कर्तव्यम्: also cf. Kas, on P.III. 4.14;cf also कृतानि या च कर्त्वा R. V. IX. 47.2.

त्वन् tad. affix त्व before which there is observed the caesura or ava- graha in the recital of the Pada- patha. e: g. देवत्वमिति देवsत्वम् । cf. V. Pr. V. 9.

थ् () second consonant of the dental class of consonants possessed of the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृत- कण्ठत्व and महाप्राणत्व; (2) augment थ् ( थुक् ) added to the words षष् , कति, कतिपय and चतुर् before the Purana affix डट्. e. g. षण्णां पूरण: षष्ठ:, कतिथः, चतुर्थः; cf. Kas, on P. V. 2.51 ; (3) substitute for the con- sonant ह् of आह् before any con- sonant except a nasal, and a semivowel as also for the conso- nant स् of स्था preceded by the preposition उद्: cf. P, VIII. 2.35, VIII. 4.61.

(l) personal-ending of the 2nd pers. pl. Parasmaipada,substituted for the ल् of the ten lakara affixes; (2) substitute ( थल् ) for the 2nd pers sing. personal ending सिप् in. the perfect tense: (3) unadi affix ( थक् ) added to the roots पा, तॄ, तुद् etc. e. g. पीथः, तीर्थः, etc.; cf unadi sutra II. 7; (4) unadi affix ( क्थन् ) |

added to